Musulunci Alkahira

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Musulunci Alkahira (Larabci: قاهرة المعز, ma'ana: Al-Mu'izz's Alkahira), wanda kuma ake kira Historic Alkahira ko kuma Alkahira ta Medieval, gaba daya tana nufin wuraren tarihi na birnin Alkahira na kasar Masar, wadanda suka wanzu kafin fadadawar birnin na zamani a karni na 19 da na 20. musamman sassan tsakiyar da ke kusa da tsohon birni mai katanga da kewayen Kagara na Alkahira. Sunan "Musulunci" Alkahira ba yana nufin wani babban shaharar musulmi a yankin ba, a'a yana nuni ne ga dimbin tarihi da al'adun gargajiyar birnin tun kafuwarta a farkon zamanin Musulunci, tare da bambanta shi da wuraren da ke kusa da Giza da Memphis na Tsohon Masar.[1][2] Wannan yanki yana daya daga cikin mafi girma kuma mafi girma na gine-ginen tarihi a duniyar Musulunci.[1] Yana da daruruwan masallatai, kaburbura, madrasa, manyan gidaje, ayari, da garu da aka yi tun daga zamanin Musulunci na Masar. A cikin 1979, Hukumar Ilimi, Kimiyya da Al'adu ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UNESCO) ta ayyana Alkahira mai tarihi a matsayin wurin tarihi na al'adun duniya, a matsayin "daya daga cikin tsoffin garuruwan Musulunci a duniya, tare da shahararrun masallatai, madrasa, hammams da maɓuɓɓugar ruwa" da "sabuwar cibiya". na duniyar Musulunci, ya kai lokacin zinari a karni na 14."[3]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tushen Fustat da farkon zamanin Musulunci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ragowar Fustat da aka tono a cikin 2009.

Tarihin Alkahira ya fara ne, a ha}i}a, da mamaye Masar da Larabawa Musulmi suka yi a shekara ta 640, a qarqashin kwamanda Amr ibn al-As.[4] Ko da yake Iskandariya ita ce babban birnin Masar a wancan lokacin (kuma ya kasance a tsawon zamanin Ptolemaic, Roman, da Byzantine), Larabawa masu cin nasara sun yanke shawarar kafa sabon birni mai suna Fustat don zama babban birnin gudanarwa da cibiyar sojojin Masar. Sabon birnin yana kusa da wani kagara na Roman-Byzantine wanda aka sani da Babila a bakin kogin Nilu (yanzu yana cikin Tsohon Alkahira), kudu maso yamma na daga baya na Alkahira daidai (duba ƙasa). Zaɓin wannan wurin yana iya kasancewa saboda dalilai da yawa, ciki har da ɗan kusancin kusancinsa da Larabawa da Makka, tsoron ƙarfin tasirin Kiristanci da Hellenistic a Alexandria, da raunin Alexandria ga hare-haren Byzantine da suka isa ta teku (wanda ya faru da gaske).[4][5] Wataƙila ma mafi mahimmanci, wurin da Fustat ya kasance a mahadar Masar ta ƙasa (Nilu Delta) da Masarautar Masar (Kogin Nilu da ke gaba da kudu) ya sa ya zama wuri mai mahimmanci daga inda za a iya sarrafa ƙasar da ke kan kogin Nilu, da yawa. kamar yadda tsohon birnin Memphis na Masar (wanda ke kudu da Alkahira a yau) ya yi.[4][5] (Tsarin kafa sababbin garuruwan da ke cikin kasa shi ma ya kasance wanda aka yi ta maimaita shi a duk tsawon lokacin da Larabawa suka mamaye, tare da wasu misalan irin su Qayrawan a Tunisiya ko Kufa a Iraki).[5] masallacin farko, Masallacin Amr bn al-As, wanda aka yi ta sake gina shi tsawon shekaru aru-aru amma har yanzu yana nan.[1]

Fustat ya girma cikin sauri ya zama babban birni, tashar jiragen ruwa, da cibiyar tattalin arzikin Masar, tare da Alexandria ya zama birni mafi girma na lardi.[5] A shekara ta 661 ne duniyar musulmi ta shiga karkashin ikon Umayyawa, babban birninsu na Damascus, har zuwa lokacin da Abbasiyawa suka yi musu juyin mulki a shekara ta 750. Halifan Ummayya na karshe, Marwan na biyu, ya yi zamansa na karshe a Masar amma an kashe shi a ranar 1 ga Agusta. 750.[4] Bayan haka Masar, da Fustat, suka wuce karkashin ikon Abbasiyawa. Abbasiyawa sun yi bikin sabuwar mulkinsu a Masar ne ta hanyar kafa sabuwar hedkwatar gudanarwa mai suna al-Askar, a arewa maso gabashin Fustat, karkashin jagorancin gwamnansu Abu Aun. An kammala ginin birnin da harsashin ginin wani katafaren masallaci (wanda ake kira Jami' al-Askar) a shekara ta 786, kuma ya hada da fadar gidan gwamna mai suna Dar al-Imara.[4] Babu wani abu na wannan birni da ya rage a yau, amma kafuwar sabbin manyan biranen mulki da ke wajen babban birnin ya zama abin da ya zama ruwan dare gama gari a tarihin yankin.

Masallacin Ibn Tulun, wanda aka gina a karni na 9. Misali ne da ba kasafai ba kuma fitaccen misali na gine-ginen Abbasiyawa da aka kiyaye a wajen Iraki.

Ahmad Ibn Tulun kwamandan sojojin Turkiyya ne wanda ya taba yiwa halifofin Abbasiyawa hidima a Samarra a lokacin da aka dade ana rikicin mulkin Abbasiyawa.[6] Ya zama gwamnan Masar a shekara ta 868 amma cikin sauri ya zama shugabanta mai cin gashin kansa, yayin da yake amincewa da ikon halifan Abbasiyawa. Ya yi tasiri sosai har daga baya halifan ya ba shi damar shi ma ya mallaki Sham a shekara ta 878.[4] A wannan lokaci na mulkin Tulunid (a karkashin Ibn Tulun da 'ya'yansa), Masar ta zama kasa mai cin gashin kanta a karon farko tun lokacin da aka kafa mulkin Rum a shekara ta 30 BC.[4] Ibn Tulun ya kafa sabon babban birnin mulki a shekara ta 870, wanda ake kira al-Qata'i, arewa maso yammacin al-Askar. Ya hada da wani sabon katafaren fada (har yanzu ana kiransa Dar al-'Imara), filin fareti na hippodrome ko na soja, da abubuwan more rayuwa kamar asibiti (bimaristan), da wani babban masallaci da ya wanzu har yau, wanda aka fi sani da Masallacin Ibn Tulun. wanda aka gina a tsakanin 876 da 879.[4][6] Ibn Tulun ya rasu a shekara ta 884 kuma ‘ya’yansa maza sun yi mulki na wasu ‘yan shekarun da suka gabata har zuwa 905 lokacin da Abbasiyawa suka aike da runduna don sake kafa ikon kai tsaye suka kona al-Qata’i a kasa, suka bar masallacin kawai.[4] Bayan haka, Masar ta sami wani ɗan lokaci a wata daular Ikhshidid, waɗanda suka yi mulkin Abbasiyawa a tsakanin 935 zuwa 969. Wasu daga cikin gine-ginen da suka yi, musamman a ƙarƙashin Abu al-Misk Kafur, baƙar fata eunuch (asali daga Habasha) wanda ya yi mulki a matsayin. Mai mulki a cikin wannan lokaci na ƙarshe, mai yiwuwa ya yi tasiri ga zaɓin wurin da Fatimidawa za su kasance a nan gaba don babban birninsu, tun da ɗaya daga cikin manyan lambuna na Kafur da ke gefen magudanar ruwa na Khalij an shigar da shi cikin manyan fadojin Fatimid na baya.[4]

Kafuwar al-Qahira (Alkahira) da zamanin Fatimid[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bab al-Futuh, daya daga cikin kofofin arewacin birnin Alkahira da Fatimid wazirin Badr al-Jamali ya gina a karshen karni na 11.

Fatimidiyyawa, khalifancin Shi’a Isma’ili da ke garin Ifrikiya (Tunisiya) sun mamaye Masar a shekara ta 969 Miladiyya a zamanin Halifa al-Mu’izz. Sojojin nasu, wadanda akasarinsu na Kutama Berbers ne na Arewacin Afirka, karkashin jagorancin Janar Jawhar al-Siqilli. A cikin 970, ƙarƙashin umarnin al-Mu'izz, Jawhar ya tsara, kafa, da kuma gina sabon birni don zama mazaunin da cibiyar iko ga Khalifofin Fatimid. Sunan garin al-Mu'izziyya al-Qaahirah, "Birnin Al-Mu'izz Mai Nasara", daga baya aka kira shi "al-Qahira", wanda ya sanya mana sunan Alkahira na zamani.[7]

Masallacin Al-Azhar, wanda Fatimidawa suka assasa a shekara ta 972. (An kara da minaret daga baya a zamanin Mamluk).

Birnin yana arewa maso gabashin Fustat kuma na manyan biranen gudanarwa da Ibn Tulun da Abbasiyawa suka gina a baya. Jawhar ya shirya sabon birnin ta yadda a tsakiyarsa akwai Manyan Fadaje da ke dauke da halifofi, da iyalansu, da cibiyoyin gwamnati.[4] An kammala manyan fadoji guda biyu: na gabas (mafi girma daga cikin biyun) da na yamma, a tsakaninsa akwai wani muhimmin fili mai suna Bayn al-Qasrayn ("Tsakanin Fadaje Biyu"). Babban masallacin birnin, Masallacin Al-Azhar, an kafa shi ne a shekara ta 972 a matsayin masallacin Juma'a da kuma cibiyar koyo da koyarwa, kuma a yau yana daya daga cikin tsofaffin jami'o'i a duniya.[1] Babban titin birnin, wanda aka fi sani da titin Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah a yau (ko titin al-Mu'zz) amma a tarihi ana kiransa Qasabah ko Qasaba, ya fito ne daga daya daga cikin kofofin birnin na arewa (Bab al-Futuh). ) zuwa kofar kudu (Bab Zuweila) sannan ta wuce tsakanin manyan fada ta Bayn al-Qasrayn. A karkashin Fatimids kuwa, Alkahira birni ne na sarauta wanda ke rufe ga jama'a kuma dangin Halifa kawai, jami'an gwamnati, rundunonin sojoji da sauran mutanen da suka dace da ayyukan gwamnati da birninsa. Fustat ya kasance na ɗan lokaci babban cibiyar tattalin arziki da birni na Masar. Daga baya ne Alkahira ta girma ta mamaye sauran garuruwan cikin gida, ciki har da Fustat, amma a wasu lokuta ana ɗaukar shekarar 969 a matsayin "shekara ta kafa" na birni na yanzu.[8]

Al-Mu'izz tare da shi da na'urorin gudanarwa na Halifanci Fatimid, ya bar tsohon babban birninsa na Mahdia, Tunisia, a shekara ta 972, ya isa birnin Alkahira a watan Yunin 973.[7][4] Daular Fatimid da sauri ta samu karfin da zai iya tsayawa a matsayin barazana ga gwamnatin kasar. kishiyantar Halifancin Sunna Abbasid. A zamanin Halifa al-Mustansir (1036-1094), wanda shi ne mafi dadewa a duk wani shugaba na musulmi, daular Fatimid ta kai kololuwarta amma kuma ta fara durkushewa.[9] Wasu ’yan bangar masu karfi, wadanda suka yi aiki a madadin halifofi, sun yi nasarar farfado da ikon daular a wasu lokuta. Badar al-Jamali ɗan ƙasar Armeniya (yana kan mulki daga 1073-1094) musamman ya sake gina katangar Alkahira a cikin dutse, tare da ƙofofi masu ban mamaki, waɗanda ragowarsu har yanzu suna nan kuma an faɗaɗa su a ƙarƙashin mulkin Ayyubid daga baya.[4] Karshen karni na 11 kuma lokaci ne na manyan al'amura da ci gaba a yankin. A wannan lokaci ne daular Seljuk (Turkiyya) mai girma ta mamaye mafi yawan kasashen musulmi na gabacin duniya. Zuwan Turkawa wadanda galibinsu mabiya Sunna ne, ya kasance wani dogon lokaci a cikin abin da ake kira "Revival Sunni" wanda ya kawo koma baya ga ci gaban Fatimidawa da na Shi'a a Gabas ta Tsakiya.[10] A cikin 1099 Crusade na farko ya kame Kudus, kuma sabbin jihohin 'yan Salibiyya sun zama babbar barazana ga Masar. Sabbin sarakunan musulmi irin su Nur al-Din na daular Zengid ta Turkiyya ne suka dauki nauyin kai farmakin gaba daya kan 'yan Salibiyya.

A karni na 12 raunin Fatimidawa ya yi tsanani ta yadda a karkashin Halifa Fatmid na karshe, al-'Adid, sun nemi taimako daga Zengids don kare kansu daga Sarkin Kudus, Amalric, a lokaci guda kuma suna kokarin yin hadaka da su. na karshen don kiyaye Zengids a cikin rajistan.[7] A shekara ta 1168, yayin da 'yan Salibiyya suka yi tattaki a birnin Alkahira, Fatimid waziri Shawar, ya damu cewa za a yi amfani da birnin Fustat mara tsaro a matsayin sansanin da za a yi wa Alkahira kawanya, ya ba da umarnin a kwashe shi sannan kuma ya cinnawa birnin wuta. Yayin da masana tarihi ke yin muhawara game da girman barnar (kamar yadda Fustat ya bayyana ya ci gaba da wanzuwa bayan wannan), kona Fustat duk da haka yana nuna wani muhimmin lokaci a cikin durkushewar wannan birni, wanda daga baya Alkahira da kanta ta rufe shi.[4][11] Daga karshe Salah ad-Din (Saladin), kwamandan Zengid wanda aka baiwa mukamin wazirin Al-Adid a birnin Alkahira, ya shelanta kawo karshen da ruguza daular Fatimidiyya a shekara ta 1171. Ta haka ne Alkahira ta koma karkashin mulkin ‘yan Sunna, da kuma sabon babi. a cikin tarihin Masar, da na tarihin birnin Alkahira, ya buɗe.

Hawan Alkahira a zamanin Ayyubid da Mamluk[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban Masallacin Salah ad-Din (Saladin), wanda aka kafa a shekara ta 1176 kuma wasu masu mulki bayansa sun ci gaba da bunkasa. Masallacin Muhammad Ali na karni na 19 yana ganuwa yana kallon bangonsa.

Mulkin Salahad-Din shi ne farkon daular Ayyubid, wadda ta yi mulkin Masar da Sham, kuma ta ci gaba da yakar 'yan Salibiyya. Har ila yau, ya fara gina wani babban katafaren katafaren katafaren katafaren katafaren gini (Babban Katafaren Alkahira na yanzu) a kudu, wajen birnin mai katanga, wanda zai zaunar da sarakunan Masar da gwamnatin jihar shekaru aru-aru bayan haka. Wannan ya kawo karshen matsayin Alkahira a matsayin babban birni na fada kuma ya fara wani tsari wanda birnin ya zama cibiyar tattalin arziki wanda Masarawa na kowa ke zaune kuma bude ga matafiya na kasashen waje.[11] A cikin ƙarnin da suka biyo baya, Alkahira ta haɓaka zuwa cikakkiyar cibiyar birni. Rushewar Fustat a tsawon lokaci guda ya share hanyar hawansa. Sarakunan Ayyubid da sarakunan Mamluk da suka biyo bayansu, waxanda suke musulmi ‘yan Sunna ne masu kwadayin kawar da tasirin Fatimidin Shi’a, suka ci gaba da ruguzawa tare da maye gurbin manyan fadojin Fatimid da nasu gine-gine.[4] Masallacin Al-Azhar ya koma cibiyar Sunna, kuma a yau shi ne cibiyar nazarin kur'ani da shari'ar Musulunci a duniyar Musulunci ta Sunna.[1]

A shekara ta 1250 daular Ayyubid ta lalace kuma mulki ya koma mulkin da Mamluk ke sarrafawa. Mamluks sojoji ne da aka saya a matsayin matasa bayi (sau da yawa daga yankuna daban-daban na Eurasia ta Tsakiya) kuma aka tashi zuwa aikin sojan sarki. Sun zama jigo a cikin sojojin Ayyubid a karkashin Sultan al-Salih kuma daga karshe sun zama masu karfin da za su yi wa kansu mulkin kasar a rikicin siyasa a lokacin yakin Salibiyya na bakwai. Tsakanin 1250 zuwa 1517, sarautar ta wuce daga wannan mamluk zuwa wani a cikin tsarin maye wanda gabaɗaya ba gado bane, amma kuma akai-akai tashin hankali da hargitsi. Duk da haka, daular Mamluk ta ci gaba da abubuwa da yawa na daular Ayyubid a gabanta, kuma ita ce ke da alhakin tunkude ci gaban Mongols a shekara ta 1260 (wanda ya fi shahara a yakin Ain Jalut) da kuma kawo karshen karshen yakin 'yan Salibiyya a cikin Levant.[12]

Babban Masallacin Madrassa na Sultan Hassan, Daular Bahri, tsakiyar karni na 14.
Dome of Complex na Sultan al-Ashraf Qaytbay a arewacin hurumi (Alkahira), Burji Mamluk, karshen karni na 15.

Karkashin mulkin Mamluk sultan al-Nasir Muhammad (1293-1341, gami da masu mulki), Alkahira ta kai ga gaci ta fuskar yawan jama'a da dukiya.[4] Wani kiyasi da aka saba ambato na yawan jama'a a karshen mulkinsa, ko da yake yana da wuyar tantancewa, ya ba da adadi kusan 500,000, wanda ya sa Alkahira ta zama birni mafi girma a duniya bayan China a lokacin.[13][14] Duk da kasancewarsu gungun sojoji, Mamluk sun kasance ƙwararrun magina kuma masu ɗaukar nauyin gine-gine na addini da na jama'a. Yawancin abubuwan tarihi na Alkahira sun kasance tun daga zamaninsu, gami da da yawa mafi ban sha'awa.[4][1] Har ila yau birnin ya samu ci gaba daga kula da hanyoyin kasuwanci tsakanin Tekun Indiya da Bahar Rum.[4] Bayan mulkin al-Nasir, duk da haka, Masar da Alkahira sun sami bullar cutar a lokuta da dama, tun daga Mutuwar Baƙar fata a tsakiyar karni na 14. Al'ummar Alkahira sun ragu kuma sun ɗauki ƙarni suna murmurewa, amma ta kasance babbar birni na Gabas ta Tsakiya.[4]

Karkashin Ayyubids da Mamluk na baya, hanyar Qasaba ta zama wurin da aka fi dacewa da gina gine-ginen addini, kaburburan sarauta, da wuraren kasuwanci, wanda akasari sarki ne ko kuma na masu mulki ke daukar nauyinsa. Wannan kuma shi ne inda manyan biranen Alkahira suka bunkasa, inda suka zama babban yankin tattalin arzikinta na kasuwanci da kasuwanci na kasa da kasa.[4][1] Yayin da babban titin ya cika da shaguna da sarari don ci gaba, an gina sabbin gine-ginen kasuwanci a gabas, kusa da Masallacin Al-Azhar da kuma haramin al-Hussein, inda yankin souq na Khan al-Khalili. har yanzu a yau, ci gaba da ci gaba.[11] Wani muhimmin al'amari na haɓaka halayen biranen Alkahira shi ne karuwar wuraren waƙafi, musamman a lokacin Mamluk. Wakafi sun kasance amintattu na sadaka a ƙarƙashin shari'ar Musulunci waɗanda suka tsara ayyuka, ayyuka, da hanyoyin samar da kudade na yawancin cibiyoyin addini da na jama'a waɗanda masu mulki suka gina. Yawancin lokaci an zana su ne don ayyana hadaddun gine-gine na addini ko na jama'a waɗanda suka haɗa ayyuka daban-daban (misali masallaci, madrasa, makabarta, sebil) waɗanda galibi ana samun kuɗin shiga daga gine-ginen kasuwanci na birane ko wuraren noma na karkara.[15] A ƙarshen karni na 15, Alkahira kuma yana da manyan gine-gine masu amfani da haɗe-haɗe (wanda aka sani da rab', khan ko wikala, dangane da ainihin aikin) inda ƙananan benaye biyu suka kasance don kasuwanci da dalilai na ajiya da kuma labarun da yawa a sama. an ba su hayar ga masu haya.[16]

Alkahira a matsayin babban birnin lardi na Daular Usmaniyya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Titin gargajiya a Alkahira mai cike da tarihi, mai gidaje masu benaye a gaba da tagogin mashrabiyya na katako. (Hoto daga 1867.)

Daular Usmaniyya ta mamaye Masar a shekara ta 1517, a karkashin Selim I, kuma ta kasance karkashin mulkin Ottoman tsawon shekaru aru-aru. A cikin wannan lokaci, jiga-jigan yankin sun yi ta gwabzawa a tsakanin su ba tare da kakkautawa ba don neman mulki da tasiri na siyasa; wasu daga cikin su ‘yan asalin Daular Usmaniyya, wasu kuma daga kabilar Mamluk da ta ci gaba da wanzuwa a matsayin wani bangare na masu fada aji a kasar duk kuwa da rasuwar masarautar Mamluk.[4]

Alkahira ta ci gaba da kasancewa babbar cibiyar tattalin arziki kuma daya daga cikin muhimman biranen daular. Ya kasance babban wurin shirya aikin hajji (Hajji) zuwa Makka.[4] Duk da yake gwamnonin Ottoman ba manyan ma'abota gine-gine ba ne kamar na Mamluks, amma duk da haka Alkahira ta ci gaba da bunkasa kuma sabbin unguwanni sun yi girma a wajen tsohon ganuwar birnin.[4][1] Gine-ginen Ottoman a Alkahira ya ci gaba da samun tasiri sosai kuma an samo shi daga al'adun zamanin Mamluk na gida maimakon gabatar da tsayayyen hutu tare da baya. Wasu mutane, irin su Abd ar-Rahman Katkhuda al-Qazdaghli, wani jami'in mamluk a cikin Janissaries a karni na 18, sun kasance ƙwararrun majiɓintan gine-gine.[4][1] Da yawa daga cikin tsofaffin ƴan ƙasar Burgeoi ko manyan gidaje waɗanda aka adana a birnin Alkahira a yau tun daga zamanin Daular Usmaniyya, kamar yadda wasu sabil-kuttabs (haɗaɗɗen kiosk na rarraba ruwa da makarantar karatun Kur'ani).[1]

Alkahira karkashin Muhammad Ali Pasha da Khedives[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sabil na Isma'il Pasha, wanda Muhammad Ali Pasha ya ba da umarni a 1828 a cikin salon "Ottoman Baroque".

Sojojin Faransa Napoleon sun mamaye Masar na dan lokaci daga 1798 zuwa 1801, bayan haka wani hafsan Albaniya a cikin sojojin Daular Usmaniyya mai suna Muhammad Ali Pasha ya mai da Alkahira babban birnin wata daula mai cin gashin kanta wacce ta dade daga 1805 zuwa 1882. Daga nan kuma birnin ya koma karkashin ikon Ingila har sai da Masar ta samu izinin zama kasar Masar. yancin kai a 1922.

Karkashin mulkin Muhammad Ali an gyara babban birnin Alkahira gaba daya. An ruguje da yawa daga cikin abubuwan tarihinta na Mamluk da ba a yi amfani da su ba domin gina sabon masallacin sa (Masallacin Muhammad Ali) da sauran fadoji. Daular Muhammad Ali kuma ta gabatar da tsarin gine-ginen daular Usmaniyya zalla, musamman a salon Baroque na marigayi Ottoman.[1] Ɗaya daga cikin jikokinsa, Isma'il, a matsayin Khedive tsakanin 1864 zuwa 1879, ya jagoranci aikin gina tashar ruwa ta Suez na zamani. Tare da wannan sana'a, ya kuma gudanar da aikin gina wani katafaren sabon birni mai salon turawa zuwa arewa da yammacin cibiyar tarihi ta Alkahira. Sabon birnin ya kwaikwayi gyare-gyare na ƙarni na 19 na Haussman na Paris, tare da manyan boulevards da murabba'ai sun kasance wani ɓangare na tsarawa da shimfidawa. Ko da yake ba a cika cikar hangen nesa na Isma'il ba, wannan sabon birni ya hada da yawa daga cikin Garin Alkahira a yau. Wannan ya bar tsofaffin gundumomi na Alkahira masu tarihi, ciki har da birni mai katanga, ba a kula da su ba. Ko da Citadel ya rasa matsayinsa na gidan sarauta lokacin da Isma'il ya koma sabon fadar Abdin a 1874.[1]

Wuraren tarihi da abubuwan tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taswirar Alkahira mai tarihi, wanda aka lulluɓe tare da hanyar sadarwa na yanzu, tare da yawancin manyan abubuwan tarihi na rayuwa da aka nuna.

Masallatai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yayin da masallacin farko a Masar shi ne Masallacin Amr bn al-As da ke Fustat, Masallacin Ibn Tulun shi ne masallaci mafi dadewa da ya ci gaba da rike siffarsa na asali kuma ba kasafai misali ne na gine-ginen Abbasiyawa ba, tun daga zamanin al'ada na wayewar Musulunci. An gina shi a shekara ta 876-879 miladiyya bisa salon da babban birnin Abbasiyawa na Samarra na kasar Iraki ya yi wahayi.[1] Yana daya daga cikin manyan masallatai a birnin Alkahira kuma ana yawan ambatonsa a matsayin daya daga cikin mafi kyaun masallatai.[1][17]

Daya daga cikin muhimman cibiyoyi masu dawwama da aka assasa a zamanin Fatimid, shi ne masallacin Azhar da aka kafa a shekara ta 970 miladiyya, wanda ke fafatawa da Qarawiyyin dake birnin Fes na neman mukamin jami'a mafi dadewa a duniya.[1] A yau jami'ar al-Azhar ita ce babbar cibiyar koyar da ilimin addinin musulunci a duniya kuma daya daga cikin manyan jami'o'in kasar Masar da ke da cibiyoyi a fadin kasar.[1] Masallacin da kansa yana riƙe da mahimman abubuwan Fatimid amma an ƙara shi kuma an faɗaɗa shi a cikin ƙarni masu zuwa, musamman ta sarakunan Mamluk Qaitbay da al-Ghuri da Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda a ƙarni na 18. Sauran abubuwan tarihi na zamanin Fatimid sun hada da babban masallacin al-Hakim, masallacin al-Aqmar, masallacin Juyushi, masallacin Lulua, da masallacin Salih Tala'i.

Gine-ginen Ghuriya da titin kasuwa a tsakanin su, wanda David Roberts ya zana a 1839.

Mafi shaharar kayan gine-gine na Alkahira na da, duk da haka, sun kasance daga zamanin Mamluk, daga 1250 zuwa 1517 AD. Sarakunan Mamluk da manyan mutane sun kasance masu sha'awar sha'awar addini da ilimi, yawanci gina gine-gine na addini ko jana'izar wadanda ayyukansu zasu iya hada da masallaci, madrasa, Khanqah (na Sufaye), wuraren rarraba ruwa (sabils), da makabarta don kansu da iyalansu.[15] Daga cikin sanannun misalan abubuwan tarihi na Mamluk a Alkahira akwai katafaren Masallacin-Madrasa na Sultan Hasan, Masallacin Amir al-Maridani, Masallacin Sultan al-Mu'ayyad (wanda aka gina tagwayen minare a saman kofar Bab Zuwayla). rukunin Sultan Al-Ghuri, wurin jana'izar Sultan Qaytbay a makabartar Arewa, da kuma manyan abubuwan tarihi guda uku a yankin Bayn al-Qasrayn wanda ya kunshi rukunin Sultan al-Mansur Qalawun, Madrasa na al-Nasir Muhammad. da Madrasa Sultan Barquq. Wasu masallatai sun haɗa da spolia (sau da yawa ginshiƙai ko manyan) daga gine-ginen da Romawa, Rumawa, ko Copts suka gina.[1]

Wuraren ibada da mausoleum[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Har ila yau, birnin Alkahira ya kasance wurin da wasu muhimman wuraren ibada na addini kamar masallacin al-Hussain (wanda ake kyautata zaton cewa hubbaren yana dauke da shugaban Husayn bn Ali), Mausoleum na Imam al-Shafi'i (wanda ya kafa mazhabar Shafi'i), daya daga cikin mazhabobin fiqihu Ahlus-Sunnah, da Kabarin Sayyida Ruqayya, da Masallacin Sayyida Nafisa, da sauransu.[1] Wasu daga cikin wadannan wuraren ibada suna cikin manya-manyan wuraren makabarta da aka fi sani da birnin Matattu ko kuma al-Qarafa a Larabci, wadanda ke daura da birnin mai tarihi. Makabartun sun samo asali ne tun daga kafuwar Fustat, amma da yawa daga cikin fitattun kuma shahararrun gine-ginen mausoleum sun fito ne daga zamanin Mamluk.[18]

Ganuwar da kofofi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin da Fatimids suka kafa Alkahira a matsayin babban birni a shekara ta 969, an rufe shi da da'irar bango. Waziri Badr al-Gamali ne ya sake gina su da dutse a ƙarshen karni na 11 miladiyya, waɗanda sassansu ke wanzuwa a yau a Bab Zuwayla a kudu da Bab al-Futuh da Bab al-Nasr a arewa.[4][1] Ayyubids ne suka tsawaita kuma suka gyara bangon a matsayin wani ɓangare na babban shirin Salah ad-Din na kare alƙahira da Fustat ta bango ɗaya. Kwanan nan an tono sassan wadannan katangar kusa da wurin shakatawa na Al-Azhar, ciki har da wasu kofofin Ayyubid kamar Bab al-Barqiya.[1]

Citadel[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Salah ad-Din (Saladin) ya fara gina katafaren katafaren gini a shekara ta 1176 don zama kujerar mulkin Masar, tare da kammala ginin karkashin magajinsa.[19] Tana kan titin tsaunin Muqattam da ke kusa da ke kallon birnin. Citadel ya kasance mazaunin sarakunan Masar har zuwa ƙarshen karni na 19, kuma an canza shi akai-akai a ƙarƙashin sarakunan da suka biyo baya. Musamman ma, Muhammad Ali Pasha ya gina masallacin Muhammad Ali na karni na 19 wanda har yanzu ya mamaye sararin samaniyar birnin tun daga inda yake.[1]

Kasuwanni da gine-ginen kasuwanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Khan el-Khalili, babbar cibiyar souq ko bazaar na tsakiyar Alkahira.

Mamluks, da kuma na Ottoman na baya, suma sun gina wikalas (caravanserais; wanda aka fi sani da khans) don gina 'yan kasuwa da kayayyaki saboda muhimmiyar rawar da ciniki da kasuwanci ke takawa a tattalin arzikin Alkahira.[4] Misali mafi shahara kuma mafi kyawun kiyayewa shine Wikala al-Ghuri, wanda a zamanin yau kuma yana karbar bakuncin wasan kwaikwayo na Al-Tannoura na Masarautar Masarawa na Rawar Al'ada.[20] Shahararriyar Khan al-Khalili sanannen cibiyar souq ce da cibiyar kasuwanci wacce kuma ta haɗa ayarin motoci.[21] Wani misali na gine-ginen kasuwanci na tarihi shine Qasaba na Radwan Bay na karni na 17, wanda yanzu yana cikin yankin al-Khayamiyya wanda sunansa ya fito daga kayan ado na ado (khayamiyya) har yanzu ana sayar da su a nan.[1]

Matsayin adanawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin wannan yanki mai tarihi yana fama da rashin kulawa da lalacewa, a cikin wannan yanki na ɗaya daga cikin mafi talauci da cunkoso a babban birnin Masar.[22] Bugu da kari, kamar yadda aka ruwaito a cikin mako na Al-Ahram, satar abubuwan tarihi da kayayyakin tarihi na Musulunci a yankin Al-Darb al-Ahmar na barazana ga kiyaye su na dogon lokaci.[23][24][25]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 Williams, Caroline (2018). Islamic Monuments in Cairo: The Practical Guide (7th ed.). Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press.
  2. Planet, Lonely. "Islamic Cairo in Cairo, Egypt". Lonely Planet (in Turanci). Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  3. UNESCO, Decision Text, World Heritage Centre, retrieved 21 July 2017
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 Raymond, André. 1993. Le Caire. Fayard.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Kennedy, Hugh (2007). The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In. Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Swelim, Tarek (2015). Ibn Tulun: His Lost City and Great Mosque. The American University in Cairo Press.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Brett, Michael (2017). The Fatimid Empire. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  8. Irene Beeson (September–October 1969). "Cairo, a Millennial". Saudi Aramco World. pp. 24, 26–30. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
  9. "Fāṭimid Dynasty | Islamic dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica (in Turanci). Retrieved 2019-11-16.
  10. Lewis, Bernard (1995). The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years. Scribner.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Denoix, Sylvie; Depaule, Jean-Charles; Tuchscherer, Michel, eds. (1999). Le Khan al-Khalili et ses environs: Un centre commercial et artisanal au Caire du XIIIe au XXe siècle. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale.
  12. Clot, André (1996). L'Égypte des Mamelouks: L'empire des esclaves, 1250–1517. Perrin.
  13. Abu-Lughod, Janet (1971). Cairo: 1001 Years of the City Victorious. Princeton University Press. p. 37.
  14. Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African History. I. Taylor & Francis. p. 342.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. 2007. Cairo of the Mamluks: A History of Architecture and its Culture. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press.
  16. Mortada, Hisham (2003). Traditional Islamic principles of built environment. Routledge. p. viii. ISBN 0-7007-1700-5.
  17. O'Neill, Zora et al. 2012. Lonely Planet: Egypt (11th edition), p. 87.
  18. El Kadi, Galila; Bonnamy, Alain (2007). Architecture for the Dead: Cairo's Medieval Necropolis. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press.
  19. Rabat, Nasser O. (1995). The Citadel of Cairo: A New Interpretation of Royal Mamluk Architecture. E.J. Brill.
  20. O'Neill, Zora et al. 2012. Lonely Planet: Egypt (11th edition), p. 81.
  21. Denoix, Sylvie; Depaule, Jean-Charles; Tuchscherer, Michel, eds. (1999). Le Khan al-Khalili et ses environs: Un centre commercial et artisanal au Caire du XIIIe au XXe siècle. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale.
  22. Ancient Cairo: Preserving a Historical Heritage, Qantara, 2006.
  23. Unholy Thefts Archived 2013-06-05 at the Wayback Machine Al-Ahram Weekly, Nevine El-Aref, 26 June – 2 July 2008 Issue No. 903.
  24. "Al-Darb Al-Ahmar District Mosques". World Monuments Fund.
  25. Wilton-Steer, Harry Johnstone, photography by Christopher (March 21, 2018). "Alive with artisans: Cairo's al-Darb al-Ahmar district – a photo essay" – via www.theguardian.com.