Rage iska mai nauyi (Haze)

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Harmattan Haze in Abuja .
Haze a kan Desert Mojave daga goga mai goga a Santa Barbara, California, wanda aka gani yayin da Rana ta sauko a kan 2016 Yuni solstice, yana ba da damar a dauki hoton Rana ba tare da tacewa ba.
Gobarar gobara ta tashi a Sydney Australia.
Haze kamar yadda hayaki gurbatawa a kan Mojave daga gobara a cikin Inland Empire, Yuni, 2016, ya nuna hasara na bambanci da Rana, da kuma wuri mai faɗi gaba ɗaya.
Haze da ke haifar da jajayen gizagizai, saboda tarwatsa haske kan barbashin hayaki, wanda kuma aka fi sani da tarwatsa Rayleigh a lokacin gobarar dajin Mexico .
Haze a Monterrey, Mexico yayin gobarar ciyawa.

ref>Figure 1. "The setting sun dimmed by dense haze over State College, Pennsylvania on 16 September 1992". "Haze over the Central and Eastern United States". The National Weather Digest. March 1996. Retrieved April 26, 2011.[permanent dead link]</ref>

Haze a al'adance Na wani al'amari ne na yanayi wanda kura, hayaki, da sauran busassun barbashi ke rufe haske a sararin samaniya. Littafin Kundin Tsarin Yanayi na Duniya ya haɗa da rarrabuwa na ruɗewa a kwance zuwa nau'ikan hazo, hazo kankara, hazo, hazo, hazo, hayaƙi, toka mai aman wuta, ƙura, yashi, da dusar ƙanƙara. Abubuwan da ke haifar da barbashi hazo sun haɗa da noma ( noma a bushewar yanayi), zirga-zirga, masana'antu, da gobarar daji . Ana iya gani daga nesa (misali jirgin sama yana gabatowa) kuma ya danganta da alkiblar ra'ayi game da Rana, hazo na iya bayyana launin ruwan kasa ko bluish, yayin da hazo yakan zama launin toka. Ganin cewa hazo sau da yawa ana tunanin al'amari na busasshiyar iska, hazo abu ne na iskar danshi. Koyaya, ɓangarorin hazo na iya yin aiki azaman ɗigon ɗigon ruwa don samuwar hazo na gaba; Irin waɗannan nau'ikan hazo ana kiran su da "rigar haze." Da Kuma ake la'akari da su.ref>Figure 1. "The setting sun dimmed by dense haze over State College, Pennsylvania on 16 September 1992". "Haze over the Central and Eastern United States". The National Weather Digest. March 1996. Retrieved April 26, 2011.[permanent dead link]</ref>[1][2]

A cikin adabin yanayi, kalmar haze gabaɗaya ana amfani da ita don nuna hangen nesa-rage iska mai nau'in rigar. Irin wannan iska da aka saba fitowa daga hadadden halayen sinadarai da ke faruwa yayin da iskar sulfur dioxide da ke fitowa yayin konewa ke juyar da su zuwa kananan digo na sulfuric acid . Ana haɓaka halayen a gaban hasken rana, matsanancin zafi na dangi, da kwararar iska. Wani karamin sashi na iska mai daskarewa ya bayyana yana samuwa ne daga mahadi da bishiyoyi suka saki, irin su terpenes . Saboda waɗannan dalilai, rigar hazo yakan zama babban abin al'ajabi na lokacin dumi. Ana iya samar da manyan wuraren hazo da ya mamaye dubban kilomita a ƙarƙashin yanayi mai kyau kowane lokaci na rani.[3]

Gurbacewar iska[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haze sau da yawa yana faruwa lokacin da ƙurar da hayaƙi suka taru a cikin bushewar iska. Lokacin da yanayin yanayi ya toshe tarwatsa hayaki da sauran gurɓatattun abubuwa sukan tattara hankali kuma su samar da wani shroud mai rataye yawanci wanda ke ɓata gani kuma yana iya zama barazanar lafiyar numfashi . Gurbacewar masana'antu na iya haifar da hazo mai yawa, wanda aka sani da hayaki .

Tun daga shekarata 1991, hazo ya kasance matsala musamman a kudu maso gabashin Asiya. Babban tushen hazo shine gobarar da ke faruwa a Sumatra da Borneo. Dangane da hazo na 1997 kudu maso gabashin Asiya, ƙasashen ASEAN sun amince da Tsarin Ayyukan Haze na Yanki shekarata (1997). A shekara ta 2002, duk ƙasashen ASEAN sun rattaba hannu kan Yarjejeniyar kan Gusar da Haze mai iyaka, amma har yanzu gurɓataccen yanayi yana da matsala a yau. A karkashin yarjejeniyar, sakatariyar ASEAN ta dauki nauyin hadin gwiwa da bangaren tallafi. A lokacin shekarata 2013 kudu maso gabashin Asiya haze, Singapore ta sami matsayi mai girma na gurɓataccen gurɓatawa, tare da 3-hour Pollution Standards Index ya kai matsayi mafi girma na 401. ref>Figure 1. "The setting sun dimmed by dense haze over State College, Pennsylvania on 16 September 1992". "Haze over the Central and Eastern United States". The National Weather Digest. March 1996. Retrieved April 26, 2011.[permanent dead link]</ref>

A {asar Amirka, an ɓullo da shirin Kula da Muhalli na Kare Kariya (IMPROVE) a matsayin wani yunƙuri na haɗin gwiwa tsakanin Hukumar Kula da Kayayyakin Kayayyakin Kayayyakin Kayayyakin Kayayyakin Kayayyakin (EPA) da Ma'aikatar Kula da Gandun Daji ta Ƙasa, domin kafa nau'in sinadari na haze a cikin wuraren shakatawa na ƙasa da kuma kafa matakan sarrafa gurɓataccen iska a cikin don dawo da hangen nesa zuwa matakan masana'antu kafin masana'antu. Bugu da ƙari, Dokar Tsabtace iska ta buƙaci a gyara duk wata matsalar ganuwa ta yanzu, kuma a hana matsalolin gani nan gaba, a cikin yankuna kimanin 156 na Tarayya na Class I da ke ko'ina cikin Amurka. Ana samun cikakken jerin waɗannan wuraren akan gidan yanar gizon EPA.

Rikicin kasa da kasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haze mai iyaka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haze ba shine matsalar gida ba. Ya zama daya daga cikin abubuwan da ke haifar da sabani na kasa da kasa a tsakanin kasashe makwabta. Haze na ƙaura zuwa ƙasashe maƙwabta kuma ta haka ne ke lalata wasu ƙasashe ma. Daya daga cikin matsalolin baya-bayan nan na faruwa a kudu maso gabashin Asiya wanda ya fi shafar kasashen Indonesia, Malaysia da Singapore. A shekarar 2013, sakamakon gobarar dazuzzukan kasar Indonesiya, Kuala Lumpur da yankunan da ke kusa da su sun lullube da hayaki mai muni, da warin toka da gawayi sama da mako guda, a cikin rikicin muhalli mafi muni da kasar ta fuskanta tun shekarar 1997 .

Babban tushen hazo shi ne tsibirin Sumatra na Indonesiya, yankunan Indonesiya na Borneo, da kuma Riau, inda manoma, masu gonaki da masu hakar ma'adinai suka cinna wuta a dazuzzukan domin share kasa a lokacin bushewar yanayi. Iskar dai na kada mafi yawan hayakin da ke ratsa mashigin mashigin Malacca zuwa Malesiya, duk da cewa wasu sassan Indonesia ma abin ya shafa. Hatsarin 2015 na Kudu maso Gabashin Asiya ya kasance wani babban rikici, kodayake akwai lokuta kamar hazo na shekarun 2006 da 2019 waɗanda ba su da tasiri fiye da manyan hazo uku na kudu maso gabashin Asiya na shekarun 1997, 2013 da 2015.

Rufewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haze yana haifar da al'amurra a fannin daukar hoto na ƙasa, inda shigar da ɗimbin yanayi mai yawa na iya zama dole don hoton batutuwa masu nisa. Wannan yana haifar da tasirin gani na asarar bambanci a cikin batun, saboda tasirin hasken haske ta hanyar ƙwayoyin hazo. Don waɗannan dalilai, launukan fitowar alfijir da faɗuwar rana suna bayyana a cikin ranaku masu hazaka, kuma taurari suna iya ɓoyewa da daddare. A wasu lokuta, hazo yana da girma wanda, wajen faɗuwar rana, rana ta bace gaba ɗaya kafin ta isa sararin sama.

Ana iya bayyana Haze a matsayin nau'in iska na tasirin Tyndall don haka sabanin sauran tasirin yanayi kamar girgije da hazo, hazo yana da zaɓaɓɓen zaɓi: guntu (shuɗi) tsayin raƙuman ruwa yana tarwatsewa, kuma tsayin (ja / infrared ) tsayin raƙuman raƙuman ruwa ba ya warwatse ƙasa da ƙasa. Saboda wannan dalili, da yawa super-telephoto ruwan tabarau sau da yawa hada rawaya tacewa ko coatings don inganta image bambanci. Hakanan za'a iya amfani da hoton infrared (IR) don kutsa hazo a cikin nesa mai nisa, tare da haɗe-haɗe na IR-pass optical filters da IR-sensitive detectors.

Duba sauran abubuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Arctic hazo
  • Yarjejeniyar ASEAN kan gurɓacewar Haze daga iyaka
  • Gajimaren launin ruwan Asiya
  • Kurar Asiya
  • Coefficient na haze
  • Yarjejeniyar Kan Gubawar Iska Mai Tsawon Iyakoki
  • Saharan Air Layer
  • Haze na kudu maso gabashin Asiya
  • Smog
  • Rigimar Smelter Trail

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Figure 1. "The setting sun dimmed by dense haze over State College, Pennsylvania on 16 September 1992". "Haze over the Central and Eastern United States". The National Weather Digest. March 1996. Retrieved April 26, 2011.[permanent dead link]
  2. Figure 1. "The setting sun dimmed by dense haze over State College, Pennsylvania on 16 September 1992". "Haze over the Central and Eastern United States". The National Weather Digest. March 1996. Retrieved April 26, 2011.[permanent dead link]
  3. Figure 1. "The setting sun dimmed by dense haze over State College, Pennsylvania on 16 September 1992". "Haze over the Central and Eastern United States". The National Weather Digest. March 1996. Retrieved April 26, 2011.[permanent dead link]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]