Opera

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

 

Wikidata.svgOpera
Nau'in kiɗa, theatrical genre (en) Fassara da type of dramatico-musical work (en) Fassara
Giovanni Paolo Pannini - Fête musicale - 1747.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na theatre music (en) Fassara, western classical music (en) Fassara, Yin zane-zane da composed musical work (en) Fassara
Farawa 16 century
Ƙasa da aka fara Turai
Nada jerin list of prominent operas (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan répétiteur (en) Fassara, vocal coach (en) Fassara da opera singer (en) Fassara
Tarihin maudu'i opera in Arabic (en) Fassara, opera in English (en) Fassara da opera in Africa (en) Fassara
Facet of (en) Fassara musical theater (en) Fassara
La Scala na Milan
Palais Garnier na Paris Opéra
Macbeth a Savonlinna Opera Festival a St. Olaf's Castle, Savonlinna, Finland, a 2007

Opera wani nau'i ne na wasan kwaikwayo wanda kida ke da tushe kuma mawaka ke daukar rawar ban mamaki. Irin wannan "aiki" (fassarar ainihin kalmar a Italiyanci "opera") yawanci haɗin gwiwa ne tsakanin mawaƙa da mawallafi [1] kuma ya haɗa da dama na wasan kwaikwayo, kamar wasan kwaikwayo, shimfidar wuri, kaya, da kuma wani lokacin rawa ko ballet. Yawanci ana yin wasan kwaikwayon a cikin gidan wasan opera, tare da ƙungiyar makaɗa wanda tun farkon ƙarni na 19 madugu ke jagoranta. Kodayake wasan kwaikwayo na kiɗa yana da alaƙa da opera, ana ganin su biyun sun bambanta da juna. [2]

Opera muhimmin bangare ne na al'adar kiɗan gargajiya ta Yammacin Turai. [3] Asali an fahimci shi azaman yanki ne gabaɗaya, sabanin wasan kwaikwayo tare da waƙoƙi, opera ya zo ya haɗa da nau'ikan opera, gami da wasu waɗanda suka haɗa da maganganun magana kamar Singspiel da Opéra comique. A cikin wasan opera na al'ada, mawaƙa suna amfani da salon waƙa guda biyu: rera waƙa, salon salon magana, [4] da aria mai ɗaukar kansa. Karni na 19 ya ga tashin ci gaba da wasan kwaikwayo na kiɗa.

Opera ta samo asali ne a Italiya a ƙarshen karni na 16 (tare da Jacopo Peri mafi yawan Lost Dafne, wanda aka samar a Florence a 1598) musamman daga ayyukan Claudio Monteverdi, musamman L'Orfeo, kuma ba da daɗewa ba ya bazu cikin sauran Turai: Heinrich Schütz a Jamus, Jean-Baptiste Lully a Faransa, da Henry Purcell a Ingila duk sun taimaka wajen kafa al'adun ƙasarsu a ƙarni na 17. A cikin karni na 18, wasan opera na Italiya ya ci gaba da mamaye yawancin Turai (ban da Faransa), yana jan hankalin mawakan kasashen waje irin su George Frideric Handel. Opera seria ita ce mafi girman nau'in wasan opera na Italiya, har sai da Christoph Willibald Gluck ya mayar da martani ga aikin wucin gadi tare da wasan operas na "sake fasalin" a cikin 1760s. Shahararren opera na ƙarshen karni na 18 shine Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, wanda ya fara da opera seria amma ya fi shahara da wasan kwaikwayo na Italiyanci, musamman Aure na Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro), Don Giovanni, da Così fan tutte. haka kuma Die Entführung aus dem Serail (The Sace daga Seraglio), da kuma The Magic flute (Die Zauberflöte), alamomi a cikin al'adar Jamus.

Na uku na farko na karni na 19 ya ga babban matsayi na salon bel canto, tare da Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti da Vincenzo Bellini duk suna ƙirƙirar ayyukan sa hannu na wannan salon. An kuma ga zuwan babbar opera wanda ayyukan Daniel Auber da Giacomo Meyerbeer da kuma Carl Maria von Weber ta gabatar da Romantische Oper (Opera Romantic na Jamus). Tsakanin tsakiyar zuwa ƙarshen karni na 19 ya kasance zamanin zinare na wasan opera, wanda Giuseppe Verdi ya jagoranta kuma ya mamaye shi a Italiya da Richard Wagner a Jamus. Shahararriyar opera ta ci gaba har zuwa zamanin verismo a Italiya da wasan opera na zamani na Faransa har zuwa Giacomo Puccini da Richard Strauss a farkon karni na 20. A cikin karni na 19, al'adun wasan kwaikwayo iri ɗaya sun bayyana a tsakiya da gabashin Turai, musamman a Rasha da Bohemia. Ƙarni na 20 ya ga gwaje-gwaje da yawa tare da salon zamani, irin su atonality da serialism (Arnold Schoenberg da Alban Berg), neoclassicism (Igor Stravinsky ), da kuma minimalism (Philip Glass da John Adams). Tare da haɓaka fasahar rikodi, mawaƙa irin su Enrico Caruso da Maria Callas sun zama sanannun masu sauraro da yawa waɗanda suka wuce da'irar opera magoya baya. Tun da aka kirkiro rediyo da talabijin, ana kuma yin wasan opera a kan (da kuma rubuta wa) waɗannan kafofin watsa labarai. Tun daga shekara ta 2006, manyan gidajen opera da yawa sun fara gabatar da watsa shirye-shiryen bidiyo kai tsaye na wasan kwaikwayonsu a gidajen sinima a duk faɗin duniya. Tun daga 2009, ana iya sauke cikakken wasan kwaikwayo kuma ana watsa su kai tsaye.

Operatic terminology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An san kalmomin opera da libretto (ma'ana "karamin littafi"). Wasu mawaƙa, musamman Wagner, sun rubuta nasu libretti; wasu sun yi aiki tare da haɗin gwiwa tare da masu ba da izini, misali Mozart tare da Lorenzo Da Ponte. Wasan opera na al'ada, wanda galibi ake kira "lamba opera", ya ƙunshi nau'ikan waƙa guda biyu: karantawa, plot-driving na waƙa da aka rera a cikin salon da aka tsara don kwaikwayo da jaddada juzu'in magana, [4] da aria (wani "iska" ko waƙa na yau da kullun) wanda haruffan suke bayyana motsin zuciyar su cikin salon waƙa mai tsari. Duets vocal, trios da sauran ensembles sukan faru, kuma ana amfani da mawaƙa don yin sharhi game da aikin. A wasu nau'o'in opera, irin su singspiel, opéra comique, operetta, da kuma semi-opera, ana maye gurbin karatun ta hanyar tattaunawa ta magana. Melodic ko Semi-melodic wurare da ke faruwa a tsakiyar, ko maimakon, recitative, ana kuma kiran su arioso. Kalmomin nau'ikan muryoyin operatic iri-iri an bayyana su dalla-dalla a ƙasa. [5] A lokacin duka lokutan Baroque da na gargajiya, karatun zai iya bayyana a cikin nau'i biyu na asali, kowannensu yana tare da wani nau'i na kayan aiki daban-daban: secco (dry) recitative, raira waƙa tare da waƙoƙin kyauta wanda aka tsara ta hanyar kalmomin kalmomi, tare da basso kawai. continuo, wanda yawanci ya kasance garaya da cello; ko accompagnato (kuma aka sani da strumentato) wanda ƙungiyar makaɗa ta ba da rakiyar. A cikin karni na 18th, arias sun kasance tare da ƙungiyar makaɗa. A karni na 19, accompagnato ya samu nasara, kungiyar makada ta taka rawar gani sosai, kuma Wagner ya kawo sauyi a wasan opera ta hanyar kawar da kusan dukkan banbanci tsakanin aria da recitative a kokarinsa na abin da Wagner ya kira "waƙar waƙa mara iyaka". Mawaƙan da suka biyo baya sun kasance suna bin misalin Wagner, kodayake wasu, kamar Stravinsky a cikin The Rake's progress sun ɓata yanayin. Canjin rawar ƙungiyar makaɗa a opera an kwatanta shi dalla-dalla a ƙasa.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Asali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Claudio Monteverdi

Kalmar opera ta Italiyanci tana nufin "aiki", duka a ma'anar aikin da aka yi da sakamakon da aka samar. Kalmar Italiyanci ta samo asali ne daga kalmar Latin opera, suna guda ɗaya ma'anar "aiki" da kuma jam'in suna opus. Bisa ga ƙamus na Turanci na Oxford, an fara amfani da kalmar Italiyanci a ma'anar "haɗin da aka haɗa waƙa, rawa, da kiɗa" a cikin shekarar 1639; An fara yin amfani da Ingilishi na farko a cikin wannan ma'anar zuwa 1648. [6]

Dafne na Jacopo Peri shine farkon abun da aka yi la'akari da opera, kamar yadda aka fahimta a yau. An rubuta shi a kusa da 1597, mafi yawa a ƙarƙashin wahayi na ƙwararrun ƴan adam na Florentine waɗanda suka taru a matsayin "Camerata de' Bardi". Mahimmanci, Dafne ƙoƙari ne na farfado da wasan kwaikwayo na Girkanci na gargajiya, wani ɓangare na faffadan farfaɗowar tsohuwar halayen Renaissance. Membobin camerata sun yi la'akari da cewa an rera sassan "mawaƙa" na wasan kwaikwayo na Girka, kuma watakila ma dukan rubutun kowane matsayi; opera ta haka ne aka ɗauki shi a matsayin hanyar "maido" wannan yanayin. Dafne, duk da haka, ya ɓace. Wani aiki daga baya na Peri, Euridice, tun daga 1600, shine makin wasan opera na farko da ya rayu har zuwa yau. Duk da haka, girmamawar kasancewa opera ta farko da za a yi akai-akai tana zuwa Claudio Monteverdi 's L'Orfeo, wanda aka tsara don kotun Mantua a 1607. [7] Kotun Mantua na Gonzagas, masu daukan ma'aikata na Monteverdi, sun taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin asalin opera ba kawai mawaƙa na kotu na concerto delle donne (har zuwa 1598), amma kuma daya daga cikin ainihin "mawakan opera", Madama Europa. [8]



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Antonio Vivaldi, a 1723
Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Baroque mai zaman kansa a cikin Český Krumlov
Teatro Argentina ( Panini, 1747, Musée du Louvre )

 

  1. Richard Wagner and Arrigo Boito are notable creators who combined both roles.
  2. Some definitions of opera: "dramatic performance or composition of which music is an essential part, branch of art concerned with this" (Concise Oxford English Dictionary); "any dramatic work that can be sung (or at times declaimed or spoken) in a place for performance, set to original music for singers (usually in costume) and instrumentalists" (Amanda Holden, Viking Opera Guide); "musical work for the stage with singing characters, originated in early years of 17th century" (Pears' Cyclopaedia, 1983 ed.).
  3. Comparable art forms from various other parts of the world, many of them ancient in origin, are also sometimes called "opera" by analogy, usually prefaced with an adjective indicating the region (for example, Chinese opera). These independent traditions are not derivative of Western opera but are rather distinct forms of musical theatre. Opera is also not the only type of Western musical theatre: in the ancient world, Greek drama featured singing and instrumental accompaniment; and in modern times, other forms such as the musical have appeared.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Apel 1969
  5. General information in this section comes from the relevant articles in The Oxford Companion to Music, by P. Scholes (10th ed., 1968).
  6. Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed., s.v. "opera".
  7. Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapter 1; articles on Peri and Monteverdi in The Viking Opera Guide.
  8. Karin Pendle, Women and Music, 2001, p. 65: "From 1587–1600 a Jewish singer cited only as Madama Europa was in the pay of the Duke of Mantua,"