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Mahayana

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Mahayana
Classification
Misali a cikin rubutun Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra daga Nalanda, wanda ke nuna bodhisattva Maitreya, wani mutum mai mahimmanci a Mahāyāna.
The Five Tathāgatas in Shishoin Temple (Tokyo). A unique feature of Mahāyāna is the belief that there are multiple Buddhas which are currently teaching the Dharma.

 Mahāyāna (/ˌmɑːhəˈjɑːnə/;) kalma ce da ɗimbin rukuni na al'adun Buddha, rubutu, falsafa, da ayyuka. Buddha Mahāyāna ya bunƙasa a Indiya (A ƙarni na 1 KZ zuwa gaba) kuma ana ɗaukarsa ɗaya daga cikin manyan rassa uku na addinin Buddha (ɗayan shine <i id="mwHg">Theravāda</i> da Vajrayana). [1] Mahāyāna ya yarda da manyan nassosi da koyarwar addinin Buddah na farko amma kuma ya yarda da koyaswa da nassosi daban-daban waɗanda Buddha Theravada ba su yarda da su ba a matsayin asali. Waɗannan sun haɗa da Mahāyāna Sūtras da ƙarfafa su kan hanyar bodhisattva da <i id="mwJg">Prajñāpāramitā</i>. [2] Al'adun Vajrayāna ko Mantra wani yanki ne na Mahāyāna, waɗanda ke amfani da hanyoyin tantric da yawa waɗanda ake ganin sun fi sauri da ƙarfi wajen cimma Buddha ta Vajrayānists. [1]

"Mahāyāna" kuma yana nufin hanyar bodhisattva da ke ƙoƙarin zama Buddha mai cikakken farkawa (samyaksaṃbuddha) don amfanin dukkan halittu masu rai, don haka ake kira "Bodhisattva Vehicle" (Bodhisattvayāna). [3] [note 1] [4] Mahāyāna kuma ya haɗa da Buddha da yawa da bodhisattvas waɗanda ba a samo su a cikin Theravada (irin su Amitābha da Vairocana). [5] Falsafar Buddha na Mahāyāna kuma tana haɓaka ƙa'idodi na musamman, irin su ka'idar Madhyamaka na wofi ( śūnyatā), koyarwar Vijñānavāda, da koyarwar dabi'ar Buddha.

Ko da yake farkon ƙaramin motsi ne a Indiya, a ƙarshe Mahāyāna ya girma ya zama mai tasiri a addinin Buddah na Indiya. [6] Manyan cibiyoyin ilimi da ke da alaƙa da Mahāyāna kamar Nalanda da Vikramashila, sun bunƙasa a tsakanin ƙarni na bakwai da goma sha biyu. [6] A cikin tarihinta, addinin Buddha na Mahāyāna ya bazu ko'ina cikin Kudancin Asiya, Asiya ta Tsakiya, Gabashin Asiya, da Kudu maso Gabashin Asiya. Ya kasance mai tasiri a yau a China, Mongolia, Hong Kong, Koriya, Japan, Singapore, Vietnam, Philippines, Nepal, Malaysia, Taiwan, da Bhutan.

Al'adar Mahāyāna ita ce babbar al'adar addinin Buddha mafi girma a yau (tare da 53% na Buddha na Gabashin Asiya Mahāyāna da 6% zuwa Vajrayāna), idan aka kwatanta da 36% na Theravada (bincike daga 2010).

Asalin kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Original Sanskrit[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mahāyāna Buddhist triad, gami da Bodhisattva Maitreya, Buddha, da Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara. Karni na 2-3 CE, Gandhara.

A cewar Jan Nattier, kalmar Mahāyāna ("Babban abin hawa") asalinsa ma'anar girmamawa ce ga Bodhisattvayāna ("Bodhisattva Vehicle"), [7] abin hawa na bodhisattva neman buddha don amfanin dukkan halittu masu rai. [3] Kalmar Mahāyāna (wanda aka yi amfani da ita a baya a matsayin abin koyi ga addinin Buddha) don haka an karbe shi tun da wuri a matsayin ma'anar hanya da koyarwar bodhisattvas. Tun da yake kawai lokacin girmamawa ne ga Bodhisattvayāna, ɗaukar kalmar Mahāyāna da aikace-aikacen sa ga Bodhisattvayāna ba su wakiltar wani gagarumin sauyi a cikin ci gaban al'adar Mahāyāna. [7]

Nassosin Mahāyāna na farko, irin su Lotus Sūtra, galibi suna amfani da kalmar Mahāyāna a matsayin ma’ana ga Bodhisattvayāna, amma kalmar Hīnayāna ba ta da yawa a farkon tushe. Bambance-bambancen da ake zato tsakanin Mahāyāna da Hīnayāna na iya zama yaudara, domin waɗannan kalmomin biyu ba su kasance da alaƙa da juna ba a lokaci ɗaya. [8]

Daga cikin nassoshi na farko kuma mafi mahimmanci game da Mahāyāna akwai waɗanda suka faru a cikin Lotus Sutra (Skt. Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra) dangantaka tsakanin ƙarni na farko KZ da ƙarni na 1 AZ. [9] Seishi Karashima ya ba da shawarar cewa kalmar da aka fara amfani da ita a farkon sigar Gandhāri Prakrit na Lotus Sūtra ba kalmar mahāyāna ba ce amma kalmar Prakrit mahājāna a ma'anar mahājñāna (sani mai girma). [10] [11] A wani mataki na gaba lokacin da aka canza kalmar Prakrit na farko zuwa Sanskrit, wannan mahājāna, kasancewar sautin murya, mai yiwuwa an canza shi zuwa mahāyāna, mai yiwuwa saboda abin da zai iya zama ma'ana biyu a cikin sanannen Parable of the Burning house wanda yayi magana game da shi. motoci ko kuloli uku (Skt: yana). [note 2] [10] [12]

Zaune Avalokiteshvara bodhisattva. Gandharan, daga Loriyan Tangai. Zaman Kushan, 1st - 3rd century CE. Gidan kayan gargajiya na Indiya, Calcutta.
Rukunin kogo mai alaƙa da ƙungiyar Mahāsāṃghika. Karla Caves, Mahārāṣtra, India.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Harvey (2013), p. 189.
  2. Harvey (2013), pp. 108-109.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Damien Keown (2003), A Dictionary of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, p. 38
  4. Harvey (2013), p. 111.
  5. Williams, Paul, Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations, Routledge, 2008, p. 21.
  6. 6.0 6.1 (Christopher Hugh ed.). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. 7.0 7.1 Nattier, Jan (2003), A few good men: the Bodhisattva path according to the Inquiry of Ugra: p. 174
  8. Nattier, Jan (2003), A few good men: the Bodhisattva path according to the Inquiry of Ugra: p. 172
  9. W. Rahula, (1996). Theravada – Mahayana Buddhism; in: "Gems of Buddhist Wisdom", Buddhist Missionary Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  10. 10.0 10.1 Williams, Paul. Buddhism. Vol. 3. The origins and nature of Mahāyāna Buddhism. Routledge. 2004. p. 50.
  11. Karashima, Seishi (2000), Who composed the Lotus Sutra?, Annual Report of The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology at Soka University 4, p. 170 (note 115)
  12. Karashima, Seishi (2015), Vehicle (yāna) and Wisdom (jñāna) in the Lotus Sutra – the Origin of the Notion of yāna in Mahayāna Buddhism, Annual Report of The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology at Soka University 18, 163–196


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