Jump to content

'Yancin Addini a Tanzaniya

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
'Yancin Addini a Tanzaniya
freedom of religion by country (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙasa Tanzaniya

'Yancin addini a Tanzaniya na nufin irin yadda mutane a Tanzaniya ke samun damar gudanar da akidarsu cikin 'yanci, la'akari da manufofin gwamnati da halayen al'umma game da kungiyoyin addini.

Gwamnatin Tanzaniya da gwamnatin Zanzibar mai cin gashin kanta duk sun amince da 'yancin addini a matsayin ka'ida kuma suna ƙoƙarin kare shi. Gwamnatin Zanzibar ta nada jami'an addinin Musulunci a Zanzibar. Babban tsarin doka a Tanzaniya da Zanzibar ba addini ba ne, amma Musulmai suna da zaɓi na amfani da kotunan addini don shari'o'in da suka shafi iyali. Laifukan daidaikun mutane na tashin hankali na addini sun faru a kan duka Kiristoci da Musulmai. [1]

Manufofi da akidun Ujamaa da gwamnatin Tanzaniya ta farko ta amince da su bayan samun ‘yancin kai daga Birtaniya a shekarun 1960 sun jaddada hadin kan kasa kan rarrabuwar kawuna na addini ko kabilanci, [2] kuma hakan na nuni da irin kakkausan kalamai na nuna kyama a cikin kundin tsarin mulkin kasar Tanzaniya, wanda har yanzu yana nan aiki kamar na shekarar 2019. Yayin da aka watsar da Ujamaa a matsayin aikin jiha a cikin 1985, kuma rikicin addini ya ɗan tashi tun daga lokacin, [3] majiyoyin ilimi da ƙungiyoyin sa-kai sun yaba wa Ujamaa don ba da gudummawa ga yanayin 'yancin addini da kwanciyar hankali na zamantakewa a Tanzaniya. [3] [4]

Alkaluma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani bincike na Pew Forum na shekarar 2010 ya kiyasta kusan kashi 61 na al’ummar kasar Kirista ne, kashi 35 cikin 100 Musulmi, da kuma kashi 4 cikin dari na sauran kungiyoyin addini. Wani rahoto daban na Pew Forum na shekarar 2010 ya kiyasta fiye da rabin yawan jama'a suna aiwatar da abubuwan addinan gargajiya na Afirka a rayuwarsu ta yau da kullun. Babu wani binciken gida da ya shafi alaƙar addini. [1] [3]

A babban yankin, al'ummomin musulmi da yawa sun taru a yankunan bakin teku, tare da wasu tsiraru musulmi da ke cikin kasa a cikin birane. Ƙungiyoyin Kirista sun haɗa da Roman Katolika, Furotesta (ciki har da ƙungiyoyin Kirista na Pentikostal), Masu Adventists na kwana bakwai, Cocin Yesu Kristi na Kiristoci na Ƙarshe, da Shaidun Jehovah. Wasu rukunoni sun haɗa da mabiya addinin Buddha, Hindu, Sikhs, Bahaʼís, animists, da kuma waɗanda ba sa son addini. Mazauna Zanzibar miliyan 1.3 Musulmai ne kashi 99 bisa 100, a cewar wani kiyasi na gwamnatin Amurka, wanda kashi biyu cikin uku na Sunni ne, a cewar rahoton Pew Forum na shekarar 2012. Ragowar ta ƙunshi ƙungiyoyin Shi'a da dama, galibi 'yan asalin Asiya. [1]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fage[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tanzaniya tana kunshe da yankuna biyu, yankin babban kasa a nahiyar Afirka da kuma tsibiran Zanzibar, wadanda suka hade a shekarun 1960. An fara keɓe yankin babban yankin Tanganyika a matsayin wani ɓangare na rabuwar Afirka a taron Berlin a shekarar 1884. Akasin haka, tarihin Zanzibar a matsayin yanki na musamman ya koma karni na 13, lokacin da yake gida ga jihohin Swahili. [3]

Ba a san takamaiman kwanakin shigar Musulunci zuwa Gabashin Afirka ba, amma shaidar farko da aka rubuta na kasancewar musulmi ta kasance a shekara ta 830 AZ, kuma an kafa wasu manyan biranen Islama a Zanzibar da bakin gabar teku a karni na 11. Waɗannan jahohin birni sun kai kololuwarsu a ƙarni na 14 da 15, bayan haka sai suka tabarbare sakamakon rikici da Portugal a ƙarni na 16 zuwa 17. Ikon Portuguese na Zanzibar ya kasance ɗan gajeren lokaci, yayin da Daular Omani ta kore su, wanda a ƙarshe zai ƙaura babban birninta zuwa Zanzibar. A farkon karni na 19, Zanzibar ta zama babban kulli a cinikin bayi, wanda ba zai kare ba sai farkon karni na 20. Kiristanci ya isa Tanganyika a cikin karni na 19 a cikin nau'i na ayyukan turawa daban-daban, kuma a lokaci guda masu wa'azin Sufaye za su yada addinin Islama fiye da yankunan bakin teku. Duka ayyukan Kirista da Musulmi a Tanzaniya suna da tasiri sosai ta hanyar daidaitawa tare da tsofaffin al'adun addinan Afirka. [3]

A lokacin yunkurin 'yancin kai, Kiristoci da Musulmai duka sun taka rawar gani a cikin kungiyar Tarayyar Afirka ta Tanganyika. Bayan samun 'yancin kai, duk da haka, jawabai sun canza, kuma a wasu lokuta an gabatar da al'ummomin Kirista da Musulmai a matsayin masu adawa da siyasa. [3]

Farkon 'yancin kai da juyin juya halin Zanzibar (1961-1964)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 1961, mulkin Birtaniyya ya ƙare a Tanganyika, tare da Julius Nyerere ya zama shugabanta na farko a shekarar 1962,[5] yayin da Zanzibar ta ci gaba da kasancewa mai kariyar Burtaniya wanda masarautar Larabawa ke mulka.[6] A shekarar 1964, an hambarar da Sarkin Zanzibar a juyin juya halin Zanzibar. Juyin juya halin ya kasance tare da matsanancin tashin hankali da 'yan juyin juya hali na Afirka suka yi kan Larabawa da Asiya ta Kudu, wadanda akasarinsu musulmi ne ko kuma mabiya addinin Hindu kuma aka alakanta su da rukunin masu mulki na masarautar Zanzibar. An fafata ne da abin da ya gada daga wannan biki, yayin da wasu sassa na al'ummar Zanzibar ke kallon mummunan tashin hankalin da ya shafi kabilanci a matsayin ramuwar gayya ga zalunci da aka sha a karkashin masarautar Sarkin Musulmi, wadda ta yi cinikin bayi a Afirka. [7][8] Dakarun da suka tayar da tarzoma sun kasance karkashin jagorancin John Okello, Kirista wanda ya yi imanin cewa aikin sa ne ya 'yantar da Zanzibar daga "Larabawa Musulmi", duk da cewa al'ummar Afirka a Zanzibar da jam'iyyar Afro-Shirazi (ASP) na juyin juya hali. galibinsu musulmi kuma. Ayyukan Okello da akidar kiristoci masu tsatsauran ra'ayi sun raba wasu a cikin ASP, kuma ba da jimawa ba aka ware shi, aka cire shi daga mukaminsa kuma daga karshe aka kore shi. [9]

Haɗin kai da Ujamaa (1964-1985)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan juyin juya hali, Zanzibar ta hade da Tanganyika ta kafa Tanzaniya, tare da Nyerere a matsayin shugaban kasa. [10] Manyan masu mulki a babban yankin, wadanda ke da bambancin addini, sun gwammace mulkin boko, yayin da Zanzibar ta kasance mai cin gashin kanta da kuma aiwatar da kasa mai zaman kanta. Yayin da Musulunci ba addinin kasa ba ne a hukumance, an ba shi matsayi na musamman da gata. [3]

A shekara ta 1967, Tanzaniya ta ƙara komawa hagu a siyasance, kuma ta fara haɓaka Ujamaa, akidar gurguzu wacce ta jaddada 'yanci, daidaito da haɗin kai a matsayin ka'idodinta na tsakiya. [2] Kasar ta kuma amince da kundin tsarin mulkin kasar wanda ya kunshi sassa masu kakkausar murya na adawa da wariya, gami da nuna banbancin addini. Human Rights Watch ta yi la'akari da Ujamaa a matsayin ingantaccen abin koyi na haɗin kan ƙasa, yana ba da gudummawa ga kwanciyar hankali na Ujamaa da haɗin kai, tare da faɗar cewa mahimmancin haɗin kai shi ma ya sa yana da wahala a wasu lokuta bincikar cin zarafin ɗan adam. Tanzaniya ita ce kasa daya tilo a gabashin Afirka da ba ta ci gaba da fuskantar tashin hankalin kabilanci, addini ko siyasa ba tun bayan da ta samu 'yancin kai daga turawan mulkin mallaka. [4]

Bayan Nyerere (1985-yanzu)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan da Nyerere ya yi ritaya daga siyasa bayan wa'adinsa na ƙarshe a shekarar 1985, gwamnatin Tanzaniya ta yi watsi da Ujamaa a matsayin akidarta, [11] ko da yake ya zuwa shekarar 2019 kundin tsarin mulkin 1977 ya ci gaba da aiki. Tun bayan karshen mulkin Ujama’a, an samu takun saka tsakanin Musulmi da gwamnati, da ma kadan a tsakanin Musulmi da Kirista. [3] A shekarun 1993 da 1998, tashin hankali ya karu zuwa matakin tashin hankali tsakanin musulmi da jami'an tsaron kasar, lamarin da ya yi sanadin mutuwar mutane da dama. [3] Masana ilimin kimiyya sun danganta wannan koma bayan fahimtar addini da rugujewar Ujama’a a ma’anar dukkanin manufofinta na hadin kan kasa da kuma manufofinta na jin dadin jama’a, tasirin yakin duniya na karuwa a fagen gwagwarmayar addini a karshen karni na 20 da farkon karni na 20. Ranar 21 ga wata, ƙungiyoyin farfaɗowar addini a cikin Tanzaniya, da sake fasalin sansanonin siyasa biyo bayan samun sassaucin ra'ayi na tattalin arzikin da aka fara a ƙarshen shekarar 1980s. [3]

An haramta sihiri a shekarar 2015. Ya zuwa shekarar 2019, an ci gaba da samun rahotannin kashe-kashen da ake dangantawa da maita, inda ‘yan sanda suka kama wadanda ake zargi da hannu a ciki.[12]

Yayin da tashin hankali na addini ba kasafai ba ne, yana faruwa. [13] A shekarar 2017, an sami alƙawura uku na ɓarna da lalata dukiyoyi, ciki har da kone-kone, akan gine-ginen addini da limamai. [1]

Tsarin doka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kundin tsarin mulkin gwamnatin tarayya na Tanzaniya da kundin tsarin mulkin gwamnatin wucin gadi a Zanzibar duk sun haramta wariyar addini da kuma ba da yancin yin zaɓi na addini. [1] Dokar ta hana kafa jam'iyyun siyasa na addini. [1] Har ila yau, dokar ta haramta wa kowane mutum yin wani mataki ko yin magana da nufin cin mutuncin addinin wani. Duk wanda ya aikata irin wannan laifin yana da alhakin daurin shekara guda a gidan yari. [1]

Gwamnati ba ta sanya alaƙar addini akan fasfo ko bayanan ƙididdiga masu mahimmanci. Rahoton 'yan sanda dole ne su bayyana alaƙar addini idan za a buƙaci mutum ya ba da shaidar rantsuwa. Aikace-aikacen neman magani dole ne a ƙayyade alaƙar addini don a iya kiyaye kowace takamaiman al'adun addini. Dokar ta bukaci gwamnati da ta rubuta addinin kowane fursuna tare da samar da wuraren ibada ga fursunoni. [1]

Jagorancin al'ummar musulmi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A babban yankin, Majalisar Musulmi ta Tanzaniya ta zabi mufti. A Zanzibar, Shugaban Zanzibar ya nada mufti, wanda ke aiki a matsayin jagoran al'ummar Musulmi kuma a matsayin ma'aikacin gwamnati mai taimakawa a harkokin kananan hukumomi. Mufti na Zanzibar a sunansa ya amince da duk ayyukan Musulunci kuma yana kula da duk masallatan Zanzibar. Har ila yau, Muftin ya amince da laccoci na addini ta hanyar ziyartar malaman addinin Musulunci da kuma kula da shigo da littattafan Musulunci daga wajen Zanzibar. [1]

Kotunan duniya da na addini[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A babban yankin, dokokin da ba ruwansu da addini ne ke tafiyar da kiristoci da Musulmai a cikin laifuka da na farar hula. A cikin shari’o’in da suka shafi iyali da suka shafi gado, aure, saki, da riƙon yara ƙanana, dokar kuma ta amince da ayyukan al’ada, waɗanda za su iya haɗa da ayyukan addini. A irin wannan yanayi, wasu musulmi sukan zabi su tuntubi malaman addini maimakon gabatar da kara a kotu. Musulmai a Zanzibar suna da zabin gabatar da kararraki zuwa kotun farar hula ko ta Qadi (kotun Musulunci ko alkali) kan batutuwan da suka shafi kisan aure, tarbiyyar yara, gado, da sauran batutuwan da shari’ar Musulunci ta tanada. Dukkan shari'o'in da aka yi shari'a a kotunan Zanzibar, sai dai wadanda suka shafi al'amuran tsarin mulki na Zanzibari da shari'a, ana iya daukaka kara zuwa Kotun daukaka kara ta Tarayyar Turai da ke babban yankin. Za a iya daukaka karar hukuncin kotunan Qaadi na Zanzibar zuwa wata kotu ta musamman da ta kunshi babban alkalin Zanzibar da wasu shehunai biyar. Shugaban Zanzibar ya nada babban hafsan Qadi, wanda ke kula da kotunan qaddi kuma an san shi a matsayin babban malamin addinin musulunci da ke da alhakin tafsirin Al-Qur'ani. Babu kotunan qadi a kasar. [1]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Makarantun gwamnati na iya koyar da addini, amma ba ya cikin tsarin koyarwa na ƙasa. Hukumomin makaranta ko ƙungiyoyin iyaye da malamai dole ne su amince da irin waɗannan azuzuwan, waɗanda iyaye ko masu sa kai ke koyarwa a lokaci-lokaci. Dole ne fom ɗin rajista na makarantun gwamnati su ƙayyade addinin yaro don haka masu gudanarwa za su iya sanya ɗalibai zuwa aji addinin da ya dace idan an ba da ɗayan. Dalibai kuma za su iya zaɓar ficewa daga karatun addini. A makarantun gwamnati, an ba wa dalibai damar sanya hijabi amma ba sanya nikabi ba. [1]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • 'Yancin addini a Afirka ta ƙasa
  • Hakkin Dan Adam a Tanzaniya
  • Addini a Tanzaniya

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 International Religious Freedom Report 2017 Tanzania, US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Pratt, Cranford (1999). "Julius Nyerere: Reflections on the Legacy of his Socialism". Canadian Journal of African Studies . 33 (1): 137–52. doi :10.2307/486390 . JSTOR 486390 .Empty citation (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Cranford" defined multiple times with different content
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 Ghoshal, Neela (2013-06-18). " "Treat Us Like Human Beings" | Discrimination against Sex Workers, Sexual and Gender Minorities, and People Who Use Drugs in Tanzania" . Human Rights Watch . Retrieved 2019-07-03.Empty citation (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Perspectives" defined multiple times with different content
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ghoshal, Neela (2013-06-18). " "Treat Us Like Human Beings" | Discrimination against Sex Workers, Sexual and Gender Minorities, and People Who Use Drugs in Tanzania" . Human Rights Watch . Retrieved 2019-07-03.Empty citation (help)
  5. "Statistical Abstract 2013, National Bureau of Statistics" (PDF). Tanzania Ministry of Finance. July 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  6. Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African History: A - G.. 1 . Taylor & Francis. p. 1716. ISBN 9781579582456.
  7. Kuper, Leo (1971). "Theories of Revolution and Race Relations". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 13 (1): 87–107. doi :10.1017/S0010417500006125 . ISSN 0010-4175 . JSTOR 178199 . S2CID 145769109 .Empty citation (help)
  8. "Unveiling Zanzibar's unhealed wounds" . BBC News . 25 July 2009.
  9. Speller, Ian (2007). "An African Cuba? Britain and the Zanzibar Revolution, 1964" . Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. 35 (2): 283–302. doi :10.1080/03086530701337666 . S2CID 159656717 .Empty citation (help)
  10. Central Intelligence Agency . "Tanzania" . The World Factbook .Empty citation (help)
  11. Bjerk, Paul (2015). Building a Peaceful Nation: Julius Nyerere and the Establishment of Sovereignty in Tanzania, 1960-1964 . Boydell & Brewer. p. 126. ISBN 9781580465052 .
  12. "International Religious Freedom Report 2019 Tanzania" . United States Department of State . Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  13. "News: Religious clashes in Tanzania, problems in governnment" . InformAfrica.com . 2012-10-18. Retrieved 2019-07-03.