Waƙa

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Wikidata.svgwaƙa
literary form (en) Fassara da academic discipline (en) Fassara
LeidenWallPoemYeats (cropped).jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na literary work (en) Fassara
Hashtag (en) Fassara Poetry da poetry
Gudanarwan maiwaƙe
Model item (en) Fassara Olympic Odes (en) Fassara, Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart (en) Fassara, tanka (en) Fassara, Nemean Odes (en) Fassara da Picking on Peach Blossom (en) Fassara
The Parnassus (1511) na Raphael - a saman Dutsen Parnassus, 18 tsofaffi da mawaƙa na zamani suna karantawa tare da Muses tara.

  Waka (wanda aka samo daga poiesis na Hellenanci, "yin"), kuma ana kiranta aya, [note 1] wani nau'i ne na wallafe-wallafen da ke amfani da kyan gani da sau da yawa halaye na harshe-irin su phonaesthetics, sauti, alama, da mita-don tayar da ma'anoni ban da, ko a maimakon, ma'ana mai fa'ida.[1] Waka ita ce rubutun adabi, wanda mawaƙi ya rubuta, ta amfani da wannan ka'ida.[2]

Waƙar tana da dogon tarihi daban-daban, tana tasowa daban-daban a duk faɗin duniya. Ta samo asali aƙalla tun kafin tarihi tare da waƙoƙin farauta a Afirka da kuma waƙar waƙa da waka na daulolin Nilu, Nijar, da kwarin Volta. [3] Wasu daga cikin rubutattun wakoki na farko a Afirka sun kasance a cikin pyramid texts da aka rubuta a ƙarni na 25 KZ. Farkon waqoqin almara na Yammacin Asiya, Almara na Gilgamesh, an rubuta shi cikin Sumerian.

Wakokin farko a cikin nahiyar Eurasian sun samo asali ne daga wakokin gargajiya irin su <i id="mwQw">Shijing</i> na kasar Sin, da kuma wakokin addini (Sanskrit Rigveda, da Zoroastrian <i id="mwSg">Gathas</i>, wakokin Hurrian, da Zabura ta Ibrananci); ko kuma daga buƙatar sake ba da labari na baka, kamar yadda yake tare da Labarin Masar na Sinuhe, waƙar almara na Indiya, da kuma Homeric epics, da Iliad da Odyssey. Ƙoƙarin Girka na dā don ayyana waƙa, irin su <i id="mwWQ">Waƙar</i> Aristotle, sun mai da hankali kan yadda ake amfani da magana wajen zance, wasan kwaikwayo, waƙa, da wasan ban dariya. Daga baya yunƙurin mayar da hankali kan fasali kamar maimaitawa, sigar aya, da kuma waƙa, kuma sun jaddada ƙayatarwa waɗanda ke bambanta waƙa daga rubuce-rubucen prosaic da gaske.

Waƙar tana amfani da nau'i da ƙa'idodi don ba da shawarar fassarorin banbance-banbance na kalmomi, ko don haifar da martani mai motsa rai. Na'urori irin su assonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia, da rhythm na iya isar da tasirin kiɗa ko incantatory. Amfani da shubuha, alama, irony, da sauran abubuwa masu salo na ƙamus na waƙa sau da yawa yakan bar waƙa ga fassarori da yawa. Hakazalika, sifofin magana kamar misalin misali, simile, da metonymy suna kafa ra'ayi tsakanin in ba haka ba hotuna masu ban sha'awa-shimfidar ma'anoni, samar da haɗin gwiwa a baya ba a gane ba. Irin nau'ikan resonance na iya kasancewa, tsakanin ayoyi guda ɗaya, a cikin tsarin su na rhyme or rhythm.[4]

Wasu nau'ikan waqoqin sun bambanta da wasu al'adu da nau'o'i na musamman kuma suna amsa halayen harshen da mawaƙin yake rubutawa. Masu karatu waɗanda suka saba da gano waƙa tare da Dante, Goethe, Mickiewicz, ko Rumi na iya tunaninsa kamar yadda aka rubuta a cikin layi bisa laƙabi da mita na yau da kullun. Akwai, duk da haka, al'adu, irin su waƙar Littafi Mai-Tsarki, waɗanda ke amfani da wasu hanyoyi don ƙirƙirar kari da farin ciki. Yawancin waqoqin zamani suna nuna sukar al'adar waka, gwada ƙa'idar euphony kanta ko kuma gaba ɗaya barin waƙa ko saita kari. A cikin duniyar da ke ƙara haɓaka, mawaƙa sukan saba da tsari, salo, da dabaru daga al'adu da harsuna daban-daban. Mawaƙa sun ba da gudummawa ga haɓakar harshe, bayyananniyar halaye, da amfani na harsunansu.

Al'adar al'adun Yammacin Turai (wanda ke haɓaka aƙalla daga Homer zuwa Rilke) yana danganta samar da waƙa tare da wahayi sau da yawa ta hanyar Muse (ko dai na gargajiya ko na zamani).

A cikin waqoqin da yawa, wani hali ne ke magana da waqoqin, wanda ake kira mai magana. Wannan ra'ayi ya bambanta mai magana (hali) daga mawallafi (marubuci), wanda yawanci shine bambanci mai mahimmanci: alal misali, idan waƙar ta gudana na kashe wani mutum a Reno, mai magana ne wanda shine mai kisan kai, ba mawallafin kansa ba.

 

John Keats

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. A synecdoche, assuming the poetic element of verse as representative of the entire art form. It is often used when comparing poetry to prose.
  1. "Poetry". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2013. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. poetry [...] Literary work in which the expression of feelings and ideas is given intensity by the use of distinctive style and rhythm; poems collectively or as a genre of literature.
  2. "Poetry". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, LLC. 2013. poetry [...] 1 the art of rhythmical composition, written or spoken, for exciting pleasure by beautiful, imaginative, or elevated thoughts.
  3. Ruth Finnegan, Oral Literature in Africa, Open Book Publishers, 2012.
  4. Schmidt, Michael, ed. (1999). The Harvill Book of Twentieth-Century Poetry in English. Harvill Press. pp. xxvii–xxxiii. ISBN 978-1-86046-735-6.