Sa-ido akan Haƙƙin Ɗan Adam

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Group half.svgHuman Rights Watch
Hrw logo.svg
Bayanai
Iri Non-profit NGO
Ƙasa Tarayyar Amurka
Aiyuka
Mamba na International Freedom of Expression Exchange (en) Fassara, Campaign to Stop Killer Robots (en) Fassara da Forum Menschenrechte (en) Fassara
Ma'aikata 450 (2018)
Mulki
Shugaba James F. Hoge, Jr. (en) Fassara
Shugaba Kenneth Roth (en) Fassara
Hedkwata Empire State Building
New York City, New York, U.S.
Sponsor (en) Fassara Open Society Foundations (en) Fassara
Financial data
Haraji $85.6 million (2019)[1]
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1978
1988
Wanda ya samar
Wanda yake bi Sa-ido akan Helsinki
Awards received

hrw.org


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Babban Darakta na yanzu Kenneth Roth yana magana a taron Tsaro na 44 na Munich na shekarar 2008

Human Rights Watch ( HRW ) kungiya ce mai zaman kanta ta duniya, wacce ke da hedikwata a cikin birnin New York, wacce ke gudanar da bincike da bayar da shawarwari kan hakkin dan adam . Kungiyar tana matsawa gwamnatoci, masu tsara manufofi, kamfanoni, da daidaikun masu cin zarafin bil adama kan yin tir da cin zarafi da mutunta 'yancin dan adam, kuma kungiyar galibi tana aiki ne a madadin' yan gudun hijira, yara, bakin haure, da fursunonin siyasa.

Kungiyar Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam a cikin shekarar 1997 ta raba a cikin Nobel Peace Prize a matsayin memba na kafa Kamfen na Kasa da Kasa na Haramta Nakiyoyi kuma ya taka rawa a cikin yarjejeniyar ta 2008 ta hana tashin bindiga .

Kudaden da kungiyar ke kashewa duk shekara sun kai dala miliyan 50.6 a shekarar 2011, dala miliyan 69.2 a shekarar 2014, da dala miliyan 75.5 a shekarar 2017.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Robert L. Bernstein da Aryeh Neier ne suka kafa kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam ta Human Rights Watch tare da hadin gwiwar kungiyar Ba-Amurke mai zaman kanta a shekarar 1978, karkashin sunan Helsinki Watch, don sa ido kan yarjejeniyar da Tarayyar Soviet ta yi da Helsinki . Helsinki Watch ta bi diddigin al'adar " sanya suna da tozarta " a bainar jama'a ta hanyar watsa labarai ta hanyar musayar labarai kai tsaye da masu tsara manufofin siyasa. Ta hanyar haskaka hasken duniya game da take hakkin bil adama a Tarayyar Soviet da kawayenta na Turai, Helsinki Watch ta ce ta ba da gudummawa ga sauye-sauyen dimokiradiyya na yankin a karshen shekarata 1980s.

An kafa Amurkan Watch a shekarata 1981 yayin da yakin basasa da aka zub da jini ya mamaye Amurka ta tsakiya . Dogaro da bincike mai zurfi a kasa, Amurkan Watch ba wai kawai ya magance cin zarafin da sojojin gwamnati ke yi ba ne amma kuma ya yi amfani da dokar jin kai ta kasa da kasa don bincika da fallasa laifukan yaki na kungiyoyin 'yan tawaye. Baya ga nuna damuwarta a kasashen da abin ya shafa, Amurkan Watch ta kuma binciki rawar da gwamnatocin kasashen waje, musamman gwamnatin Amurka suka taka, wajen ba da tallafi na soja da siyasa ga gwamnatocin cin zarafi.

Asia Watch a shekarata (1985), Africa Watch a shekarata (1988) da Middle East Watch a shekarata (1989) an kira su akan abin da aka sani da " Kwamitocin Kulawa ". A cikin shekarar 1988, duk waɗannan kwamitocin sun haɗu a ƙarƙashin laima ɗaya don kafa Human Rights Watch.

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dangane da Sanarwar Duniya game da 'Yancin Dan Adam (UDHR), Human Rights Watch (HRW) tana adawa da take hakki na abin da ake ɗauka na haƙƙin ɗan adam na asali a ƙarƙashin UDHR. Wannan ya hada da hukuncin kisa da nuna wariya dangane da yanayin jima'i . HRW tana ba da shawara ga 'yanci dangane da haƙƙin ɗan adam na asali, kamar ' yancin addini da 'yancin aikin jarida . HRW na neman samun canji ta hanyar matsin lamba ga gwamnatoci da masu tsara manufofinsu don dakile take hakkin bil adama, da kuma shawo kan gwamnatoci masu karfi da su yi amfani da tasirinsu a kan gwamnatocin da ke take hakkin dan adam. [2]

Kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam ta Human Rights Watch tana wallafa rahotannin bincike kan take hakkin dan adam na kasa da kasa kamar yadda kudurin kare hakkin dan adam ya tanada da kuma abin da take ganin wasu karbuwa ne na duniya, ka'idojin hakkin dan adam. Ana amfani da waɗannan rahotannin azaman tushe don jawo hankalin duniya ga cin zarafi da matsawa gwamnatoci da ƙungiyoyin ƙasa da ƙasa yin garambawul. Masu binciken suna gudanar da bincike-bincike na gaskiya don bincika yanayin wadanda ake zargi kuma ta amfani da diflomasiyya, kasancewa tare da wadanda abin ya shafa, yin fa'idojin game da jama'a da daidaikun mutane, da samar da tsaro da ake bukata a gare su a cikin mawuyacin hali kuma a cikin lokaci mai kyau samar da labarai a kafofin watsa labarai na cikin gida da na duniya. Batutuwan da kungiyar ta Human Rights Watch ta tabo a cikin rahotonninta sun hada da nuna wariya ta fuskar jinsi da jinsi, azabtarwa, amfani da kananan yara ta hanyar soji, cin hanci da rashawa na siyasa, cin zarafi a tsarin shari'ar masu aikata laifuka, da halatta zubar da ciki . HRW ta yi rubuce-rubuce da kuma bayar da rahoto game da take haƙƙin dokokin yaƙi da kuma dokokin ɗan adam na duniya .

Har ila yau Human Rights Watch na tallafa wa marubuta a duk duniya, waɗanda ake tsananta wa saboda ayyukansu kuma suna buƙatar taimakon kuɗi . Tallafin na Hellman / Hammett ana daukar nauyin ta ne daga mallakar marubucin wasan kwaikwayo Lillian Hellman a cikin kuɗin da aka kafa da sunanta da na abokiyar aikinta na dogon lokaci, marubucin littattafai Dashiell Hammett . Baya ga bayar da taimakon kudi, taimakon na Hellman / Hammett na taimaka wajan wayar da kan kasashen duniya game da masu fafutuka wadanda ake yiwa shiru saboda yin magana don kare hakkin dan adam.

Nabeel Rajab yana taimaka wa wata tsohuwa bayan da ‘yan sandan Bahrain suka kai hari kan wata zanga-zangar lumana a ranar 14 ga Agusta 2010

Kowace shekara, Kungiyar Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam ta Human Rights Watch tana gabatar da lambar yabo ta masu kare hakkin dan adam ga masu fafutuka a duniya wadanda ke nuna jagoranci da jajircewa wajen kare hakkin dan adam. Wadanda suka lashe kyautar suna aiki tare da HRW wajen bincike da kuma tona asirin cin zarafin dan adam.

Kungiyar Kare Hakkin Dan Adam ta kasance daya daga cikin kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu shida na kasa da kasa wadanda suka kafa kungiyar Kawancen Dakatar da Amfani da Sojoji Yara a shekarata 1998. Har ila yau, ita ce mataimakiyar shugaban Kamfen din Kasa da Kasa na Haramta Nakiyoyi, kawancen kungiyoyin farar hula na duniya da suka yi nasarar shiga cikin gabatar da yarjejeniyar Ottawa, wata yarjejeniya da ke hana amfani da nakiyoyi.

Kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam ta Human Rights Watch memba ce ta kafa kungiyar musayar ra'ayi ta 'Yancin Kasa da Kasa, wata cibiya ta duniya ta kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu wadanda ke sa ido kan takunkumi a duniya. Har ila yau, ta kafa} ungiyar Hadin Kan Cluster, wacce ta kawo wani taron kasa da kasa na haramta makaman. HRW tana aiki da ma’aikata sama da 275 — masana na ƙasa, lauyoyi, ‘yan jarida, da masana — kuma tana aiki a cikin sama da ƙasashe 90 a duniya. Wanda yake da hedikwata a Birnin New York, yana da ofis a Amsterdam, Beirut, Berlin, Brussels, Chicago, Geneva, Johannesburg, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Nairobi, Seoul, Paris, San Francisco, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, Washington, DC, da Zürich . HRW tana kula da samun damar kai tsaye ga yawancin kasashen da take rahoto akai. Cuba, Koriya ta Arewa, Sudan, Iran, Isra’ila, Masar, Hadaddiyar Daular Larabawa, Uzbekistan da Venezuela na daga cikin tsirarun kasashen da suka toshe hanyoyin samun ma’aikatan HRW.

Babban daraktan HRW a yanzu shi ne Kenneth Roth, wanda ya rike wannan mukamin tun shekarar 1993. Roth ya gudanar da bincike kan cin zarafi a Poland bayan da aka ayyana dokar soja a shekarar 1981. Daga baya ya mai da hankali kan Haiti, wanda ya fito daga mulkin kama-karya na Duvalier amma ya ci gaba da fama da matsaloli. Tunanin Roth game da mahimmancin haƙƙin ɗan adam ya fara ne da labaran da mahaifinsa ya ba da game da tserewa Nazi Jamus a shekarata 1938. Roth ya kammala karatu daga Makarantar Yale Law da Jami'ar Brown .

Kwatantawa da Amnesty International[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Human Rights Watch da Amnesty International su ne kungiyoyin kare hakkin bil adama guda biyu na kasashen yamma da ke aiki a mafi yawan yanayi na tsananin zalunci ko cin zarafi a duniya. Babban bambance-bambance sun ta'allaka ne da tsarin kungiyar da hanyoyin inganta canji.

Amnesty International kungiya ce ta mambobi da yawa. Tattaunawar waɗancan membobin shine babban kayan tallata ƙungiyar. Manyan kayayyakin kungiyar ta Human Rights Watch su ne binciken da ta gabatar game da rikicin da kuma dogayen rahotanni, yayin da Amnesty International ta nemi izini da rubuta rahotanni dalla-dalla, amma kuma ta fi mayar da hankali kan kamfen din rubuto wasika, daukar mutane a matsayin " fursunonin lamiri " da kuma neman a sake su. Kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam ta Human Rights Watch za ta fito fili don neman takamaiman matakin da wasu gwamnatoci za su dauka a kan masu take hakkin bil adama, gami da sanya takamaiman mutane don kamewa, ko kuma sanya takunkumi kan wasu kasashe, kwanan nan yana kiran da a hukunta manyan shugabannin a Sudan wadanda suka kula. yakin kashe kashe a Darfur . Kungiyar ta kuma yi kira da a saki masu rajin kare hakkin dan adam da aka tsare a Sudan.

Rubuce-rubucensa game da keta hakkin ɗan adam galibi sun haɗa da cikakken nazarin tarihin siyasa da tarihin rikice-rikicen da aka damu, waɗanda aka buga wasu daga cikin littattafan ilimi. Rahotannin AI, a gefe guda, suna ɗauke da ƙananan bincike, kuma a maimakon haka suna mai da hankali kan takamaiman haƙƙƙen haƙƙoƙin.

A cikin shekarata 2010, The Times na London ya rubuta cewa HRW "ta rufe duhu" Amnesty International. A cewar The Times, maimakon samun goyan baya ta yawan membobi, kamar yadda AI ke, HRW ya dogara ne da masu hannu da shuni wadanda ke son ganin rahoton kungiyar ya zama kanun labarai. A saboda wannan dalili, a cewar The Times, HRW na yawan mai da hankali kan wuraren da kafafen yada labarai suka riga suka damu da su, musamman ma wajen yada labaran Isra'ila ba daidai ba.

Kudi da ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Don shekarar kuɗi da ta ƙare a watan Yunin na shekarata 2008, HRW ta ba da rahoton karɓar kusan dala miliyan 44 a ba da gudummawar jama'a. A cikin shekarar 2009, Kungiyar Kare Hakkin Bil'adama ta bayyana cewa suna karbar kusan kashi 75% na tallafin kudi daga Arewacin Amurka, kashi 25% daga Yammacin Turai da kasa da 1% daga sauran kasashen duniya.

Dangane da binciken kudi na shekara ta 2008, HRW ta bayar da rahoton cewa ba ta karɓar duk wani tallafi kai tsaye ko na kai tsaye daga gwamnatoci kuma ana samun kuɗaɗen ta hanyar gudummawa daga mutane masu zaman kansu da tushe.

Mai bayar da tallafi kuma mai taimakon jama'a George Soros na kungiyar Open Society Foundations ya sanar a shekarar 2010 niyyarsa ta ba da dala miliyan 100 ga HRW na tsawon shekaru goma don taimaka mata fadada kokarinta a duniya: "don zama mafi inganci," in ji shi, "Ina tsammanin dole ne a ga kungiya a matsayin kasa da kasa, kasa da kungiyar Amurka. " Ya ce, "Kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam ta Human Rights Watch na daga cikin kungiyoyi mafiya inganci da nake goyon baya. 'Yancin ɗan adam suna tallafawa mafi girman burinmu: suna cikin zuciyar al'ummu masu buɗewa. " Gudummawar ta ƙara yawan ma'aikatan Human Rights Watch na 300 da mutane 120. Gudummawar ita ce mafi girma a tarihin kungiyar.

Charity Navigator ya ba Human Rights Watch ƙimar tauraruwa uku gaba ɗaya don a shekarata 2018. Darajar kuɗaɗen ta ya karu daga taurari uku a cikin shekarar 2015 zuwa matsakaici huɗu kamar na Yuni na shekarar 2016. Ofishin Kasuwanci mafi Kyawu ya ce Kungiyar Kare Hakkin Dan Adam ta cika ka'idojinta na ba da lissafin sadaka.

Kungiyar Kare Hakkin Bil'adama ta wallafa wannan shirin mai zuwa da kuma tallafawa ayyukan bayar da cikakkun bayanai game da shekarar kudi wacce za ta kare a watan Yunin shekarata 2011.

Ayyukan shirin Kudin 2011 (USD)
Afirka $ 5,859,910
Amurka $ 1,331,448
Asiya $ 4,629,535
Turai da Asiya ta Tsakiya $ 4,123,959
Gabas ta Tsakiya da Arewacin Afirka $ 3,104,643
Amurka $ 1,105,571
Hakkin Yara $ 1,551,463
Lafiya & 'Yancin Dan Adam $ 1,962,015
Adalcin Duniya $ 1,325,749
Hakkokin Mace $ 2,083,890
Sauran shirye-shirye $ 11,384,854
Ayyukan tallafi
Gudanarwa da janar $ 3,130,051
Samun kudi $ 9,045,910

Kungiyar Kare Hakkin Bil'adama ta wallafa wannan shirin mai zuwa da kuma tallafawa ayyukan bayar da cikakkun bayanai game da shekarar kudi wacce za ta kare a watan Yunin shekarata 2008.

Ayyukan shirin Kudin 2008 (USD)
Afirka $ 5,532,631
Amurka $ 1,479,265
Asiya $ 3,212,850
Turai da Asiya ta Tsakiya $ 4,001,853
Gabas ta Tsakiya da Arewacin Afirka $ 2,258,459
Amurka $ 1,195,673
Hakkin Yara $ 1,642,064
Adalcin Duniya $ 1,385,121
Hakkokin Mace $ 1,854,228
Sauran shirye-shirye $ 9,252,974
Ayyukan tallafi
Gudanarwa da janar $ 1,984,626
Samun kudi $ 8,641,358

Sanannun ma'aikata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kenneth Roth da Firayim Ministan Netherlands, Mark Rutte, 2 Fabrairu 2012

Wasu sanannun ma’aikata na yanzu da tsoffin ma’aikatan kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam:

  • Robert L. Bernstein, Shugaban Kafa Emeritus
  • Neil Rimer, mataimakin shugaban kwamitin gudanarwa na ofasashen Duniya
  • Kenneth Roth, Babban Darakta
  • Jan Egeland, Mataimakin Darakta kuma Darakta na Human Rights Watch Turai
  • John Studzinski, Mataimakin Shugaban; ci gaban hannun Turai; tsohon Darakta; memba na Kwamitin Zartarwa; Shugaban Kwamitin Zuba Jari
  • Minky Worden, Daraktan Media
  • Jamie Fellner, Babban Mashawarci na Shirin Amincewa da Humanan Adam na Amurka
  • Brad Adams, Daraktan Asiya
  • Scott Long, 'yan madigo, Gay, Bisexual, da kuma Daraktan' Yancin Transgender
  • Sarah Leah Whitson, tsohuwar Daraktar Gabas ta Tsakiya da Arewacin Afirka
  • Joe Stork, Mataimakin Daraktan Gabas ta Tsakiya da Arewacin Afirka
  • Marc Garlasco, tsohon ma'aikaci ne, ya yi murabus ne saboda wata badakala da ta shafi tarin kayan
  • Sharon Hom, mamba ce a kwamitin ba da shawara na kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam ta Human Rights Watch / Asia
  • Tae-Ung Baik, tsohon mai ba da shawara kan harkokin bincike
  • Nabeel Rajab, memba na Kwamitin Shawara na Sashin Gabas ta Tsakiya na Human Rights Watch
  • Tejshree Thapa, tsohon Babban mai binciken Kudancin Asiya
  • Ben Rawlence, Dan Jarida kuma tsohon Mai bincike

Littattafai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kungiyar Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam ta Human Rights Watch tana wallafa rahotanni kan batutuwa daban-daban kuma tana tattara rahoton Duniya na shekara-shekara wanda ke gabatar da bayyani game da yanayin 'yancin ɗan adam na duniya. Jaridu Bakwai Bakwai ne suka buga shi tun shekarar 2006; Buga na yanzu, Rahoton Duniya na shekarar 2020, an sake shi a cikin Janairu shekarata 2020, kuma yana ɗaukar abubuwan da suka faru na 2019. Rahoton Duniya na shekarar 2020, HRW na 30 na shekara-shekara game da ayyukan kare hakkin bil'adama a duk duniya, ya hada da sake duba ayyukan al'adu da halaye a kusan kasashe 100, da kuma gabatarwar gabatarwa ta Babban Daraktan HRW Kenneth Roth "Barazanar Duniya ta China ga 'Yancin Dan Adam". Kungiyar kare haƙƙin bil adama ta Human Rights Watch ta ba da rahoto mai yawa a kan batutuwa kamar su kisan kare dangin na Ruwanda na shekarar 1994, Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo da rajistar masu yin lalata da Amurka saboda yawan su da kuma aikace-aikacen da suke yi wa yara.

A lokacin bazara na shekarata 2004, Rare Book and Manuscript Library a Jami'ar Columbia a New York ya zama cibiyar adana kayan tarihi na Human Rights Watch Archive, tarin aiki wanda ke tattara bayanan binciken haƙƙin ɗan adam shekaru da yawa a duniya. An sauya tarihin daga inda yake a baya a Norlin Library a Jami'ar Colorado, Boulder . Rukunin tarihin ya hada da fayilolin gudanarwa, takaddun hulda da jama'a, da kuma harka da fayilolin kasa. Tare da wasu keɓaɓɓu don la'akari da tsaro, al'umman Jami'ar Columbia da jama'a suna da damar yin amfani da bayanan filin, ɗauka da kuma yin hira da wadanda ake zargi da keta hakkin ɗan adam, bidiyo da kaset, da sauran kayan aikin da ke rubuta ayyukan ƙungiyar tun kafuwarta a shekarata kamar yadda Helsinki Kalli. Koyaya, manyan sassa na tarihin HRW ba a buɗe su ga masu bincike ko ga jama'a ba, gami da bayanan tarurrukan kwamitin gudanarwa, kwamitin zartarwa, da ƙananan kwamitoci daban-daban, yana iyakance ikon masana tarihi don fahimtar shawarar cikin ƙungiyar- yin.

Suka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An zargi HRW saboda ganin son zuciya daga gwamnatocin ƙasashe waɗanda ta bincika game da take haƙƙin bil adama, ta NGO Monitor, da kuma wanda ya kafa HRW, kuma tsohon Shugaban, Robert L. Bernstein . Zargin nuna wariya sun hada da tasirin da bai dace ba da manufofin gwamnatin Amurka, da ikirarin cewa HRW na nuna son kai ga Isra'ila (kuma yana mai da hankali sosai kan rikicin Larabawa da Isra'ila ). Har ila yau, an soki HRW saboda rashin kyakkyawar hanyar bincike da sassaucin binciken gaskiya, da kuma yin biris da cin zarafin 'yancin ɗan adam na ƙananan gwamnatocin buɗe ido. HRW ya saba magana a bayyane, kuma galibi yana musantawa, sukan rahotonsa da bincikensa. [3]

A cewar Democracy Now, an kuma soki HRW saboda samun 'kofa mai juyawa' tare da gwamnatin Amurka, tuhumar da HRW ke rikici.

A shekarar 2020, kwamitin Daraktocin HRW ya gano cewa kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam ta Human Rights Watch ta karbi gudummawar dala 470,000 daga attajirin masarautar Saudiyya Mohamed Bin Issa Al Jaber, mamallakin wani kamfanin HRW "wanda a baya aka gano yana da hannu dumu-dumu a cin zarafin ma'aikata", a karkashin sharadin cewa ba za a yi amfani da gudummawa don tallafawa ba da shawara game da LGBT a Gabas ta Tsakiya da Arewacin Afirka ba. An dawo da kyautar kuma kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam ta Human Rights Watch ta ba da wata sanarwa da ke cewa karban tallafin wani "yanke shawara ne mai matukar nadama" dangane da rahoton bincike daga The Intercept game da gudummawar.

A watan Agusta na shekarar 2020, babban daraktan HRW Kenneth Roth ya sanya takunkumi — tare da shugabannin wasu dimokuradiyya hudu da kungiyoyin kare hakkin dan adam da Amurka da ‘yan majalisun Jamhuriyyar Amurka shida - da gwamnatin kasar Sin ta yi don tallafa wa kungiyar kare demokradiyya ta Hongkong a cikin shekarar 2019– 20 Hong Kong zanga-zangar . Shugabannin kungiyoyin biyar sun ga sanya takunkumin, wanda ba a fayyace bayanansa ba, a matsayin matakin t-da-tat a matsayin martani ga takunkumin da Amurka ta ba da na farko na jami'an Hong Kong 11. Matakin na ƙarshe ya kasance martani ne ga aiwatar da Dokar Tsaro ta Kongasar Hong Kong a ƙarshen Yuni.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • 'Yancin ilimi a Gabas ta Tsakiya
  • Gangamin 'Yancin Amurka
  • Avocats Sans Frontières
  • Gidan Yanci
  • Helsinki Kwamitin Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam
  • 'Yancin Dan Adam Na Farko
  • Yarjejeniyar 'Yanci ta Bayyanar da Kasa da Kasa
  • Kungiyar Kare Hakkin Shi'a
  • Haɗin Haɗin Dan Adam na Amurka
  • Hadin kan Duniya da Hukunci kan Mutuwar
  • Rikicin 'yan banga a Indiya

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Form 990" (2019)
  2. Historical Dictionary of Human Rights and Humanitarian Organizations; Edited by Thomas E. Doyle, Robert F. Gorman, Edward S. Mihalkanin; Rowman & Littlefield, 2016; Pg. 137-138
  3. The Transformation of Human Rights Fact-Finding; Sarah Knuckey; Oxford University Press, 2015; Pgs. 355-376