Yaren Shona

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Mutum MuShona [1]
Mutane VaShona
Harshe chiShona
Ƙasa Zimbabwe, Mozambique

Shona ( / ˈʃ oʊ nə / ; [2] Shona </link> ) harshen Bantu ne na mutanen Shona na Zimbabwe . Ana amfani da kalmar daban-daban don bayyana duk nau'ikan Shonic na tsakiya (wanda ya ƙunshi Zezuru, Manyika, Korekore da Karanga) ko musamman Standard Shona, iri-iri da aka tsara a tsakiyar karni na 20. Yin amfani da mafi girman kalma, fiye da mutane 14,000,000 ne ke magana da yaren.

Babban rukuni na harsunan da ke da alaƙa da tarihi—wanda ake kira Shona ko Shonic harsunan masana harshe—har ila yau sun haɗa da Ndau (Shona Gabas) da Kalanga (Sona ta Yamma). A cikin rabe-raben harsunan Bantu na Guthrie, zone S.10 ya ayyana rukunin Shonic.

Harsunan da ke da alaƙa da Shona[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shona tana da kusanci da Ndau, Kalanga kuma tana da alaƙa da Tonga, Chewa, Tumbuka, Tsonga da Venda .

Umarni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wikipedia a cikin yaren Shona.
Malami Ignatio Chiyaka yana koyar da yaren Shona ga masu aikin sa kai na US Peace Corps a Zhombe, Zimbabwe. Kalmomin da ke kan allo pfeka ne</link> ("tufafin kai") da hembe</link> ("shirt").

Shona daidaitaccen harshe ne da aka rubuta tare da rubutun rubutu da nahawu wanda aka tsara shi a farkon ƙarni na 20 kuma an daidaita shi a cikin 1950s. A cikin 1920s, gwamnatin Rhodesian ta fuskanci kalubale na shirya littattafan makaranta da sauran kayan aiki a cikin harsuna da yaru daban-daban kuma sun nemi shawarar Clement Doke masanin harshe na Afirka ta Kudu. Yanzu ana siffanta harshen ta hanyar ƙamus na yare ɗaya da na harsuna biyu (babban Shona – Turanci).

Littafin labari na farko a Shona, Solomon Mutswairo 's Feso, an buga shi a cikin 1957. Daga baya, ɗaruruwan litattafai, tarin gajerun labarai da kundin wakoki a Shona sun bayyana. Ana koyar da Shona a makarantu, amma bayan kammala karatun farko ba ita ce hanyar koyarwa ta gabaɗaya ta fannoni ba sai nahawu da adabi na Shona.

Iri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nazari na ƙarshe na tsari na nau'i da ƙananan nau'ikan ci gaba na yaren Shona ta Tsakiya shine wanda Clement Doke yayi a cikin 1930, yawancin ƙananan nau'ikan ba sa aiki kuma ya kamata a kula da su.

A cewar bayanai daga Ethnologue:

  • S14 Karanga (Chikaranga). Ana magana a kudancin Zimbabwe, kusa da Masvingo . Ana kuma magana da shi a lardin Midlands, musamman a gundumomin Gutu, Masvingo, Mberengwa da Zvishavane. Wasu mutane suna kiransa da Vhitori.
Yaren ƙananan harsuna: Duma, Jena, Mhari (Mari), Ngova, Venda (ba harshen Venda ba), Govera.
  • S12 Zezuru (Chizezuru, Bazezuru, Bazuzura, Mazizuru, Vazezuru, Wazezuru). Ana magana a Mashonaland gabas da tsakiyar Zimbabwe, kusa da Harare . Daidaitaccen harshe.
Yarukan ƙasa: Shawasha, Gova, Mbire, Tsunga, Kachikwakwa, Harava, Nohwe, Njanja, Nobvu, Kwazvimba (Zvimba).
  • S11 Korekore (Arewa Shona, Goba, Gova, Shangwe). Ana magana a arewacin Zimbabwe, Mvurwi, Bindura, Mt Darwin, Guruve, Chiweshe, Centenary .
Yarukan ƙasa: Gova, Tande, Tavara, Nyongwe, Pfunde, Shangwe.

Harsunan da ke da fahimi na yanki tare da Shona ta Tsakiya, waɗanda masu magana da su ake ɗauka a matsayin Shona na kabilanci, su ne yaren S15 Ndau, wanda ake magana a Mozambique da Zimbabwe, da kuma S13 Manyika harshe, wanda ake magana a gabashin Zimbabwe, kusa da Mutare musamman Chipinge. An shigar da kayan karatun Ndau a makarantun firamare. Shona ita ce ainihin ma'anar duk Harsunan Bantu. Duk yaren Bantu sun fito ne daga Shona, wanda ke ba da harshen bantu tushe, harshen ya girma kuma ya yadu sosai saboda ƙauran mutane.

Maho (2009) ya gane Korekore, Zezuru, Manyika, Karanga, da Ndau a matsayin yaruka daban-daban a cikin gungun Shona.

Fassarar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shona yana ba da damar buɗe kalmomin kawai. Bak'ak'en suna cikin sila na gaba. Misali, mangwanani</link> ("safiya") an siffanta shi da [ma.ᵑɡwa.na.ni]; Zimbabwe</link> shi ne [zi.ᵐba.ɓwe]. An rubuta Shona tare da rubutaccen rubutun sauti, tare da bambance-bambancen lafuzza ko bambance-bambancen nahawu bisa ga iri-iri. Shona tana da sautuna biyu, babba da ƙarami, amma waɗannan sautunan ba a nuna su a daidaitaccen tsarin rubutu ba.

Wasula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shona tana da tsarin wasali 5 mai sauƙi: sn</link> . Wannan kaya ya zama gama gari na giciye-harshe, tare da irin wannan tsarin da ke faruwa a cikin Mutanen Espanya, Tagalog, Swahili da Jafananci . Kowane wasali ana furta shi daban ko da sun faɗi a jere. Misali, Unoenda kupi</link> ? ("Ina za ku?") ana furta [u.no.e.nda.ku.pi]</link> .

Consonants[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sautunan baƙar fata na Shona sune:

Bilabial Labio-<br id="mwhQ"><br><br><br></br> hakori Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
a fili busa
M mara murya p t k
numfashi ɡ̤
m ɓ ɗ
prenasalized ᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ
Haɗin kai mara murya p͡f t͡s t͡sᶲ t͡ʃ
numfashi b͡v̤ d͡z̤ d͡z̤ᵝ d͡ʒ̤
prenasalized ⁿd͡ʒ̤
Ƙarfafawa mara murya f s sᶲ ʃ
numfashi z̤ᵝ ʒ̤ ɦ
prenasalized ⁿz̤ ⁿz̤ᵝ
Nasal a fili m n ɲ ŋ
numfashi mʋ̤
Trill r
Kusanci ʋ j w

Sibilants masu bushewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shona da sauran harsunan Kudancin Afirka da Gabashin Afirka sun haɗa da sautin bushewa, (wannan bai kamata a ruɗe shi da magana mai faɗi ba).

Sibilants na Shona sune fricatives "sv" da "zv" da affricates "tsv" da "dzv".

Sauti misali fassarar bayanin kula
sv masvosvobwa "shoting stars" "sv" na iya wakilta ta S ͎, daga kari zuwa Haruffa na sauti na duniya
masvosve "tururuwa"
tsv tsvaira "shara" (Standard Shona)
svw masvavembasvwi "makirci" (Shangwe, yaren Korekore)
zv zvizvuvhutswa' "kayan gwal" (Yaren Tsunga, yaren Zezuru)
dzv akadzva "bai yi nasara ba"
zvw huzvweverere "tunani" (Gova, yaren Korekore)
nzv nzvenga "dole" (Standard Shona)
zvc muzvcazi "The Milky Way " Dannan hakori . Ana samun shi kawai a cikin Ngova, yaren Karanga.
svc chisvcamba "kunkuru"

Masu fafutuka sun tayar da sha'awa a tsakanin jama'ar yammacin duniya da kafofin yada labarai a cikin 2006, saboda tambayoyi game da yadda za a furta sunan Morgan Tsvangirai, shugaban kungiyar Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai a Zimbabwe. Sashen lafazin lafazin BBC ya ba da shawarar lafazin "chang-girr-ayi" / ˈtʃ æ ŋ ɡɪr eɪ i / .[page needed][ <span title="This citation requires a reference to the specific page or range of pages in which the material appears. (October 2020)">shafi<span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span>ake bukata</span> ] [3]

Haruffa na musamman[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • - Za a iya amfani da rafke bayan harafin "n" don ƙirƙirar sauti mai kama da "-ng" daga kalmar Ingilishi "ping". Misalin kalma shine "n'anga", wato kalmar mai maganin gargajiya.

Alphabet[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • A - a - [a]
  • B - ba - [ɓ]
  • Bh - ba - [b̤]
  • Ch - cha - [t͡ʃ]
  • D - da - [ɗ]
  • DH - da - [d̤]
  • E-e-[e]
  • F - fa - [f]
  • G - ga - [ɡ̤]
  • H - ha - [ɦ]
  • I - i - [i]
  • J - ja - [d͡ʒ̤]
  • Ku - ku - [k]
  • M - ma - [m]
  • N - na - [n]
  • Nh - nha - [n̤]
  • O - ba - [o]
  • P - ba - [p]
  • R - ra - [r]
  • S - sa - [s]
  • Sh - sha - [ʃ]
  • T - ta - [t]
  • ku - ku - [ku]
  • V - ba - [ʋ]
  • Vh - vha - [v̤]
  • W - wa - [w]
  • Y - ya - [j]
  • Z - za - [z̤]
  • Zh - za - [ʒ̤]

Haɗin wasiƙa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sigar Shona na Littafin Mormon
  • bv - [b͡v̤]
  • dz - [d͡z̤]
  • dzv - [d͡z̤ᵝ]
  • da - [d̤ʲg]
  • mb - [ᵐb]
  • mbw - [ᵐb]
  • mh - [m̤]
  • mv - [mʋ̤]
  • nd - [d]
  • ng - [n]
  • nj - [ⁿd͡ʒ̤]
  • na - [ɲ]
  • nz - [ⁿz̤]
  • nzv - [ⁿz̤ᵝ]
  • pf - [p͡f]
  • sv - [sᶲ]
  • sw - [skw]
  • ts - [t͡s]
  • tsv - [t͡sᶲ]
  • ta - [tʲk]
  • zv - [z̤ᵝ]

Tsohon haruffa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daga 1931 zuwa 1955, Unified Shona an rubuta shi da haruffan da Farfesa Clement Martyn Doke ya haɓaka. Wannan ya haɗa da waɗannan haruffa:

ɓ (b tare da ƙugiya),
ɗ (d tare da ƙugiya),
ŋ (n tare da kafa),
( s tare da wutsiya mai swash),
ʋ (v tare da ƙugiya),
ɀ (z tare da swash wutsiya).

A cikin 1955, an maye gurbin waɗannan da haruffa ko digraphs daga ainihin haruffan Latin. Misali, yau ⟨ ⟩ ana amfani da ⟨ ȿ ⟩ kuma ⟨ ⟩ ana amfani da ⟨ ɀ ⟩ .

Nahawu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunan classes ( mupanda</link> )

Sunayen suna Shona an haɗa su da ajin suna ( mupanda</link> ) bisa:

  1. Ma'ana ( Zvaanoreva</link> ) misali kalmomin da ke cikin aji na 1 da 2 suna kwatanta mutum: munhu</link> ("mutum") yana cikin mupanda</link> 1 da musikana</link> ("yarinya") tana cikin mupanda</link> 2.
  2. Prefix ( Chivakashure</link> ) misali kalmomi a cikin aji 1 suna da prefix mu</link> -, class 8 zvi</link> -, class 10 dzi</link> -, Darasi na 11 ru</link> -, da sauransu. Raka'o'in prefix mara komai suna nufin kalmomin da ba sa buƙatar prefix
  3. Siffofin guda ɗaya da jam'i ( Uwandu neushoma</link> ) misali kalmomi da ake samu a aji 8 jam'i ne na aji 7: zvikoro</link> ("makarantu") a aji na 8 shine jam'i na chikoro</link> ("makarantar") a aji na 7.
  4. Yarjejeniyar ( Sungawirirano</link> ) misali kalmomi a cikin aji na 5 sun dace da alamar - ri</link> - tare da karin magana da masu gyarawa: garwe</link> iri</link> ("wannan kada"), dombo</link> iri</link> ("wannan dutse"), gudo</link> iri</link> ("wannan bawan"); iri</link> yana nufin 'wannan'.
Noun class Muenzaniso weIzwi

("word example")
Word construction

Prefix+body=word
English translation
Prefix Body
1 mu mukomana mu- -komana "boy"
1a baba -baba "father"
2 va vakomana va- -komana "boys"
2a va vasahwira va- -sahwira "best friend"
2a vana vanatezvara vana- -tezvara "father-in-law"
2b a atete a- -tete "aunt"
3 mu muti mu- -ti "tree"
4 mi miti mi- -ti "trees"
5 ri rize ri- -ze "scorpion"
6 ma marize ma- -ze "scorpions"
7 chi chingwa chi- -ngwa "bread"
8 zvi zvingwa zvi- -ngwa "bread"
9 i imba i- -mba "house"
10 dzi dzimba dzi- -mba "houses"
11 ru rwizi ru- -izi "river"
12 ka kambwa ka- -mbwa "that little dog"
13 tu tumbwa tu- -mbwa "those little dogs"
14 u upfu u- -pfu "mealie meal"
15 ku kuenda ku- -enda "going"
16 pa pamba pa- -mba "home"
17 ku kumusha ku- -musha "rural home"
17a zasi -zasi "below"
18 mu mumunda mu- -munda "in the farm"
19 svi svimbudzi svi- -mbudzi "goat"
21 zi zigomana zi- -gomana "big boy"

Misalin rubutu a cikin Shona[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Vanhu vese vanoberekwa vakasununguka uyewo vakaenzana pahunhu nekodzero dzavo. Vanhu vese vanechipo chokufunga nekuziva chakaipa nechakanaka saka vanofanira kubatana nomweya wohusahwira.

An haifi dukkan ’yan Adam ’yantattu kuma daidai suke da mutunci da hakki. Suna da hankali da lamiri kuma ya kamata su yi wa junanmu cikin ruhin ’yan’uwantaka.

(Sashe na 1 na Yarjejeniyar Haƙƙin Dan Adam ta Duniya)

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Kalanda Shona

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Haberland, Eike (3 May 1974).
  2. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  3. Empty citation (help)

Littafi Mai Tsarki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Biehler, E. (1950) Kamus na Shona tare da fayyace nahawu na Shona (bugu na bita). Ubannin Jesuit.
  • Brauner, Sigmund (1995) Zane na nahawu na Shona : ciki har da bayanan tarihi . Köln: Rüdiger Koppe.
  • Carter, Hazel (1986) Kuverenga Chishóna: mai karanta Shona mai gabatarwa tare da zanen nahawu (bugu na biyu). London: SOAS .
  • Doke, Clement M. (1931) Rahoto kan haɗewar yarukan Shona . Stephen Austin Sons.
  • Farko, George (1985). Shona Grammatical Constructions Vol 1 . Mai Jarida Mercury.
  • Mutasa, David (1996) Matsalolin daidaita yarukan da ake magana: ƙwarewar Shona, Abubuwan Harshe, 27, 79
  • Lafon, Michel (1995), Le shona et les shonas du Zimbabwe, Harmattan ed., Paris (in French)
  • D. Dale:
    • Turanci na asali - ƙamus na Shona, Ɗabi'ar Harsunan Afro Asiatic, Satumba 5, 2000, 
    • Duramazwi: A Shona - Kamus na Turanci, Buga Harsunan Afro Asiatic, Satumba 5, 2000, 

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]