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Yaren Kyrgyzstan

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Yaren Kyrgyzstan
Кыргыз тили — кыргызча‎
'Yan asalin magana
4,568,480 (2009)
Cyrillic script (en) Fassara da Baƙaƙen larabci
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-1 ky
ISO 639-2 kir
ISO 639-3 kir
Glottolog kirg1245[1]
Wani mai magana da yaren Kyrgyzstan a cikin tufafin gargajiya, wanda aka rubuta a wurin kiwo na Chunkurchak da ke wajen birnin Bishkek yayin wata hira.
Azim, mai magana da yaren Kyrgyz, an rubuta shi a Taiwan

Kyrgyzs [lower-roman 1] yaren Turkic ne na reshen Kipchak da ake magana a tsakiyar Asiya . Kyrgyz shine harshen hukuma na Kyrgyzstan kuma wani muhimmin harshe na 'yan tsiraru a lardin Kizilsu Kyrgyz mai cin gashin kansa a lardin Xinjiang na kasar Sin da kuma yankin Gorno-Badakhshan mai cin gashin kansa na Tajikistan . Akwai babban matakin fahimtar juna tsakanin Kyrgyzs, Kazakh, da Altay . Yaren Kyrgyzstan da aka fi sani da Pamiri Kyrgyz ana magana da shi a arewa maso gabashin Afghanistan da arewacin Pakistan .

Har ila yau, ƴan ƙabilar Kyrgyzstan suna magana da Kyrgyz ta tsohuwar Tarayyar Soviet, Afganistan, Turkiyya, wasu sassa na arewacin Pakistan, da kuma Rasha .

An fara rubuta Kyrgyz a cikin rubutun Göktürk, a hankali an maye gurbinsu da haruffan Perso-Larabci (ana aiki har zuwa 1928 a cikin USSR, har yanzu ana amfani da shi a China). Tsakanin 1928 da 1940 an yi amfani da haruffan rubutun Latin, Uniform Turkic Alphabet . A cikin 1940, hukumomin Soviet sun maye gurbin rubutun Latin da haruffan Cyrillic na duk yarukan Turkic a yankinta. Lokacin da Kyrgyzstan ta sami 'yancin kai bayan rugujewar Tarayyar Soviet a shekara ta 1991, wani shiri na amfani da haruffan Latin ya zama sananne. Ko da yake ba a aiwatar da shirin ba, yana kasancewa cikin tattaunawa lokaci-lokaci.

Kyrgyz yaren Turkawa ne gama gari mallakar reshen Kipchak na iyali. Ana ɗauka a matsayin yaren Kipchak na Gabas, wanda ke kafa dangi tare da yaren Kudancin Altai a cikin babban reshen Kipchak. A ciki, Kyrgyzstan yana da nau'ikan iri guda uku; Arewa da Kudancin Kyrgyzstan.

A shekara ta 925, lokacin da daular Liao ta fatattaki 'yan kabilar Kirgiz ta Yenisei tare da kore su daga yankin Mongolian, wasu jiga-jigan Kyrgyzstan na da suka zauna a Altai da Xinjiang inda suka hade da Kipchaks na gida, wanda ya haifar da canjin harshe.

Bayan mamayar Mongol a shekara ta 1207 da jerin tawaye ga daular Yuan, kabilun Kirgiz sun fara ƙaura zuwa Tian Shan, wanda tuni kabilun Turco-Mongol suka mamaye. Kamar yadda Chaghatai Ulus yake magana, Kyrgyzstan ya musulunta . Kalmomin Farisa da Larabci an ba da lamuni ga yaren Kyrgyzstan, amma ya ragu sosai fiye da Kazakh, Uzbek da Uighur .

Fassarar sauti

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Wayoyin wayoyi na Kyrgyzstan
Gaba Baya
maras zagaye zagaye maras zagaye zagaye
Kusa i y ɯ u
Tsakar e ø o
Bude ( a ) ɑ

/a/ appears only in borrowings from Persian or when followed by a front vowel later in the word (regressive assimilation), e.g. /ajdøʃ/ 'sloping' instead of */ɑjdøʃ/. In most dialects, its status as a vowel distinct from /ɑ/ is questionable.

Wasili Harmony (Hanyar Zaman Lafiya)
Canjin Hagu (<) Shift Dama (>) Hanyar Shift
a ы Madaidaicin Ketare Canjin Hagu-Dama
ku ku ("y" Hagu-yana juyawa sama-tsaye zuwa "a")
da (e) kuma Madaidaicin Ketare Canjin Hagu-Dama
Ƙaddamarwa Ƙ Madaidaicin Ketare Canjin Hagu-Dama

Ƙungiyar Aminci ta Amurka tana horar da masu sa kai ta hanyar amfani da hanyar "Hagu-Dama" yayin gudanar da horon harshe a Kyrgyzstan.

Wayoyin wayoyi na Kyrgyzstan
Labial Dental /



</br> alveolar
Bayan-<br id="mwxQ"><br><br><br></br> alveolar Dorsal
Nasal m n ŋ
M voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Haɗin kai voiceless t͡s [lower-alpha 1] t͡ʃ
voiced d͡ʒ
Ƙarfafawa voiceless f [lower-alpha 1] s ʃ x [lower-alpha 1]
voiced v [lower-alpha 1] z
Kusanci l j
Trill r
  1. /f, v, t͡s, x/ occur only in foreign borrowings from Russian, Arabic and English.[2]

Tsarin rubutu

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kyrgyzstan a Kyrgyzstan suna amfani da haruffan Cyrillic, waɗanda ke amfani da duk haruffan Rashanci da ң, ө da ү .

Tsakanin 1928 da 1940 an yi amfani da haruffan Latin don yawancin harsunan tsiraru a cikin USSR, ciki har da Kyrgyz. An yi ƙoƙari bayan 1990 don gabatar da wasu haruffan Latin waɗanda ke kusa da haruffan Turkiyya, misali Harafin Turkawa gama gari . Akwai inuwar siyasa zuwa muhawarar Cyrillic-Latin. A watan Afrilun shekarar 2023, Rasha ta dakatar da fitar da kiwo zuwa kasar Kyrgyzstan bayan shawarar da shugaban Hukumar Kula da Harshe da Harshe ta kasar Kyrgyzstan, Kanybek Osmonaliev ya ba da shawarar canza haruffa daga Cyrillic zuwa Latin don daidaita kasar tare da sauran kasashen Turkawa. Shugaba Sadyr Japarov ya tsawatar wa Osmonaliev, wanda daga baya ya fayyace cewa Kyrgyzstan ba ta da shirin maye gurbin haruffan Cyrillic. [3]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yaren Kyrgyzstan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named kara11
  3. Russia Suspends Dairy Products From Kyrgyzstan After Calls In Bishkek To Drop Cyrillic Script. Radio Free Europe, 21 April 2023. Retrieved 22 June 2023