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Mandara

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Mandara

Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Kameru da Najeriya

Mutanen Mandara ko Wandala ko kuma Mandwara kungiyar kabila ce dake Tsakiyar Afurka wacce ake samunsu a yankin arewacin Kamaru da sashin arewa maso gabashin Najeriya, da kuma kudu maso gabashin Chadi.[1] Suna magana da harshen Wandala wanda ke daga cikin reshen yarukan Chadi na Afro-Asiatic da ake samu a yankunan arewa maso gabashin Afurka.[2]

Babu tsayayyen labari akan asalinsu. Suna rayuwa a yankin tsaunuka da kwari dag arewacin Kogin Benue na kasar Kamaru, kuma sun dade da zama sashen Masarautar Musulunci na Mandara.[3] Yankin ta fuskanci cinikayyar bayi da kuma fataucin sashin sahara na Afurka har zuwa karni na 19.[4] An san mutanen Mandara da kwarewa a fannin tseren dawaki da kuma sarrafa karafuna,[5] da al'ummarta dake zamantakewa cikin tsari.[6][7][8]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutanen Mandara sun samo asaline daga Daular Mandara, wanda Kuma ke zaune a yankin Tsaunin Mandara, na arewacin Kamaru da kuma iyakar ta na kuma arewa maso gabashin Najeriya a tsakanin Kogin Benue da Mora, Kamaru.[1][9]

Babu takamaiman labari akan kafuwarsu, wani labari na baka na cewa sun fara ne da wani Sarki Agamakiya a karni na 13, wanda ya jagorance su a yayinda ake kawo masu hari daga Sahel. Sun amshi addinin musulunci na Sunni a lokacin mulkin Sultan Bukar Aaji a cikin shekarun 1720s. Wani labarin ya sanar cewa Wandala Mbra ta samo asali ne daga 'ya'yan Mbra na Turu da Katala, diyar Vaya, ya amshi musulunci a dalilin haka ya kafa kungiya ta kabilar musulmai.[9] Wata kila an sauya wadannan labarai a lokacin da masu jihadi na Fulani suka mamaye yankin Mandara, kama bayi, da sauran kabilu.[3]

Masana tarihi na musulunci sun lissafo mutanen Mandara, amma basu bada cikakken bayani akan asalin su ba. Wata majiyar daga Fartuwa ta ayyana cewa a da ba musulmai bane, sun musulunta ne a karni na 16. Wata majiya kuma ta sanar cewa, sarkin garin ne ya gayyaci wasu mutanen Fas na Morocco, don su zauna dashi. Sai ya karbi musulunci, suka koya masa da mutanensa al'adun musulmai kaman kaciya, sallah, zakkah, azumi a karni na 18.[3] Acikin karni na 18 da na 19, arna sun zagaye yankin Mandara, kuma sune tushen cinikayyar bayi da kai hare-hare dan daukan bayi da kuma Ayarin bayi na Afurka.[4]

Yammacin Afirka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Harshen Mandara shine ɗayan daga cikin harsunan Chadi
  • Masarautar Mandara ta Kamaru
  • Duwatsun Mandara na Kamaru
  • Mutanen Mandara, wanda kuma ake kira Mandrawa, na arewacin Kamaru da arewa maso gabashin Najeriya

Sauran[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • El Mandara, wani yanki ne a Alexandria, Egypt
  • Bali Mandara Toll Road, hanya ce mafi tsayi a Bali, Indonesia
  • Mandara ko Mandala, Hindu da Buddha abubuwan addini
  • Mutanen Mandara (Ostiraliya), ƙabilar Aboriginal ta Australiya
  • Itace Mandara, Legric Erythrina stricta
  • Itace Mandaraba, Itace Coral na Coral ( Erythrina variegata )
  • Itatuwan kambin fure Calotropis gigantea
  • Dutsen Mandara, wani tsaunin almara ne a cikin Puranas na Hindu
  • Mandara< (jerin talabijin), jerin talabijin na Jamus
  • Yaren Mandara, yaren Austronesian wanda aka yi magana da shi a ƙungiyar Tabar na tsibiran, lardin New Ireland, Papua New Guinea
  • Mandara Spa, kamfani ne mai kula da harkar baƙi na duniya wanda aka kafa a Bali kuma yanzu yana ƙarƙashin kamfanin Steiner Leisure Limited

Dubi kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Mandala (disambiguation)
  • Mandar (disambiguation)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mandara/Wandala Muller-Kosack Ethnic Handbook (1999).
  2. (Wandala, Ethnologue; Wandala: A language of Cameroon.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 J. D. Fage; Richard Gray; Roland Anthony Oliver (1975). The Cambridge History of Africa. Cambridge University Press. pp. 82–83, 87–88, 99–106, 129–135. ISBN 978-0-521-20413-2.
  4. 4.0 4.1 J. D. Fage; Richard Gray; Roland Anthony Oliver (1975). The Cambridge History of Africa. Cambridge University Press. pp. 131–135. ISBN 978-0-521-20413-2.
  5. David Nicholas (2012, Editor), Metals in Mandara mountains' society and culture, Africa World Press, ISBN 978-1592218905, see Cameroon and Nigeria-related chapters: The development of endogamy among smiths of the Mandara mountains eastern piedmont: myths, history and material evidence by Olivier Langlois; and The wife of the village: understanding caste in the Mandara mountains by James H. Wade
  6. Sterner, Judy; David, Nicholas (1991). "Gender and Caste in the Mandara Highlands: Northeastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon". Ethnology. University of Pittsburgh Press. 30 (4): 355–369. doi:10.2307/3773690. JSTOR 3773690.
  7. Michael S. Bisson; Terry S. Childs; De Philip Barros; et al. (2000). Ancient African Metallurgy: The Sociocultural Context. AltaMira. pp. 160, 174–177. ISBN 978-1-4617-0592-5.
  8. Nicholas David; Carol Kramer (2001). Ethnoarchaeology in Action. Cambridge University Press. pp. 75, 102–103, 206–221, 341. ISBN 978-0-521-66779-1.
  9. 9.0 9.1 E Mohammadou (1982), Le royaume du Wandala ou Mandara au XIXe siecle, African Languages and Ethnography 14, Tokyo, pages 7-9