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Nagarjuna

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

 

Nagarjuna
Zen Patriarch (en) Fassara


Kapimala (en) Fassara - Aryadeva (en) Fassara
Rayuwa
Haihuwa South India (en) Fassara, 150
Mutuwa Indiya, 250
Karatu
Makaranta Nalanda
Harsuna Sanskrit
Malamai the great brahmin (en) Fassara
Sangwé Dakpo (en) Fassara
Gyalrik Tamché Khyenpa (en) Fassara
Changsem Lodrö Rinchen (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a mai falsafa, marubuci, bhikkhu (en) Fassara da compiler (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Buddha

Nagarjuna [c. 150-c. 250 CE (wanda aka yi jayayya)] ɗan Indiya ne Mahayāna Buddhist mai tunani ne, (thinker) scholar-saint kuma masanin falsafa. An kuma yi la'akari da shi a daya daga cikin manyan malaman falsafar Buddha. [1] Jan Westerhoff ya dauke shi a matsayin "daya daga cikin manyan masu tunani a tarihin falsafar Asiya." [2] An yi la'akari da Nāgārjuna a matsayin wanda ya kafa makarantar Madhyamaka (centrism, middle-way) na falsafar Buddhist kuma mai kare motsin Mahāyāna. [1] [3] Mūlamadhyamakakārikā nasa (Ayoyin Tushen akan Madhyamaka, ko MMK) shine mafi mahimmancin rubutu akan falsafar madhyamaka na wofi. MMK ya zaburar da ɗimbin sharhi a cikin Sanskrit, Sinanci, Tibet, Koriya da Jafananci kuma ana ci gaba da yin nazari a yau. [4]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taswirar Masarautar Satavahana, tana kuma nuna wurin Amaravathi (inda Nāgārjuna na iya rayuwa kuma ya yi aiki bisa ga Walser) da Vidarbha (wurin haifuwar Nāgārjuna a cewar Kumārajīva).

Fage[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Indiya a ƙarni na farko da na biyu AZ ta kasance a siyasance ta raba zuwa jihohi daban-daban, ciki har da daular Kushan da Masarautar Satavahana. A wannan lokaci a tarihin addinin Buddah, an riga an raba al'ummar Buddha zuwa makarantun Buddha daban-daban kuma sun bazu ko'ina cikin Indiya.

Nagarjuna

A wannan lokacin, an riga an sami ƙaramin motsi na Mahayāna. Wasu tsirarun mabiya addinin Buddah ne suka gudanar da ra'ayoyin Mahayāna a Indiya a lokacin. Kamar yadda Joseph Walser ya rubuta, "Mahāyāna kafin karni na biyar ya kasance ba a iya gani sosai kuma mai yiwuwa ya wanzu ne kawai a matsayin 'yan tsiraru kuma ba a san shi ba a cikin rukunin addinin Buddha nikāya." [5] A ƙarni na biyu, farkon Mahāyāna Sūtras irin su Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā sun riga sun yadu a tsakanin wasu da'irar Mahāyāna. [6]

Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kadan kadan ne aka sani game da rayuwar Nāgārjuna kuma masana tarihi na zamani ba su yarda a kan takamaiman kwanan wata (1st zuwa 3rd century CE) ko wuri (yawan wurare a Indiya da aka ba da shawara) gare shi. [7] An rubuta farkon bayanan da suka rage a cikin Sinawa da Tibet ƙarni bayan mutuwarsa kuma galibin asusun hagiographical ne waɗanda tarihi ba zai iya tantancewa ba. [7]

Wasu malamai irin su Joseph Walser suna jayayya cewa Nāgārjuna mashawarci ne ga wani sarki na daular Sātavāhana wanda ya mulki Deccan Plateau a ƙarni na biyu. [8] [9] Wannan yana samun goyan bayan mafi yawan tushen hagiographical na gargajiya kuma. [10] Shaidun archaeological a Amarāvatī sun nuna cewa idan wannan gaskiya ne, sarki ya kasance Yajña Śrī Śātakarṇi (c. rabin na biyu na karni na 2). Dangane da wannan ƙungiyar, ana sanya Nāgārjuna a al'ada a kusan 150-250 CE. [8] [9]

Model na Amaravati Stupa

Walser yana tunanin cewa mai yiwuwa ne lokacin da Nāgārjuna ya rubuta Ratnavali, ya zauna a cikin wani gauraye sufi (tare da Mahayānists da waɗanda ba Mahayānists) da Mahayānists ne 'yan tsiraru. Mafi kusantar alaƙar mazhabar gidan sufi bisa ga Walser shine Purvasailya, Aparasailya, ko Caityaka (waɗanda su ne ƙananan makarantun Mahāsāṃghika). [11]

Ya kuma bayar da hujjar cewa "yana da kyau cewa ya rubuta Ratnavali a cikin shekaru talatin a karshen karni na biyu a yankin Andhra da ke kusa da Dhanyakataka (Amaravati na yau)." [8]



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Garfield, Jay L. (1995), The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. Westerhoff (2009), p. 4.
  3. Walser (2005) p. 3.
  4. Garfield (1995), p. 87.
  5. Walser (2005), p. 43.
  6. Mäll, Linnart. Studies in the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā and other essays. 2005. p. 96
  7. 7.0 7.1 Walser (2005), p. 60.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Walser (2005), p. 61.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Kalupahana 1994.
  10. Walser (2005), p. 66.
  11. Walser (2005), p. 87.