Labarai

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Wikidata.svglabarai
television genre (en) Fassara, radio genre (en) Fassara, industry (en) Fassara da data set (en) Fassara
Voorpagina Vlaams dagblad "Het Algemeen Nieuws" 11 juli 1942.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na sadarwa
Hashtag (en) Fassara current_events
Gudanarwan mai gabatar da labarai
Gidan labarai na Al Jazeera English, Doha, 2011

Labarai shine bayani game da abubuwan da ke faruwa a yanzu. Ana iya ba da wannan ta hanyar kafofin watsa labarai daban-daban: maganar baki, bugu, tsarin gidan waya, watsa shirye-shirye, sadarwar lantarki, ko ta hanyar shaidar masu kallo da masu shaida abubuwan da suka faru. Ana kiran labarai wani lokaci "hard news" don bambanta shi da soft news.

Batutuwa na gama gari don rahotannin labarai sun haɗa da yaƙi, gwamnati, siyasa, ilimi, kiwon lafiya, muhalli, tattalin arziki, kasuwanci, kayan sawa, nishaɗi, da wasanni, da kuma abubuwan ban mamaki ko na ban mamaki. Sanarwar gwamnati, game da bukukuwan sarauta, dokoki, haraji, lafiyar jama'a, da masu laifi, ana kiransu labarai tun zamanin da. Ci gaban fasaha da zamantakewa, sau da yawa ta hanyar sadarwar gwamnati da hanyoyin sadarwar leƙen asiri, sun ƙara saurin da labarai zasu iya yadawa, da kuma rinjayar abubuwan da ke ciki.

A cikin tarihi, mutane sun yi jigilar sabbin bayanai ta hanyar baka. Bayan da aka ci gaba a kasar Sin tsawon shekaru aru-aru, an kafa jaridu a Turai a zamanin farko na zamani. A karni na 20, rediyo da talabijin sun zama muhimmiyar hanyar watsa labarai. Yayin da a cikin 21st, intanet ma ya fara taka irin wannan rawar.

Ma'ana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Asalin kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmar Ingilishi "labarai" ta samo asali ne a karni na 14 a matsayin amfani na musamman na jam'i na "new". A cikin Middle English, kalmar daidai da ita ita ce newes, kamar nouvelles na Faransa da Neues na Jamus. Ana samun irin wannan ci gaba a cikin harsunan Slavic-wato cognates daga Serbo-Croatian novost (daga nov, "news"), Czech da Slovak noviny (daga nový, "new"), da Yaren mutanen Poland novini, Bulgarian novini da novosti na Rasha-da kuma haka kuma a cikin yarukan Celtic: newyddion na Wales (daga newydd) da kuma na Cornish nowodhow (daga nowydh).

Jessica Garretson Finch an lasafta shi da haɗa kalmar "abubuwan da ke faruwa a yanzu" yayin koyarwa a Kwalejin Barnard a cikin shekarar 1890s.

Newness[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar yadda sunansa ke nunawa, "labarai" yawanci suna nuna gabatar da sabbin bayanai. [1] [2] Sabbin labaran yana ba shi wani ingantaccen inganci wanda ya bambanta shi da mafi yawan binciken tarihi ko wasu fannonin ilimi. [2] [3] [4] Ganin cewa masana tarihi suna kallon abubuwan da suka faru a matsayin alamun da ke da alaƙa da abubuwan da suka faru, labarun labarai kan bayyana abubuwan da suka faru a keɓe, da kuma ware tattaunawa kan alaƙar da ke tsakaninsu. [5] Labarai suna bayyana duniya a fili a halin yanzu ko kuma a baya, ko da lokacin da muhimman abubuwan da ke cikin labarin sun faru a baya-ko kuma ana sa ran su faru a nan gaba. Don yin labarai, aikin da ke gudana dole ne ya kasance yana da wasu “peg”, wani abin da ya faru a cikin lokaci wanda ke ɗaure shi zuwa yanzu. [5] [6] Hakazalika, labarai sau da yawa suna magana game da ɓangarori na gaskiya waɗanda suke kama da sabon abu, karkata, ko kuma na yau da kullun. [7] Don haka shahararriyar lafazin cewa “Kare ya ciji mutum” ba labari ba ne, amma “Man Bites Fog” ne. [8]

Wani abin da ke tattare da sabbin labarai shi ne, yayin da sabbin fasahohi ke baiwa sabbin kafafen yada labarai damar yada labarai cikin sauri, hanyoyin sadarwa na ‘sannu a hankali’ na iya kau da kai daga ‘labarai’ zuwa ‘bincike’. [9]

Kayayyaki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cewar wasu ka'idoji, "labarai" shine duk abin da masana'antar labarai ta sayar. [10] Aikin jarida, wanda aka fahimce shi tare da layi daya, shine aiki ko sana'ar tattarawa da bayar da labarai. [11] [12] Daga yanayin kasuwanci, labarai shine kawai shigarwa ɗaya, tare da takarda (ko an electronic server) wajibi ne don shirya samfurin ƙarshe da rarrabawa. [13] Kamfanin dillancin labarai ya ba da wannan albarkatun "jumla" kuma masu bugawa suna haɓaka shi don siyarwa. [14] [15]


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Stephens, History of News (1988), p. 13.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Smith,The Newspaper: An International History (1979), p. 7. "In the information which [the newspaper] chose to supply, and in the many sources of information which it took over and reorganized, it contained a bias towards recency or newness; to its readers, it offered regularity of publication. It had to be filled with whatever was available, unable to wait until information of greater clarity or certainty or of wider perspective had accumulated."
  3. Salmon, The Newspaper and the Historian (1923), p. 10. Salmon quotes Théophraste Renaudot: "History is the record of things accomplished. A Gazette is the reflection of feelings and rumors of the time which may or may not be true."
  4. Pettegree, The Invention of News (2014), p. 3. "Even as news became more plentiful in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the problem of establishing the veracity of news reports remained acute. The news market—and by the sixteenth century it was a real market—was humming with conflicting reports, some incredible, some all too plausible: lives, fortunes, even the fate of kingdoms could depend upon acting on the right information."
  5. 5.0 5.1 Park, "News as a Form of Knowledge" (1940), pp. 675–676. "News is not history because, for one thing among others, it deals, on the whole, with isolated events and does not seek to relate them to one another either in the form of causal or in the form of Teleological sequences."
  6. Schudson, "When? Deadlines, Datelines, and History"; in Reading The News (1986), ed. Manoff & Schudson; pp. 81–82.
  7. Shoemaker & Cohen, News Around the World (2006), pp. 13–14.
  8. Park, "News as a Form of Knowledge" (1940), p. 678.
  9. Stephens, History of News (1988), p. 56. "It is axiomatic in journalism that the fastest medium with the largest potential audience will disseminate the bulk of a community's breaking news. Today that race is being won by television and radio. Consequently, daily newspapers are beginning to underplay breaking news about yesterday's events (already old news to much of their audience) in favor of more analytical perspectives on those events. In other words, dailies are now moving in the direction toward which weeklies retreated when dailies were introduced."
  10. Heyd, Reading newspapers (2012), pp. 35, 82. "... newspapers were defining what news was, categorizing and expanding their domain on the fly. Indeed, Somerville argues that 'news' is not an objective 'historical' concept but one that is defined by the news industry as it creates a commodity sold by publishers to the public."
  11. Stephens, History of News (1988), p. 3. "The term journalism is used broadly here and elsewhere in the book to refer to more than just the production of printed 'journals'; it is the most succinct term we have for the activity of gathering and disseminating news."
  12. Shoemaker & Cohen, News Around the World (2006), p. 7. "[...] for the journalist the assessment of newsworthiness is an operationalization based on the aforementioned conditions. In other words, the practitioner typically constructs a method for fulfilling the daily job requirements. He or she rarely has an underlying theoretical understanding of what defining something or someone as newsworthy entails. To be sure, individual journalists may engage in more abstract musings about their work, but the profession as a whole is content to apply these conditions and does not care that the theory behind the application is not widely understood. Hall (1981, 147) calls news a 'slippery' concept, with journalists defining newsworthiness as those things that get into the news media."
  13. Pettegree, The Invention of News (2014), p. 6. "News fitted ideally into the expanding market for cheap print, and it swiftly became an important commodity."
  14. Boyd-Barrett & Rantanen, The Globalization of News (1998), p. 6. "News agency news is considered 'wholesale' resource material, something that has to be worked upon, smelted, reconfigured, for conversion into a news report that is suitable for consumption by ordinary readers. It has also suited the news agencies to be thus presented: they have needed to seem credible to extensive networks of 'retail' clients of many different political and cultural shades and hues. They have wanted to avoid controversy, to maintain an image of plain, almost dull, but completely dependable professionalism."
  15. Phil MacGregor, "International News Agencies: Global eyes that never blink", in Fowler-Watt & Allan (eds.), Journalism (2013).