Tutar Sin

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Wikidata.svgTutar Sin
national flag (en) Fassara
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Bayanai
Farawa 27 Satumba 1949
Applies to jurisdiction (en) Fassara Sin
Maƙirƙiri Zeng Liansong (en) Fassara
Aspect ratio (en) Fassara 3:2 (en) Fassara
Color (en) Fassara red (en) Fassara da yellow (en) Fassara
Depicts (en) Fassara five-pointed star (en) Fassara da field (en) Fassara
Designed by (en) Fassara Zeng Liansong (en) Fassara
Main regulatory text (en) Fassara National Flag Law of the People's Republic of China (en) Fassara

Tutar Sin ko China, a hukumance Tutar ƙasa ta Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin kuma galibi ana kiranta jar Tutar mai tauraro biyar ko (a cikin Sinanci) '' '五星 红旗' '', jajaye ne na Ƙa

asar Sin da aka caji canton (kusurwar sama mafi kusa da tutar) tare da taurari na zinari biyar. Tsarin ya ƙunshi babban tauraro ɗaya, tare da ƙaramin taurari huɗu a cikin da'irar da'irar da aka tashi zuwa kwari (gefen da ya fi nisa da sandar tutar). Ta kasance tutar kasar Sin tun kafuwar Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin a ranar 1 ga Oktoba 1949 .

Ja yana wakiltar juyin juya halin Kwaminis na ƙasar Sin da taurari biyar kuma alakar su da juna tana wakiltar haɗin kan jama'ar Sinawa ƙarƙashin jagorancin jam'iyyar kwaminis ta ƙasar Sin (CPC). Rundunar 'Yancin Jama'a (PLA) ta kafa tutar farko a kan gungumen da ke kallon dandalin Tiananmen na Beijing a ranar 1 ga watan Oktoban shekarar 1949, a wani bikin sanar da kafuwar Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tutocin farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tutocin Daular Qing

Tutar China ta baya ita ce " Tutar Zinare mai launin rawaya " da daular Qing ta yi amfani da ita - daular sarauta ta ƙarshe a tarihin China - daga 1862 har zuwa kifar da masarautar a lokacin juyin juya halin Xinhai. Tutar da aka karɓa a 1862 tana da kusurwa uku, amma daular ta karɓi sigar murabba'i na tutar Jegare a cikin 1889.

Jamhuriyar China[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tutar gwamnatin Beiyang
Wuhan Army flags
Flag of the Republic of China
Tutar gwamnatin 'yan kishin kasa (wacce aka yi ta kawai a Taiwan bayan 1949)

Canton (kusurwar sama a gefen hawan) ya samo asali ne daga " Shuɗin samaniya tare da farar rana " (青天白日旗; ) wanda Lu Haodong, shahidan Juyin Juya Halin Xinhai ya tsara . Ya gabatar da zanensa don wakiltar sojojin juyin-juya hali a bikin kaddamar da kungiyar sake fasalin kasar Sin, wata al'umma mai adawa da Qing a Hong Kong, a ranar 21 ga Fabrairu 1895. Daga baya an karɓi wannan ƙirar azaman tutar jam'iyyar KMT da Rigunan Makamai na Jamhuriyar China . Sun Yat-sen ya ƙara sashin "ja Duniya" a cikin hunturu na 1906, yana kawo tutar zuwa tsarin zamani. A cewar George Yeo, Ministan Harkokin Wajen Singapore na wancan lokacin a shekarar 2011, a wancan zamanin, an dinka Shudin Samaniya tare da tutar Farar Rana a zauren tunawa da Sun Yat Sen Nanyang (wanda a da ake kira "Sun Yat Sen Villa") a Singapore ta Teo Eng Hock da matarsa. Tsarin da aka zana yana da ratsi goma tare da tutar Kuomintang a cikin gundumar da tayi kama da tutocin Amurka, Malaysia da Liberia .

A lokacin Tashin hankali na Wuchang a cikin 1911 wanda ya yi shelar Jamhuriya, rundunonin juyin juya hali daban -daban suna da tutoci daban -daban. An yi amfani da tutar "Blue Sky tare da Farin Rana" ta Lu Hao-tung a lardunan Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, da Guizhou . A Wuhan, an yi amfani da tutar mai taurarin rawaya 18 don wakiltar sassan gudanarwa 18 a lokacin. A Shanghai da arewacin China, an yi amfani da " 五色 mai launi biyar" (五色 旗; ) ( Race biyar a ƙarƙashin tutar Tarayyar )aya) na ratsi biyar a kwance waɗanda ke wakiltar manyan ƙasashe biyar na China : Han (ja), Manchu (rawaya), Mongol (shuɗi), Hui (fari), da Tibet (baƙi).

Lokacin da aka kafa gwamnatin Jamhuriyar Sin a ranar 1 ga watan Janairun shekarar 1912, majalisar dattijai ta zabi "Tutar mai kala biyar" a matsayin tutar kasa. Sojojin sun karɓi "Tutar Tauraruwar 18" kuma an karɓi tutar zamani azaman tutar sojan ruwa. Sun Yat-sen, duk da haka, bai ɗauki tutar mai launi biyar daidai ba, yana tunanin cewa tsarin kwance yana nufin matsayi ko aji kamar abin da ya wanzu a lokutan dynastic.

Bayan Shugaba Yuan Shikai ya karɓi ikon mulkin kama-karya a cikin 1913 ta hanyar rushe Majalisar Dokoki ta ƙasa da hana KMT, Sun Yat-sen ya kafa gwamnatin-gudun hijira a Tokyo kuma ya yi aiki da tutar zamani a matsayin tutar ROC ta ƙasa. Ya ci gaba da amfani da wannan ƙirar lokacin da KMT ta kafa gwamnatin kishiya a Guangzhou a 1917. An sanya tutar ta zamani a matsayin tutar kasa a ranar 17 ga watan Disamba 1928 bayan nasarar da aka samu a Yakin Arewacin da ya kifar da gwamnatin Beijing, duk da cewa har yanzu ana ci gaba da amfani da Tutar mai launi biyar ba tare da izini ba. Ɗaya daga cikin dalilan wannan banbancin da ake amfani da shi shine raunin son rai na yanki wanda jami'ai da 'yan arewacin China ke yi, waɗanda suka fifita Tutar mai launi biyar, a kan mutanen kudu kamar Cantonese /Hakka Sun Yat-sen.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A lokacin Yaƙin Sino-Japan na Biyu , Jafananci masu mamayewa sun kafa gwamnatoci daban-daban na tsana ta amfani da ƙirar tutoci da yawa. " Gwamnatin Gyaran Gwiwa ," wacce aka kafa a cikin Maris 1938 a Nanjing don haɓaka gwamnatoci daban-daban na 'yan tsana suna amfani da Tutar mai launi biyar. Lokacin da aka tsara Wang Jingwei ya karɓi gwamnatin da aka girka ta Japan a Nanjing a 1940, ya nemi ya yi amfani da tutar zamani a matsayin wata hanya don ƙalubalantar ikon Gwamnatin Ƙasa a Chongqing ƙarƙashin Chiang Kai-shek kuma ya sanya kansa a matsayin wanda ya cancanci maye gurbin. ga Sun Yat-sen. Koyaya, Jafananci sun fi son tutar mai launi biyar. A matsayin sulhu, Jafananci sun ba da shawarar ƙara alƙawarin rawaya mai kusurwa uku a saman tare da taken "Zaman Lafiya, Adawa da kwaminis Ginin ƙasa" (和平反共建國; ) a baki, amma Wang ya ƙi wannan. A ƙarshe, Wang da Jafananci sun yarda cewa za a yi amfani da tutar rawaya a waje har zuwa 1943, lokacin da aka yi watsi da tutar, ta bar gwamnatoci biyu masu hamayya da tuta ɗaya, kowannensu yana ikirarin cewa shi ne halattacciyar gwamnatin ƙasar China.

An bayyana tutar a cikin Mataki na shida na Kundin Tsarin Mulki na 1947 . Bayan yakin basasar kasar Sin a shekarar 1949, gwamnatin ROC karkashin jagorancin Chiang Kai-shek ta mayar da gwamnatin ta da cibiyoyin ta zuwa tsibirin Taiwan . A kan babban yankin, sojojin kwaminisanci na Mao Zedong sun kafa Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin (PRC) kuma sun dauki tutar kasarsu. A ranar 23 ga Oktoba 1954, Dokar 中華民國 Ƙasa da Tutar Jamhuriyar China (中華民國國徽 國旗 法; ) ta Dokar Dokar Yuan ta ayyana girman, ma'auni, rabo, samarwa, da gudanar da aikin. tutar.

Tutocin Tarihi

Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A red flag with four small golden stars and one giant gold star at the top left corner. In the giant gold star, a red crossed hammer and sickle is placed in the center.
Tsarin asali wanda Zeng Liansong ya gabatar

A ranar 4 ga Yuli 1949, ƙungiyar aiki ta shida na Kwamitin Shirye 新政治協商會議籌備會, PCNPCC) ya ƙirƙiri sanarwa don ƙaddamar da ƙira don tutar ƙasa. Bayan bita na gaba, an buga sanarwar a cikin Jaridun People Daily, Beiping Liberation News, Xinmin News, Dazhong Daily, Guangming Daily, Jinbu Daily da Tianjin Daily a tsakanin 15 - 26 Yuli. An kuma sanya jerin buƙatun tutar ƙasa a cikin sanarwar:

  1. Halayen Sinanci (labarin ƙasa, ƙasa, tarihi, al'ada, da sauransu. );
  2. Siffofin iko (gwamnatin dimokiradiyya ta mutane, jagorancin ma'aikata ke jagoranta kuma bisa ƙawancen ma'aikata da manoma);
  3. Ya kamata siffar ta zama mai kusurwa huɗu kuma rabo mai faɗi ya zama 3: 2;
  4. Launin yakamata ya zama ja mai haske (farkon daftarin sanarwa yana da launi kamar ja mai duhu, amma Zhou Enlai ya canza wannan zuwa ja mai haske).
Tsarin tutar "mai ɗauke da zanen Kogi mai launin rawaya" Mao Zedong ne ya fi so.

Zeng Liansong, ɗan asalin Wenzhou, Zhejiang, yana aiki a Shanghai lokacin da sanarwar ta fito; yana son ƙirƙirar ƙirar tuta don bayyana kishin ƙasa ga sabuwar ƙasar. A tsakiyar watan Yuli, ya zauna a cikin sororsa a cikin tsawon dare da yawa don fito da kayayyaki. Wahalarsa ga ƙirar yanzu ta fito ne daga lura da yadda taurari ke haskawa a sararin sama. Ta haka ne ya yi tunanin karin magana ta kasar Sin, "ke marmarin taurari, 盼星星盼月亮, pàn xīngxīng pàn yuèliàng ), wanda ke nuna sha’awa. Ya ɗauki CPC a matsayin babban mai ceto (大救星, Da jiùxīng "babban ma'adanin tauraruwa") na jama'ar ƙasar Sin, alamar da mafi yawan taurarin tutar. Manufar ƙaramin taurari huɗu sun fito ne daga " A kan Mulkin Demokraɗiyya na Jama'a ", jawabin Mao Zedong, wanda ya ayyana jama'ar Sinawa da suka ƙunshi azuzuwan zamantakewa guda huɗu, wanda kuma a al'adance ana kiranta da al'adun Asiya a matsayin ayyuka huɗu (士農工商, shì nóng gōng shāng ) ("Malamai, Manoma, Ma'aikata, 'Yan Kasuwa"). Launin launin rawaya yana nuna cewa China mallakar mutanen China ce, " tseren rawaya ". Bayan ya yi cikakken bayani game da sanya taurarin da girman su (ya yi ƙoƙarin sanya dukkan taurarin a tsakiyar, amma yana tunanin wannan ya zama mara daɗi), ya aika da "Taurari Biyar a Filin Ja" (紅地五星旗, hóng dì wǔxīng qí ) zane ga kwamitin a tsakiyar watan Agusta. [1]

A ranar 20 ga Agusta, tsakanin 2,992 [2] zuwa 3,012 an aika kayayyaki zuwa kwamitin tutar, gami da shigar da membobin kwamitin da kansu kamar Guo Moruo da Tan Kah Kee . Daga ranar 16 zuwa 20 ga watan Agusta, an duba zane -zanen a otal din Beijing kuma an jera su zuwa jerin 38. An tattara waɗannan ƙirar cikin littafin mai suna A Reference of National Flag Designs (國旗圖案參考資料). Daga nan aka mika wannan littafin ga sabuwar taron ba da shawara kan harkokin siyasa na jama'ar kasar Sin (CPPCC) don ci gaba da tattaunawa. Koyaya, ba a haɗa ƙirar Zeng ba har sai Tian Han ya sake zaɓar ta.

An ɗaga tutar Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin a karon farko a ranar 1 ga Oktoba 1949

A safiyar ranar 23 ga Satumba, wakilan CPPCC sun tattauna tutocin ƙasar, amma ba su kai ga cimma matsaya ba. Wasu ba sa son alamar da Zeng ya haɗe da ƙananan taurari huɗu, kuma sun ce bai kamata ya haɗa da bourgeoisie ba. Zane Mao da sauran waɗanda suke so yana da katuwar tauraruwar zinare a kusurwa akan jan tuta wanda aka caje shi da sandar a kwance na zinariya. Amma Zhang Zhizhong ya yi adawa da wannan ƙirar sosai, wanda ya ga sandar zinare tana nuna alamar an raba China gida biyu. A wannan daren, Peng Guanghan (彭光涵) ya ba da shawarar ƙirar Zeng zuwa Zhou Enlai . Zhou ya gamsu da hakan kuma ya nemi a samar da kwafin mafi girma na zane. Tan Kah Kee ya kuma ba da shawara ga Mao da Zhou cewa halayen ikon suna fifiko kan halayen yanayin ƙasa na Sinawa, don haka babu buƙatar dagewa kan sandar zinariya da ke alamar Kogin Yellow . Bayan kwana biyu, Mao ya yi taro a ofishinsa game da tutar. Ya lallashe kowa da kowa ya yi amfani da ƙirar Zeng, tare da wasu canje -canje kaɗan. Dangane da tattaunawar da aka yi a baya a otal ɗin Beijing, an cire guduma da sila daga ƙirar Zeng tun da yayi kama da Tutar Tarayyar Soviet . A ranar 27 ga Satumban 1949, Zen ya canza fasalin Zeng gaba ɗaya ta Babban Taron CPPCC, wanda ya canza sunan tutar zuwa "Tuta mai tauraro biyar".

A ranar 29 ga Satumba, an buga sabon tutar a cikin Jaridar Jama'a, don haka wasu ƙananan hukumomi za su iya kwafin ƙirar. Mao Zedong ya buɗe tutar a hukumance kuma ya ɗaga shi a karon farko a dandalin Tiananmen na Beijing a ranar 1 ga Oktoba 1949, a lokacin sanarwar Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin . Zhao Wenrui (赵文瑞), mai dinkin ruwa wanda ya gama aikin kusan 1 a ranar 30 ga Satumba. Zeng ya sha wahalar gaskata cewa an zaɓi ƙirar sa, saboda ɓacewar guduma da sila daga babban tauraron. Duk da haka, a hukumance Babban Ofishin Gwamnatin Tsakiya ya taya shi murna a matsayin wanda ya zana tutar sannan ya karɓi yuan miliyan 5 saboda aikinsa.<refname="kong">Kong, Mark (1 October 1999). "The Worker Who Forged the Red Flag". Beijing This Month. Chinese Business World. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2009.</ref>[3]

Alama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tutar China, Beijing

Dangane da fassarar gwamnatin a hukumance na tutar, ja ja yana nuna juyin juya halin Kwaminis na China . Taurari biyar da alakar su tana wakiltar hadin kan mutanen Sinawa karkashin jagorancin Jam'iyyar Kwaminis ta China . Gabatarwar taurari yana nuna cewa haɗin kai ya kamata ya mamaye cibiyar. A cikin ainihin bayanin tutar da Zeng ya yi, babban tauraron yana wakiltar Jam'iyyar Kwaminis ta China, kuma ƙaramin taurari huɗu da ke kewaye da babban tauraron suna alamta azuzuwan zamantakewa huɗu na Sabuwar Dimokraɗiyya ta China da aka ambata a cikin Mao " A kan Mulkin Demokraɗiya na Jama'a": ajin masu aiki, manoma, kananan bourgeoisie, da bourgeoisie na kasa. A wasu lokuta ana bayyana cewa taurari biyar na tutar suna wakiltar manyan kabilu biyar: Han Chinese, Zhuangs, Hui Chinese, Manchus da Uyghurs . Gabaɗaya ana ɗaukar wannan a matsayin ɓarna mai ɓarna tare da tutar "Ƙungiyoyi Biyar a Ƙungiya Daya" , wanda gwamnatin Beiyang ta Jamhuriyar China ta yi amfani da ita a shekarar 1912-28, wanda ratsin launi daban-daban ya wakilci Han Sin, Hui Chinese, Manchus, Mongols da Tibet. . [4]

Tutocin Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hotuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named kong
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named design_participation
  3. Han Tailun (2000). Witnessed the Tiananmen Square (in Harshen Sinanci). 3. Xi'an: Shaanxi People's Publishing House. p. 2066. ISBN 978-7-224-05364-7.
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Shambaugh