Yawan sare dazuzzuka a Burma

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Wikidata.svgYawan sare dazuzzuka a Burma
aspect in a geographic region (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙasa Myanmar
Facet of (en) Fassara Gandun daji
Wuri
 22°N 96°E / 22°N 96°E / 22; 96

A cewar wani rahoto na Hukumar Abinci da Aikin Noma ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, Myanmar (wanda aka fi sani da Burma) ta yi asarar 19%, ko hekta 7,445,000 (28,750 sq mi), na gandun daji tsakanin shekarar 1990 da 2010.[1] Tare da rufe gandun daji kamar 70% na Burma a lokacin samun 'yancin kai, an sami ɗan ƙaramin fiye da 48% murfin gandun dajin ya rage kamar na 2014. Yawan sare dazuzzuka na Myanmar ya ragu daga 0.95% a kowace shekara a cikin shekarun 1990-2010 zuwa kusan 0.3% a kowace shekara kuma sarewar dazuzzuka a Ƙasar Myanmar yanzu ya yi kasa da sauran kasashen yankin kamar Indonesia ko Vietnam, amma har yanzu ya kasance muhimmin batun muhalli..[2][3] Manyan abubuwa guda uku ne ke haifar da cigaba da sare dazuzzuka: rashin dorewa da sare itatuwa ba bisa ka'ida ba, rashin warware hakkin filaye da rigingimun filaye da bunkasar noma. [4]

Myanmar tana da mafi girman faɗin dazuzzukan wurare masu zafi a yankin kudu maso gabashin Asiya tare da bambancin halittu fiye da dazuzzukan masu zafi.[5] Ya zuwa shekarar 2010, dajin dajin Burma yana dauke da ton miliyan 1,654 na carbon kuma yana da gida ga nau'ikan halittu sama da 80.[3] Duk da bambance-bambance da girman dazuzzukan Burma, kashi 6.3% ne kawai na ƙasar ke da kariya kuma yawancinta na fuskantar barazanar sare itatuwa.[6]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duk da cewa al'adar noma ta al'ada ta kasance a kasar Burma shekaru dubbai da suka wuce, babu alamun da ke nuna cewa hakan ya haifar da sare dazuzzuka kuma mai yiwuwa ya taimaka wajen kula da dazuzzukan. An fara saran gandun daji a Burma a cikin shekarun 1800 yayin da Birtaniyya ta yanke manyan dazuzzukan dazuzzukan domin yin katako, wani albarkatun da ake bukata ga daular.[7] Itace tana da matukar muhimmanci ga Birtaniyya wajen kera jiragen ruwa, kuma musamman teak wanda aka yi masa daraja saboda karko da kaddarorinsa na jure ruwa. [7]

Bayan hadewar Lower Burma a shekara ta 1856, gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ta Burtaniya ta kafa sashen kula da gandun daji a kokarin da ake na samar da tsarin da zai dawwama na saren itatuwa. Wanda ya fito ne daga Pegu Range na tsakiyar Burma, giwaye za su ja da katako zuwa koguna sannan su yi iyo daga karkashin ruwa zuwa injinan katako. Sannan Kuma Bukatar daular sarauta ta kafa katako a matsayin babbar hanyar samun kudaden shiga ga Burma ta Burtaniya. Dama kafin yakin duniya na biyu, Burma ta Burtaniya ta kai kololuwar ayyukan yin katako, tana samar da tan 447,000 na katako.

Burma mai zaman kanta (1948-)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan samun 'yancin kai a shekara ta 1948, tashe tashen hankula na kabilanci da tashe-tashen hankula sun koma gefe biyu na kokarin kiyayewa da kuma sare itatuwa. Sannan Kuma Kungiyoyin 'yan tada kayar bayan da ke rike da mafi yawan yankunan dazuzzukan kasar ta Burma, sun sanya ma'aikatar gandun daji da hukumar kula da katakon katako (kungiyar gwamnati da ke da alhakin hakar teak) ke kara yin hadari.

An fara gudanar da ayyukan gandun daji na jihohi da himma, duk da haka, bayan kafa mulkin soja na Janar Ne Win a 1962 . Gwamnati, a karkashin mulkin soja da Burma Socialist Program Party, da'awar iko da gandun daji da kuma goyon bayan Jiha katako Board kusan sau bakwai girma fiye da kafa shekarata 1952. Haɓakar Hukumar Katako ta Jiha tana wakiltar haɓakar mahimmancin fitar da katako. Yayin da fitar da teak ke wakiltar kashi 4 cikin 100 na jimillar kayayyakin da ake fitarwa a shekarar 1952, a karshen shekarun 1980 sun kai kashi 42%.

Sakamakon haka, an yi asarar fiye da murabba'in kilomita 120,000 (46,000 sq mi) na gandun daji tsakanin ƙarshen 1960s zuwa ƙarshen shekarar 1980s. Rufin gandun daji ya ragu daga kusan kashi 70% a lokacin samun 'yancin kai zuwa kashi 46 cikin 100 a karshen shekarun 1980.

Tashin hankalin da aka yi a shekarar 1988 da kafa Majalisar Dokokin Jiha (SLORC) da aka kafa ta jihar ba ta canza komai ba dangane da manufofin jihar kan sare itatuwa. A cikin shekarata 1989 jihar Burma ta kulla yarjejeniya da kamfanonin saren katako na Thai 42 don shiga cikin iyakar Thai da Burma wanda ya haifar da lalatar dazuzzuka har zuwa murabba'in kilomita 18,000 (kilomita 7,000). A cikin 1992 SLORC ta zartar da sabuwar dokar daji wacce, a karon farko, ta ba da fifiko kan kiyaye muhalli kuma a cikin 1993 ta rufe yarjejeniyar gandun daji ta Thai (Bryant). Duk da wannan sabuwar dokar, ayyukan sare itatuwa da fitar da su ba bisa ka'ida ba suna ci gaba da yin barazana ga dazuzzukan dazuzzukan da kuma ci gaba da sare itatuwa.

Dalilai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ci gaban tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mulkin Burma na gurguzu na kama-karya, wanda ya dade har zuwa shekarata 1988, ya bar kasar cikin tabarbarewar tattalin arziki da kuma daya daga cikin kasashe mafi talauci a duniya. Yunkurin komawa cikin tattalin arzikin kasa da kasa na baya-bayan nan ya haifar da kwararar ayyukan raya kasa, sannan Kuma wadanda yawancinsu ke amfani da albarkatun kasa da dazuzzukan kasar Burma. Kungiyoyin ci gaban kasa da kasa irinsu Bankin Duniya sun jaddada a fadin kudu maso gabashin Asiya rawar da gandun daji ke takawa wajen bunkasar tattalin arziki.[8]

Yayin da matsin lamba na kasa da kasa da goyon bayan ci gaban tattalin arziki ya karu, ana amfani da dabarun canza gandun daji a Burma tun lokacin mulkin mallaka. Sannan kumaBurma da sauran jihohin Kudu maso Gabashin Asiya da yawa sun ƙarfafa maida ƙasar dazuzzuka zuwa ganyayen shinkafa, gonakin roba, noman teak, ko wasu amfanin gona da ake iya fitarwa zuwa waje.[9] Gudanar da dazuzzuka na jihohi ya taimaka matuka wajen sare dazuzzuka yayin da gwamnati ke amfani da dimbin albarkatun kasa na Burma wajen bunkasa tattalin arziki.

Girman yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawan jama'ar Burma yana karuwa da karuwa tun daga shekara ta 2005, wanda ya haifar da bukatar fadadawa da ci gaba. Yawan karuwar al'ummar kasar Burma yana bukatar karin albarkatu don dorewarta, kuma galibi ana kashe dazuzzuka da sauran albarkatun kasa. Tare da yawancin karuwar yawan jama'a da ke faruwa a yankunan karkara, bukatun abinci yana haifar da karin noma da kuma fadada ƙasar dazuzzuka.

Bugu da ƙari, yawancin ƙauyen Burma sun dogara da gandun daji don samun albarkatu kamar itacen wuta, gawayi, da kayan gona. Yayin da yawan jama'a ke ƙaruwa waɗannan buƙatun za su zama marasa dorewa kuma suna haifar da mummunar asarar gandun daji, musamman a kusa da cibiyoyin jama'a. [10]

Ba bisa ka'ida ba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Saboda girma da girman dazuzzukan Burma, yana da wuya ƙungiyoyin gwamnati kamar Sashen gandun daji su tsara tsarin yanke katako. Sannan Kuma Akwai babban bukatar katako daga makwabtan Burma - musamman Thailand da China - wadanda suka lalata dazuzzukan su fiye da Burma ( ganima). Sakamakon haka, an yi ayyukan sare- guza ba bisa ka'ida ba a kusa da iyakar Thailand da Burma da kuma lardin Kachin da ke kan iyakar kasar Sin. Yawancin lokaci ana yanke katako a gefen Burma sannan a yi jigilar su zuwa wuraren sarrafawa a China ko Thailand. [11]

Rashin bin ka'idoji ya haifar da saren saren da ba a kayyade ba da barna wanda ya haifar da lalacewar muhalli kamar zaizayar kasa, gurbacewar kogi, da karuwar ambaliyar ruwa. A jihar Kachin, dake da mafi girman fa'ida na dajin da ba'a taba tabawa ba, yin sare itatuwa ba bisa ka'ida ba ya kai kusan rabin saren dazuzzukan. [12] Saboda nisan da wadannan yankuna ke da shi da kuma bukatar da kasashen duniya ke yi na neman itacen dazuzzuka ba bisa ka'ida ba barazana ce da ke da wuyar magancewa kuma watakila za ta c gaba da taimakawa wajen sare dazuzzuka. Babbar matsalar ita ce har yanzu ana raba sare itatuwa ba bisa ka'ida ba a Myanmar a matsayin wani lamari na muhalli, kuma ba a matsayin wani laifi ba, lamarin da ya sa ma'aikatar gandun daji ke da wuya ta kai karar wadanda suka aikata laifin. [4]

Fadada aikin gona[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sakamakon cigaba da karuwar al'ummar karkara, sabbin yankunan noma sun bunkasa a fadin kasar Burma. Duk da yake yana da wuya a sami cikakkun bayanai kan yadda ake sare dazuzzuka don ba da damar noma, Kuma a bayyane yake cewa faɗaɗa aikin noma ne. Duk da cewa ba a yawan share manyan gandun dazuzzuka don noma, wuraren da aka datse na iya zama noma cikin sauri yayin da mutane ke cin gajiyar sararin samaniya don shuka amfanin gona. [13] Za a cigaba da fadada aikin noma yayin da yawan jama'a ke karuwa kuma Burma na noman amfanin gona da yawa don fitar da su zuwa kasashen waje.

Cin hanci da rashawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Burma na daya daga cikin kasashen da suka fi cin hanci da rashawa a duniya, Kuma suna yin mummunar tasiri wajen aiwatar da doka da manufofin gwamnati kai tsaye. Kididdigar nuna gaskiya ta kasa da kasa ta shekarar 2012 ta bayyana kasar a lamba 171, daga cikin kasashe 176 gaba daya.

Yankunan da abin ya shafa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Caleb did this.
Jiragen kamun kifi akan kogin Ayeyarwady.

A cikin shekaru daga 1990 zuwa 2000, mafi girman adadin sare dazuzzuka a Burma ya faru ne musamman a yankunan tsakiyar kasar da ke da yawan jama'a. Yankuna masu nisa irin su jihar Kachin, jihar Chin, da Kuma yankin Tanintharyi sun sami raguwar sare itatuwa mai yiwuwa saboda karancin yawan jama'a da karancin kulawar jihar. A cikin 'yan shekarun nan yanayin ya canza ta yadda kwanan nan akwai wuraren zafi na sare dazuzzuka a yankunan da aka kare a baya, wato a jihar Kachin, yankin Tanintharyi da Sagaing .

Yankin arewa na tsakiyar busasshen yankin da kuma kwarin Ayeyarwady yana da matukar tasiri ga sare itatuwa. Yawanci sakamakon faɗaɗa aikin gona, sama da kashi 7% na ƙasar an sare dazuzzuka. Sannan Kuma Wannan yana haifar da matsalolin muhalli da yawa yayin da busassun dazuzzukan wannan yanki ke tallafawa flora da namun daji iri-iri masu rauni waɗanda suka dogara da wannan wurin.

Ayeyarwady Delta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

The Ayeyarwady Delta Region was the most threatened region, experiencing an average annual deforestation rate of 1.2% from 1990 to 2000, a rate four times the national average. The Ayeyarwady Region has a population of over 8 million people and is a large agricultural centre, accounting for about 35% of the country's rice production. As a result of agricultural expansion and the use of wood for fuel, mangrove cover declined 64.2% from 1978 to 2011 and continues to disappear. Home to some of the most diverse mangrove forests, this deforestation has significant repercussions both economically and environmentally. Mangroves provide protection from tropical cyclones, seasonal flooding, and are crucial for the fishing industry that is an important livelihood for much of the coast.

Kiyayewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Aikin kiyaye gandun daji mafi dadewa a Burma shine al'adar gargajiya ta noma. Dabarun sara da kone-kone na mazauna dazuzzuka, Kuma wadanda akasarinsu tsiraru ne, galibi ana zarginsu da haddasa sare itatuwa. Wannan al'ada, maimakon zama mai lalata, ana iya nuna shi don haifar da sake farfado da daji idan an ba su isasshen sarari. Ɗaya daga cikin tsarin farko na kula da gandun daji da gwamnatin Burma ta sanya shi ne Tsarin Zaɓin Burma (BSS), wanda aka fara a lokacin mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya a ƙarshen shekarar 1800s. BSS ya zama tsarin da ya shahara a duniya kuma ya kasance ginshiƙi na dorewar gandun daji a kudu maso gabashin Asiya.

Yanzu da ake kira tsarin zaɓin Myanmar (MSS), ana amfani da wannan dabara har yau, musamman don sarrafa dazuzzukan teak. MSS ta raba gandun daji zuwa 30 daidai filaye, sannan waɗanda kowannensu aka sanya su a kan tsarin raguwa na shekaru 30. Lokacin da toshe ya ƙare don girbi, ana yanke bishiyoyin da suka fi wani diamita har sai an cire adadin da aka yarda. [14] Idan aka yanke itace, ana ciro su ta hanyar amfani da giwaye na gargajiya maimakon manyan injina, wadanda ke da illa ga kasa. MSS wata hanya ce mai ɗorewa ta yin sare itace wacce ke ba dazuzzuka su maido da kansu kuma baya lalata faɗuwar ƙasa.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Namun daji na Burma
  • Noma a Burma
  • Ma'aikatar kiyaye muhalli da gandun daji (Burma)

Yanki:

  • sare itatuwa a Thailand
  • sare itatuwa a Laos
  • sare itatuwa a Indonesia

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 Country Report: Myanmar" (PDF). Forestry Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  2. Seekins, Donald (21 August 2006). Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810854767.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Myanmar Forest Information and Data". mongabay.com. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Stokke, Kristian; Vakulchuk, Roman and Indra Overland (2018) Myanmar: A Political Economy Analysis. Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI). Report commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  5. Bernard, Stéphane; Rodolphe De Koninck (1996). "The Retreat of the Forest in Southeast Asia: A Cartographic Assessment". Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. 17 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9493.1996.tb00080.x.
  6. Webb, Edward; Nicholas Jachowski; Jacob Phelps; Daniel Friess; Maung Maung Than; Alan Ziegler (January 2014). "Deforestation in the Ayeyarwady Delta and the conservation implications of an internationally-engaged Myanmar". Global Environmental Change. 24: 321–333. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.10.007.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Bryant, Raymond (1996). The Political Ecology of Forestry in Burma. Honolulu, Hawai'i: University of Hawai'i Press.
  8. Tallentire, Mark (28 September 2007). "The Burma road to ruin". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  9. Peluso, Nancy; Peter Vandergeest; Lesley Potter (March 1995). "Social Aspects of Forestry in Southeast Asia: A Review of Postwar Trends in the Scholarly Literature". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 26 (1): 196–218. doi:10.1017/s0022463400010584.
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