Tobago

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Tobago
Castara village Beach1.jpg
General information
Height above mean sea level (en) Fassara 600 m
Tsawo 40.7 km
Fadi 11.9 km
Yawan fili 300 km²
Labarin ƙasa
Tobago parishes.svg
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 11°15′00″N 60°40′01″W / 11.25°N 60.667°W / 11.25; -60.667
Bangare na Windward Islands (en) Fassara
Lesser Antilles (en) Fassara
Wuri Caribbean Sea (en) Fassara
Kasa Trinidad da Tobago
Flanked by Caribbean Sea (en) Fassara
Ƙasantuwa a yanayin ƙasa Lesser Antilles (en) Fassara
Hydrography (en) Fassara

Tobago ( /t ə b eɪ ɡ oʊ / ) wani tsibiri ne a cikin jamhuriyar Trinidad da Tobago. Tana da nisan 35 kilometres (22 mi) arewa maso gabashin babban yankin Trinidad da kudu maso gabashin Grenada, kimanin kilomita 160 kilometres (99 mi) daga bakin gabar arewa maso gabashin Venezuela. Kamar yadda da farko harshen Turanci tushen kawo sunayensu a cikin ƙamus na Oxford English Dictionary, Babban tsuntsun Tobago shine cocrico .

Bayanin Kalma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Christopher Columbus ya sanya wa Tobago suna Belaforme "saboda daga nesa ya yi kyau". Friar friar na Spain Spanish Vázquez de Espinosa ya rubuta cewa Kalina (tsibirin Karibiyan) sun kira tsibirin Urupaina saboda kamannin ta da babban katantanwa, : 84–85 yayin da Kalinago (tsibirin Caribbean) suka kira shi Aloubaéra, ana jin yana da ishara ga gaskiyar cewa yayi kama da alloüebéra, katon maciji wanda ya kamata ya zauna a cikin kogo a tsibirin Dominica . : 79 Sunan Tabaco, wanda ke nuni da siffar tsibirin, wanda yake kama da sigarin mai da byan Taíno mazaunan Babban Antilles ke sha, an fara amfani da shi a cikin dokar masarautar Spain da aka bayar a 1511. : 84-85

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yan Asalin Tobago[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Greenstone biki, daga harsashi a tsakiyar, Mount Irvine Bay, Tobago, 1957.

Ban asalin asalin garin Tobago sun zauna ne tare da al'adun gargajiyar Ortoiroid wani lokaci tsakanin 3500 da 1000 KZ. : 21–24 A arni na farko na Zamaninmu, Saladoid mutane zauna a Tobago. Sun zo da kayan aikin tukwane da al'adun noma, kuma da alama sun gabatar da amfanin gona wadanda suka hada da rogo, dankalin hausa, doyar Indiya, tanni da masara. : 32–34 An sauya al'adun Saladoid daga baya ta hanyar gabatar da al'adun Barrancoid, ko dai ta hanyar kasuwanci ko haɗuwa da kasuwanci da sasantawa. : 34–44 Bayan 650 CE, an maye gurbin al'adun Saladoid da al'adar Troumassoid a Tobago. : 45 Hadisai na Troumassoid sun taɓa yin tunanin wakiltar sassaucin tsibirin Caribbeans a cikin ilananan Antilles da Tobago, amma wannan yanzu yana da alaƙa da al'adun yumbu na Cayo. Babu wasu wuraren tarihi da ke alaƙa da al'adun Cayo da aka sani daga Tobago. : 60

Inda Tobago yake hakan ya sanya shi ya zama waje mai muhimmiyar ma'amala tsakanin Kalinago na ilananan Antilles da ƙawayen Kalina da abokan kasuwancin su a Guianas da Venezuela . A cikin 1630s Kalb yana zaune a Tobago, yayin da tsibirin Grenada mai makwabtaka ya kasance tare da Kalina da Kalinago. : 115–119

Columbus ya hango Tobago a ranar 14 ga watan Agusta 1498, yayin tafiyarsa ta hudu, amma bai sauka ba. : 2 An ba da izinin baƙi 'yan Spain a cikin Hispaniola su gudanar da samame a kan tsibirin a cikin batun tsarin masarauta a cikin 1511. Waɗannan hare-hare, waɗanda suka ci gaba har zuwa aƙalla shekarun 1620, : 115–119 sun lalata yawan tsibirin. : 83

Turawan mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taswirar karni na sha bakwai da ke nuna ƙarfin Nieuw Vlissingen.

A cikin 1628, mazaunan Dutch suka kafa farkon fararen Turai a Tobago, mulkin mallaka da suke kira Nieuw Walcheren a Great Courland Bay . Sun kuma gina katafaren gini, Nieuw Vlissingen, kusa da garin Plymouth na zamani. An yi watsi da yarjejeniyar a 1630 bayan hare-haren 'yan asalin, amma an sake kafa shi a 1633. Mutanen Espanya ne suka lalata sabon mulkin mallaka a Trinidad bayan da Holan suka goyi bayan tawayen da Nepoyo ya jagoranta a Trinidad. Oƙarin Ingilishi na mamayar Tobago a cikin 1630s da 1640s kuma ya faskara saboda juriya ta 'yan asalin ƙasar. : 115–119

Har ila yau, 'yan asalin ƙasar sun hana mulkin mallaka na Turai a cikin 1650s, gami da yunƙurin Courlanders, waɗanda suka mallaki tsibirin ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba tsakanin 1637-1690. A cikin shekaru masu zuwa, Curonians ( Duchy na Courland ), Dutch, Ingilishi, Faransanci, Spanish da Yaren mutanen Sweden sun sa Tobago ya zama babban mahimmin matsayi a cikin yunƙurin mulkin mallaka, wanda ya haifar da tsibirin ya canza hannaye sau 33, mafi yawa a Tarihin Caribbean, kafin Yarjejeniyar Paris ta ba da ita ga Burtaniya a 1814. A cikin 1662, an bawa brothersan uwan Holland Adrian da Cornelius Lampsins taken Baron na Tobago, kuma sun yi mulki har zuwa lokacin da Ingilishi suka kame tsibirin a 1666. Adrian a takaice ya sake kame Tobago a cikin 1673, amma an kashe shi a yaƙi lokacin da Ingilishi, ƙarƙashin Gadar Sir Tobias suka sake karɓar ikon tsibirin. [1]

Harin Faransa a tsibirin Tobago na Biritaniya a cikin 1781 tare da rubutu. Zanen Faransa daga 1784.

Daga misalin 1672, a lokacin mulkin ɗan Birtaniyya na 1672-1674, Tobago yana da kwanciyar hankali a lokacin da al'adun shuka suka fara.  Sugar, auduga da masana'antar indigo sun fantsama kuma Turawan Ingilishi ne suka shigo da 'yan Afirka don yin aikin bayi. Tattalin arziki ya bunkasa. Faransa ta yi watsi da tsibirin zuwa Birtaniyya a shekarar 1763, kuma a 1777 Tobago tana fitar da auduga da yawa, indigo, rum da sukari. Amma a cikin 1781, Faransawa sun sake mamaye Tobago, suka lalata gonakin, kuma suka tilasta wa gwamnan Biritaniya sallama. Tattalin arzikin tsibirin ya fada cikin koma baya.

Mulkin mallakar Burtaniya da 'yanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1814, lokacin da tsibirin ya sake komawa ƙarƙashin ikon Birtaniyya, wani ɓangaren ci gaban samar da sukari ya fara.  Amma mai tsanani guguwa a 1847, a hade tare da rushewar plantation underwriters, karshen bauta a 1834 da kuma gasar daga sugar tare da sauran kasashen Turai, alama ƙarshen sugar cinikayya. A cikin 1889 tsibirin ya zama yanki na Trinidad. Ba tare da sukari ba, dole ne tsibirin su noma wasu albarkatu, suna shuka kadada na lemun tsami, kwakwa da koko da kuma fitar da amfanin gonar su zuwa Trinidad. A shekarar 1963 Guguwar Flora ta addabi Tobago, ta lalata kauyuka da amfanin gona. Tsarin sake fasalin ya biyo baya kuma anyi ƙoƙari  don fadada tattalin arziki. Ci gaban masana'antar yawon bude ido ya fara.  Trinidad da Tobago sun sami 'yancin kansu daga Daular Biritaniya a 1962 kuma suka zama jamhuriya a 1976.

Labarin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bakin gaɓar Castara

Tobago yana da yanki mai fadin kilomita 300 300 kuma yana da kusan kilomita 40 kilometres (25 mi) tsayi da kuma 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) . Tana can a latitude 11 ° 15 'N, longitude 60 ° 40' W, kaɗan arewacin Trinidad.

Tsibirin Tobago shine babban ɓangaren da aka fallasa na Tobago terrane, wani guntun kayan ɓawon burodi da ke kwance tsakanin Katakun Caribbean da na Kudancin Amurka . Tobago da farko tsauni ne, mai tsaunuka da kuma asalin aman wuta. Kudu maso yamma na tsibirin yana da faɗi kuma ya kunshi mafi yawan farar ƙasa mai murjani . Ana kiran babban dutsen tsaunin tsibirin Main Ridge . Matsayi mafi girma a cikin Tobago shine mita 550 (1804 ft) Tattabara Pigeon kusa da Speyside .

Yanayin muhallin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yanayin yana da wurare masu zafi, kuma tsibirin yana kudu da igiyar guguwa ta Atlantika, yana mai sa shi zama mai saurin fuskantar guguwar kudu mai saurin tafiya zuwa yankin. Matsakaicin ruwan sama ya bambanta tsakanin 3,800 millimetres (150 in) a kan Main Ridge zuwa ƙasa da 1,250 millimetres (49 in) a kudu maso yamma. Akwai yanayi biyu: lokacin damshi tsakanin Yuni da Disamba, da kuma lokacin rani tsakanin Janairu da Mayu.

Guguwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Saboda kusancin ta da belin guguwa, guguwar Flora ta buge tsibirin a ranar 30 ga Satumba, 1963. Illolin sun yi tsanani sosai har sun canza fuskar tattalin arzikin Tobago. Guguwar ta lalata filayen ayaba, kwakwa, da cacao wanda hakan ya tallafawa tattalin arzikin, kuma ya lalata barna mai yawa a dazuzzuka na tsawan wurare masu zafi wanda ya samar da babban yanki na tsakiyar arewacin tsibirin. Yawancin gonakin an watsar da su daga baya, kuma tattalin arziƙi ya canza alkibla daga noman amfanin gona da kuma yawon buɗe ido. A 2004 Guguwar Ivan, yayin da ta fi Flora rauni, ita ma ta yi mummunar lalacewa.

Gwamnati[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ayyukan majalisar tsakiya da na ƙaramar hukuma a Tobago ana aiwatar dasu ne ta Majalisar Dokokin Tobago. Babban Sakataren THA na yanzu shine Ancil Dennis. Majalisar Tobago ta Jama'ar Ƙasa ta ƙasa tana iko da kujeru 10 daga cikin 12 na Majalisar, tare da jam'iyyar Progressive Democratic Patriots karkashin jagorancin shugaban kungiyar Watson Duke ke rike da kujeru biyu tun bayan zaben ranar 23 ga Janairun 2017.

Tobago yana da wakilcin kujeru biyu a majalisar dokokin Trinidad da Tobago, Tobago East da Tobago West. Kujerun biyu suna karkashin kulawar Majalisar Tobago ta Jama'ar Kasa, wacce ta lashe su a babban zaben shekarar 2015 na Trinidad da Tobago.

Gundumomi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A tarihi, an raba Tobago zuwa majami'u guda bakwai ( Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Patrick da Saint Paul ). A cikin 1768 kowace Ikklesiya ta Tobago ta zaɓi wakilai zuwa Majalisar Tobago . A ranar 20 ga Oktoba 18, 1889 masarautar Burtaniya ta aiwatar da Dokar Sarauta a Majalisar wacce ta kafa Tobago a matsayin yanki na Trinidad, saboda haka ta dakatar da karamar hukuma a Tobago kuma suka kafa hadaddiyar gwamnatin mallaka.

A cikin 1945 lokacin da aka fara gabatar da tsarin majalisar gundumomi, an gudanar da Tobago a matsayin karamar hukuma guda ta Trinidad.

A cikin 1980 an yi tanadi don Majalisar Dokokin Tobago ta sake zama a matsayin ƙungiya da ke ba da ƙaramar hukuma a Tobago. A karkashin tsarin da aka farfado, Tobago ya kunshi gundumomin zabe na kananan hukumomi 12 tare da kowace gunduma ta zabi dan majalisa daya zuwa THA.

A'a Yankunan zabe [2]
1 Bacolet / Mount St. George
2 Goodwood / Belle Lambun yamma
3 Betel / dutsen Irvine
4 Black Rock / Whim / Lambun Gari
5 Buccoo / Dutsen Dadi
6 Kan'ana / Bon Yarjejeniyar
7 Lambeau / Alamar Sigina
8 Parlatuvier / L'Anse Fourmi / Speyside
9 Plymouth / Layin Zinare
10 Providence / Mason Hall / Moriah
11 Belle Aljannar Gabas / Roxborough / Delaford
12 Hall na Scarborough / Calder

Yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawan mutane 60,874 a ƙidayar 2011. Babban birnin, Scarborough, yana da yawan jama'a 17,537. Duk da yake Trinidad tana da yawa, yawan mutanen Tobago asalinsu 'yan asalin Afirka ne, kodayake tare da ƙaruwar Trinidadians na asalin Indiyawan Gabas da na Turai. Tsakanin shekarar 2000 zuwa 2011, yawan mutanen Tobago ya karu da kaso 12.55, wanda hakan ya sa ya zama daya daga cikin yankunan da ke samun ci gaba cikin sauri na Trinidad da Tobago .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tobago wariyar launin fata
Abun launin fata 2011
Afro-Trinidiya da Tobagonians 85.2%
Dougla (Ba'indiye da Baƙi) 4.2%
Yabi'a da yawa 4.2%
Indiyawa (Indo-Trinidad) 2.5%
Farar Trinidiyan / Tobagonian 0.7%
'Yan Asalin Amurka (Amerindian) 0.1%
Gabashin Asiya (Sinanci) 0.08%
Balarabe (Siriya / Lebanon) 0.02%
Sauran 0.1%
Ba a bayyana ba 2.6%

Tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsibirin St. Giles - Yankin arewacin ƙasar Trinidad da Tobago, West Indies. Tsarkakakken tsuntsu. Jannatin ruwa kusa da nan.
Tobago - Agusta 2013 (1530)
Tobago Cuisine - Kaguwa da Dumplings
Hoto na Downtown Scarborough, Tobago
Tobago Cuisine - Pacro Ruwa da Tekun Moss sha
Wajen da ake kira Pigeon, Tobago.
Masunta - Tobago, Indies na Yamma
Araauyen ƙauyen Castara

Babban tattalin arzikin Tobago ya ta'allaka ne akan yawon bude ido, kamun kifi, da kuma kashe kuɗaɗen gwamnati, kashe kuɗin gwamnati shine mafi girma. Yawon buɗe ido har yanzu masana'antu ce mai tasowa kuma yana buƙatar haɓaka. Karamar hukumar, majalisar dokokin Tobago (THA), tana amfani da kashi 62% na ma'aikata.

Tattalin arzikin Tobago yana da alaƙa da haɗin gwiwa tare da Trinidad wanda ya dogara da iskar gas (LNG), man petrochemicals, da ƙarfe. Babban tasirin tattalin arziki takamaiman Tobago shine yawon shakatawa da kashe kuɗaɗen gwamnati. Yankunan rairayin bakin teku na yau da kullun da yawon shakatawa na ruwa sun fi yawa a kudu maso yamma kusa da filin jirgin sama da gabar tekun. A halin yanzu, ecotourism yana ci gaba da girma, mafi yawansu sun fi mayar da hankali ne ga babban yankin dajin da aka kiyaye a tsakiya da arewacin babban tsibirin da kuma kan Little Tobago, wani karamin tsibiri da ke gefen tsibirin arewa maso gabas.

Yankin kudu maso yamma masu yawon buɗe ido a kusa da Crown Point, Store Bay, Buccoo Reef, da Pigeon Point suna da yashi mai yawa kuma yawancin abubuwan ci gaba ne ke mamaye shi. Tobago yana da rairayin rairayin bakin teku masu yawa waɗanda ke bakin iyakarta, musamman waɗanda ke Castara, Bloody Bay, da Bay na Ingilishi . Tobago yana da alaƙa da duniya ta hanyar Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson International Airport (tsohon filin jirgin saman Crown Point) da tashar jirgin Scarborough. Jiragen saman cikin gida suna haɗa Tobago da Trinidad, kuma jiragen sama na ƙasa da ƙasa suna haɗuwa da Caribbean da Turai. Akwai hidimar jirgi cikin sauri tsakanin Port of Spain da Scarborough. 

Tobago wasu suna zaton tsibiri ne wanda ya iza Robinson Crusoe, [3][4] amma littafin yana iya yiwuwa ya dogara ne da wasu abubuwan da Alexander Selkirk ya fuskanta, wanda aka tsugunar a tsibirin Juan Fernández na Pacific. Ara da rikicewa, Tobago shine wurin yin fim don Walt Disney fim ɗin Switzerland Family Robinson a cikin 1959.

Iyalin Switzerland na Robinson[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1958, Kamfanin Walt Disney ya zaɓi Tobago a matsayin saitin fim wanda ya dogara da littafin Johann Wyss na Switzerland Family Robinson . Lokacin da furodusoshi suka ga tsibirin a karon farko, sai suka "fara soyayya nan take". Rubutun ya buƙaci dabbobi, waɗanda aka kawo daga ko'ina cikin duniya, ciki har da karnuka takwas, manyan kunkuru biyu, birai 40, giwaye biyu, jimina shida, jakunan daji huɗu, flamingos 100, hyenas shida, anacondas biyu, da damisa.

Sake duba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Riddell (Author), Henri de Bourbon (comte de Chambord.), John. “The Patent of Baron to C Van Lampsins.” The Pedigree of the Duchess of Mantua, Montferrat and Ferrara, Oxford University, 1885, pp. 8–10.
  2. Electoral Districts in the Electoral Area of Tobago in relation to Tobago House of Assembly Elections, Elections & Boundaries Commission of T&T
  3. Rhead, Louis. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: "Tobago Robinson Crusoe's Island", The New York Times, 5 August 1899.
  4. "Robinson Crusoe and Tobago", Island Guide