Kewaye da Uthman

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An kashe Uthman dan Affan, na uku Rashidun caliph, a ƙarshen harin da aka kaiwa gidan sa. Tun da farko zanga-zangar, an kewaye ta ta karu ne sakamakon wata barazanar da aka ce ba ta dace ba har da mutuwar mai zanga-zangar. Masu zanga-zangar sun juya ‘yan tawaye sun bukaci sabon khalifa, Uthman ya ki kuma a ranar 17 ga Yuni, 656 (35 AH), yayin da aka killace gidansa, wasu (kusan 3) masu zanga-zangar sun sami damar tsalle zuwa bayan gidansa, a inda suke ya same shi yana karatun Alqur’ani. Suka yi masa d himka a kansa kuma suka d himka shi.

Mutuwar Uthman tana da tasirin gaske a duniyar Musulmi a lokacin. Ba a gabatar da tambayoyi ba game da halinsa da manufofinsa kawai ba, har ma da alaƙar da ke tsakanin Musulmi da jihar, da abubuwan da suka shafi addini game da tawaye da shugabanci, da kuma cancantar yin mulki a cikin Islama.

Bango[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masu adawa da Uthman sun kewaye shi da dalilai da yawa, manyan wadannan sune nadin danginsa Banu Umayya, a matsayin gwamnonin manyan lardunan musulinci. Rashin gamsuwa da tsarin mulkinsa da gwamnatocin da ya nada ba su takaita ga lardunan da ke wajen Arabiya ba. Lokacin da dan uwan Uthman, musamman Marwan, ya sami galaba a kansa, Uthman ya rasa ikonsa na khalifanci da sahabbai da dama, ciki har da mafi yawan membobin majalisar zaba, sun janye goyon bayansu gare shi.

Tawaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rashin yarda a karshe ya haifar da tawaye a Misira, Kufa da Basra. Lokacin da yan tawayen Masar suka taru kusa da Madina, Uthman ya nemi Ali ya yi magana da su. Wakilan hijirar da Ali ya jagotanta tare da wakilan Ansar karkashin jagorancin Muhammad dan Maslamah sun gamu da gamsassu da komawarsu ta hanyar yi musu alkawarin da sunan bada tallafi ga duk damuwar su da amincewa dasu a matsayin masu bada garantin. Saboda sasantawa da Uthman ya yi, 'yan tawayen sun koma baya. Yayin da yan tawayen suka koma Masar, wani jami'in leda ya same su daga Madina, wanda suka iske wata wasikar wacce ake zargin tana dauke da tambarin wakilcin Halifa Uthman. Wasikar ta umarci gwamnan na Masar ya kashe bangaren 'yan tawayen da zarar ta dawo gida. Masana tarihi yanzu suna ganin wasikar ba Uthman ne ya kawo ta ba, amma sakatarenta, Marwan dan Al-Hakam. Koyaya, da gano abin da wasikar ta kunsa, nan da nan sai partyyan tawayen suka fara kewaye sojojin.

Farkon Kewaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin da 'yan tawayen Masar suka koma Madina, abin haushi da wasikar hukuma da ke ba da umarnin hukunta shugabanninsu, babban alkalin alkawaran Uthman ya nemi ya yi magana da' yan tawayen kai tsaye. Uthman ya karyata duk wani ilimi game da wasikar kuma Ali da Muhammad dan Maslamah sun tabbatar da hakan. Amma a wannan lokacin zabin da 'yan tawayen suka gabatar sun nuna murabus ne ko kuma watsi da Uthman da kuma zabi wani halifa. Yayin da rikici ya barke Ali ya bar su. Ali da alama ya fashe da Uthman cikin bacin rai saboda gazawarsa ta karya tasirin Marwan akan kalifa. Ali ya shiga tsakani ne kawai bayan an sanar da shi cewa ‘yan tawayen suna hana isar da ruwa ga kalifa. Yayi kokarin rage tsananin karfin siegin daga nacewa cewa a bar Uthman ya sami ruwa. Ali ya je har ma da tura 'ya'yan nasa don kare gidan Uthman lokacin da yake cikin hatsarin za a kai masa hari. 'Yan tawayen sun yi zanga-zangar adawa da hakan kuma sun keta alfarma sakamakon hakan.

Adireshin Uthman a Masallacin Annabi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar juma'ar farko bayan da aka kewaye shi, Uthman yayi jawabi ga ikilisiya a masallacin. Bayan yabon Allah da albarka da fatan aminci ga Muhammad, Uthman ya gayyato hankalin mutane zuwa ga umarni a cikin Alqur’ani da ke bukatar mutane su yi biyayya ga Allah da ManzonSa, da wadanda ke da iko a cikinsu. Ya lura cewa an umarci musulmai da su sasanta dukkan al'amura ta hanyar yin shawarwari da juna. Ya ce ya bude kofofin yin shawarwari a bude. Dukkanin zarge-zargen da aka yi a kansa an yi bayanin shi sosai kuma ya nuna ba shi da gaskiya. Ya bayyana a shirye yake don magance korafin mutane na gaskiya, in da akwai. Ya lura cewa a karkashin yanayin da wasu mutane ba su sassaka ba don su haifar da hargitsi a cikin Makka. Ya ce baya tsoron mutuwa, amma baya son musulmai da laifin zubar da jini. A gareshi hadin kan al'ummar musulmin yayi matukar kauna kuma domin a sami sabani tsakanin musulmai ya umarci magoya bayan sa da su guji tashin hankali. Ya so mutane su ji tsoron Allah kuma kada su sanya hannu cikin ayyukan tauyin addinin Islama. Ya yi nuni da cewa kasashen ketare da suke yin fatali da su a karkashin nasarar da suka samu daga hannun musulmai sun tallafawa wasu makirci don murkushe addinin Musulunci. Ya gargadi mutane da kar su yi wasa a hannun makiya Musulunci. Ya yi kira ga ‘yan tawayen da su yi ritaya daga Madina. Ya so mutanen Madina su goyi bayan gaskiya da adalci da kuma hana goyon bayansu ga rebelsyan tawayen da suka lafazin barna. Da tafiyar mahajjata daga Madina zuwa Makka, an kara karfafa hannun 'yan tawayen kuma a sakamakon hakan rikicin ya kara ta'azzara. 'Yan tawayen sun san cewa bayan aikin hajji, musulmai suka taru a Makka, daga kowane bangare na duniyar musulmi, za su yi tafiya zuwa Madina don tallafawa Halifa. Don haka suka yanke shawarar daukar mataki a kan Uthman kafin aikin hajjin ya kare. Yana da alaƙa da cewa yayin juyin juya halin Mugheera bin Shu'ba ya tafi Uthman kuma ya sanya darussan matakai guda uku a gabansa, da farko, don fita don yaƙi da 'yan tawayen, na biyu, hawa raƙumi kuma zuwa Makka da na uku don zuwa Siriya .. Uthman ya ƙi duk shawarwarin ukun. Ya yi watsi da shawara ta farko yana cewa ba ya son ya zama halifa na farko a lokacin wanda aka zubar da jininsa lokaci. Ya ki gabatar da shawara ta biyu don tserewa zuwa Makka a doron da ya ji daga Muhammad cewa za a binne wani mutumin Quraishawa a Makka wanda zai kasance rabin azabar duniya, kuma baya son ya zama mutumin. . Ya ƙi amincewa da shawara ta uku a ƙasa cewa ba zai iya barin Madina ba. Abdullah dan Salam, abokin Muhammad ya ziyarci gidan Uthman kuma an ruwaito cewa ya yi magana da maharan kamar haka:

"Kada ku kashe shi. Na rantse da Allah, ba wani mutum daga cikinku zai kashe shi, amma zai sadu da Ubangiji da rauni ba tare da hannu ba, kuma lalle takobin Allah ya ci gaba da nasara, kuma lalle ne da Allah idan kuka kashe shi, to, lalle ne, Allah Ya sami abin da yake, kuma ba za ta taba fitar da ita daga gare ku. Ba a taba kashe wani Annabi ba, amma an kashe mutane sabili da shi mutum dubu 70, kuma ba a taba kashe Halifa ba, amma an kashe mutum dubu 35 a asusunsa.”

Wani abokin Nayyar dan Ayyad Aslami wanda ya shiga cikin 'yan tawayen ya gargade su da shiga cikin gidan tare da kashe Uthman. Lokacin da 'yan tawayen karkashin jagorancin Nayyar dan Ayyad suka yi gaba zuwa cikin gidan, Kathir dan Salat Kundi, mai goyon bayan Uthman, ya harba kibiya wacce ta kashe Nayyar. Wannan ya fusata 'yan tawayen. Sun bukaci Kathir dan Salat Kundi a hannunsu. Uthman ya ce ba zai iya cin amanar mutumin da ya harba kibiya a cikin tsaron sa ba. Wannan ya haifar da batutuwan. Uthman ya rufe ƙofofin gidan. Hasan, Hussein, Abdullah dan Az-Zubair, Abdullah dan Umar, Muhammad ibn Talha, Marwan da kuma wasu mutane kalilan an tsare shi. Yanzu haka an fara fada a tsakanin ‘yan tawayen da magoya bayan Uthman. An samu wasu asarar rayuka a tsakanin ‘yan tawayen. Daga cikin magoya bayan Hasan, Marwan da wasu mutane da suka ji rauni.  

Kashe Uthman[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yan tawayen sun kara matsa lamba har suka isa kofar gidan Uthman suka kunna wuta. Wasu 'yan tawayen sun hau gidan maƙwabta sannan suka tsallaka zuwa gidan Uthman. A ranar 17 ga Yuli ne, 656 AZ kuma Uthman yana azumin wannan ranar. A daren jiya da ya gabata ya ga Muhammadu a cikin mafarki. Muhammad ya ce, "Idan kana so taimako za a iya aiko zuwa gare ku, kuma idan kana so za ka iya karya azuminku tare da mu a wannan maraice. Muna maraba da ku".. Uthman ya zaɓi na biyu. Wannan ya sa Uthman yasan cewa rana ce ta ƙarshe ta rayuwa. An kashe shi yayin karatun Alqurani, Aya ta Surat Baqarah "137. To, idan sun yi imani da abin da kuka yi imani da shi, to, waɗannan shiryayyu ne, kuma idan sun j ,ya, to, wadannan kawai suke a kan sabanin sihiri. Allah Ya ishe ka a kansu. Kuma Shi ne Mai ji, Masani."  A cewar wasu hadisai, Alqur'anin da ya ke karantawa yana ci gaba da kasancewa a cikin kayan tarihi a Tashkent a yau. Sauran nau'ikan Alqurani, wadanda aka kiyaye su a wasu garuruwa, su ma an yi iƙirarin su ne "Al-Kur'an Uthman". A shekara ta 656, an kashe Uthman dan al-Affan. An ce wadannan mutanen suna cikin wadanda suka kashe Uthman: Muhammd dan Hazif, Dan Hazm, Kanane dan boshr Tajibi, Ummar dan Hamq Khazai, Abdul Rahman dan Udais al-Balawi da Sudan dan Hamran.

Labarin Wasanni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]