Gabashin Afirka

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Gabashin Afirka


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 1°18′02″S 36°50′50″E / 1.300444°S 36.84726°E / -1.300444; 36.84726
Labarin ƙasa
Bangare na Afirka
Sun raba iyaka da

Gabashin Afirka, Gabashin Afirka، ko Gabashin Afirka. A cikin tsarin Sashen Kididdiga na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na yankuna, yankuna 10-11-(16 *) sun hada da Gabashin Afirka:

Yarjejeniyar kimiyya ta bayyana cewa yankin Gabashin Afirka shine inda mutane na zamani suka fara samo asali kimanin shekaru 200,000 da suka gabata kafin su yi ƙaura zuwa arewa da gabas daga Afirka.

Saboda tarihin Daular Omani da yankunan mulkin mallaka na British East Africa Protectorate da Jamusanci East Africa, ana amfani da kalmar Gabashin Afirka (musamman a cikin harshen Ingilishi) don nunawa musamman ga yankin da yanzu ya ƙunshi ƙasashe uku na Kenya, Tanzania, da Uganda.[1][2][3][4] Koyaya, wannan bai taɓa zama taron ba a wasu harsuna da yawa, inda kalmar gabaɗaya tana da faɗin ƙasa, sabili da haka yawanci sun haɗa da Djibouti, Eritrea, Habasha, da Somalia.[5][6][7][8][9]

Yanayi da yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hoton yankin tsakanin Tafkin Victoria (a dama) da Tafkin Edward, Kivu da Tanganyika (daga arewa zuwa kudu) suna nuna tsintsiya mai yawa (kore mai haske) da wuta (ja).

Wasu sassan Gabashin Afirka sun shahara saboda yawan dabbobi na daji, kamar su "babban biyar": giwa, buffalo, zaki, baƙar fata rhinoceros, da leopard, kodayake yawan jama'a suna raguwa a ƙarƙashin karuwar damuwa a cikin 'yan kwanakin nan, musamman na rhino da giwa.[14]

Yanayin Gabashin Afirka sau da yawa yana da ban sha'awa da kuma kyan gani. An tsara shi ta hanyar dakarun tectonic na duniya waɗanda suka haifar da Rift na Gabashin Afirka, Gabashin Afirka shine shafin Dutsen Kilimanjaro da Dutsen Kenya, tsaunuka biyu mafi tsawo a Afirka. Har ila yau, ya haɗa da tafkin ruwa mai laushi na biyu mafi girma a duniya, Tafkin Victoria, da kuma tafkin ruwa na biyu mafi zurfi a duniya, tafkin Tanganyika .

Yanayin Gabashin Afirka ya fi dacewa da yankunan equatorial. Saboda haɗuwa da tsawo mai tsawo na yankin da inuwa mai ruwan sama na iskar ruwan sama ta yamma da Dutsen Rwenzori da Dutsen Habasha suka kirkira, Gabashin Afirka yana da ban mamaki kuma ya bushe saboda latitude. A zahiri, a bakin tekun Somaliya, shekaru da yawa na iya wucewa ba tare da ruwan sama ba.[15] A wsu wurre ruwn sama na shekara-shekara yana ƙaruwa zuwa kudu kuma tare da tsawo, yana kusa da 400 millimetres (16 in) (16 in) a Mogadishu da 1,200 (47 in) a Mombasa a bakin tekun, yayin da ƙasa yana ƙaruwa daga kusan 130 millimetres (5 in) (5 in) a Garoowe zuwa sama da 1,100 mm (43 in) a Moshi kusa da Kilimanjaro. Ba a saba da shi ba, yawancin ruwan sama yana faɗuwa a cikin lokutan rigar guda biyu, ɗayan yana tsakiyar Afrilu ɗayan kuma a watan Oktoba ko Nuwamba. Wannan yawanci ana danganta shi da wucewar Yankin Intertropical Convergence a fadin yankin a cikin waɗannan watanni, amma kuma yana iya zama daidai da ruwan sama na kaka na sassan Sri Lanka, Vietnam, da Arewa maso gabashin Brazil.

Yammacin tsaunukan Rwenzoris da Habasha, yanayin ruwan sama ya fi dacewa da wurare masu zafi, tare da ruwan sama a duk shekara kusa da ma'auni da kuma lokacin rigar guda ɗaya a mafi yawan tsaunukan Habasha daga Yuni zuwa Satumba yana kwangila zuwa Yuli da Agusta a kusa da Asmara. Ruwan sm n shekara-shekara a nan ya kasance daga sama da 1,600 (63 in) a kan gangaren yaa zuwa kusan 1,250 mm (49 in) a Addis Ababa da 550 millimetres (22 in) mm (22 in) a Asmara. tsaunuka masu tsawo ruwan sama na iya zama sama da 2,500 mm (98 in).

Ruwan sama a Gabashin Afirka yana da manyan lokutan ruwan sama guda biyu, ruwan sama mai tsawo daga Maris zuwa Mayu da gajeren ruwan sama daga Oktoba-Disamba. Bambancin ruwan sama yana rinjayar abubuwan da suka faru na El Niño da kuma Dipole mai kyau na Tekun Indiya. Abubuwan da suka faru na El Nino suna ƙara ruwan sama sai dai a arewa da yammacin yankunan Habasha da Eritrea, inda suke haifar da fari da ambaliyar Nilu mara kyau. Hakazalika, kyakkyawan Dipole na Tekun Indiya yana haifar da yanayin zafi na teku a bakin tekun Gabashin Afirka kuma yana haifar da karuwar ruwan sama a Gabashin Afirka.[16] Yanayin zafi a Gabashin Afirka, ban da a kan zafi da kuma ruwan zafi na bakin teku, suna da matsakaici, tare da matsakaicin kusan 25 °C (77 °F) ° C (77 ) da mafi ƙarancin 15 °C (59 °F) ° C (59 ) a tsawo na mita 1,500 (4,921 ). A tsawo sama da mita 2,500 (8,202 ), sanyi ya zama ruwan dare a lokacin fari kuma mafi girma yawanci game da 21 °C (70 °F) ° C (70 ) ko ƙasa.

Yanayin ƙasa na musamman da bayyanar dacewa don noma ya sanya Gabashin Afirka ya zama manufa ga binciken Turai, amfani da mulkin mallaka a karni na sha tara. A yau, yawon bude ido wani muhimmin bangare ne na tattalin arzikin Kenya, Tanzania, Seychelles, da Uganda. Yankin gabashin nahiyar, wato Ras Hafun a Somaliya, yana da muhimmancin archaeological, tarihi da tattalin arziki.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tarihi na farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dangane da ka'idar asalin Afirka na kwanan nan na mutane na zamani, imani da aka fi sani da shi tsakanin yawancin masu binciken tarihi, Gabashin Afirka a yankin Great Lakes na Afirka shine inda mutane na zamani suka fara bayyana.[17] Akwai ra'ayoyi daban-daban game da ko akwai fitowa guda ɗaya ko da yawa; samfurin watsawa da yawa ya haɗa da ka'idar Yaduwar Kudancin. Wasu masu bincike sun ba da shawarar cewa Arewacin Afirka shine yankin Afirka daga inda mutane na zamani suka fara tafiya daga nahiyar.[18]

Dangane da shaidar kwayar halitta da burbushin halittu, an nuna cewa <i id="mw5Q">Homo sapiens</i> na archaic ya samo asali ne a cikin mutane na zamani a cikin Horn na Afirka kusan shekaru 200,000 da suka gabata kuma ya warwatse daga can.[19][20] Sanar da Homo sapiens idaltu da Omo Kibish a matsayin mutane na zamani zai tabbatar da bayanin mutane na zamani tare da sunan Homo sapiens sapiens. Saboda farkon soyayyarsu da halaye na musamman na jiki idaltu da kibish suna wakiltar kakanninmu na yanzu na mutane na zamani kamar yadda ka'idar Out-of-Africa ta ba da shawarar.[21][22]

Bab-el-Mandeb hayewa a cikin Bahar Maliya: yanzu kimanin kilomita 12 miles (19 km) (19 ) a fadin, ya fi ƙanƙanta a cikin prehistory.

A cikin 2017 binciken gawarwakin mutane na zamani, wanda ya kasance kimanin shekaru 300,000 da suka gabata a Jebel Irhoud a Maroko, ya ba da shawarar cewa mutane na zamani sun tashi a baya kuma mai yiwuwa a cikin yanki mafi girma na Afirka fiye da yadda aka yi tunani a baya.

Gabashin Afirka yana ɗaya daga cikin yankuna na farko inda aka yi imanin cewa Homo sapiens sun rayu. An sami shaidar a cikin 2018, wanda ya kasance kimanin shekaru 320,000 da suka gabata, a shafin yanar gizon Kenya na Olorgesailie, game da farkon fitowar halayen zamani da ke da alaƙa da Homo sapiens, gami da: cibiyoyin cinikayya na nesa (wanda ya haɗa da kayayyaki kamar obsidian), amfani da pigments, da yiwuwar yin maki. Marubutan binciken 2018 guda uku sun lura da shi a shafin, cewa shaidar waɗannan halaye kusan zamani ne ga farkon burbushin Homo sapiens da aka sani daga Afirka (kamar a Jebel Irhoud da Florisbad), kuma sun ba da shawarar cewa halayen rikitarwa da na zamani sun riga sun fara a Afirka a lokacin fitowar Homo sapiens.[23]

A watan Satumbar 2019, masana kimiyya sun ba da rahoton ƙudurin kwamfuta, bisa ga binciken CT 260, na siffar kwanyar kama-da-wane na kakannin ɗan adam na ƙarshe ga mutane na zamani / H. sapiens, wakilin Homo sapiens na farko, kuma sun ba da shawarar cewa Homo sapiens ya tashi tsakanin shekaru 350,000 da 260,000 da suka gabata ta hanyar haɗuwa da yawan jama'a a Kudu da Gabashin Afirka.

Hanyar ƙaura ta ka'idar "Fitar da Afirka" mai yiwuwa ta faru ne a Gabashin Afirka duk da haka ta hanyar Bab el Mandeb

A yau a Bab-el-Mandeb straits, Bahar Maliya tana da nisan kilomita 12 miles (19 km) (kilomita 19) amma shekaru 50,000 da suka gabata ya fi ƙanƙanta kuma matakan teku sun kasance mita 70 ƙasa. Kodayake ba a taɓa rufe ƙuƙwalwar gaba ɗaya ba, akwai yiwuwar akwai tsibirai a tsakanin waɗanda za a iya isa ta amfani da rafts masu sauƙi.

An samo wasu daga cikin kasusuwan hominin na farko a cikin yankin da ya fi girma, gami da burbushin da aka gano a cikin kwarin Awash na Habasha, da kuma Koobi Fora a Kenya da Olduvai Gorge a Tanzania.

Yankin kudancin Gabashin Afirka ya mamaye har zuwa kwanan nan ta hanyar mafarauta-mai tarawa na Khoisan, yayin da a cikin tsaunukan Habasha jaki da irin waɗannan shuke-shuke na amfanin gona kamar teff sun ba da damar fara aikin gona a kusa da 7,000 KZ. Duk da haka, shingen ƙasa da cututtukan da tsetse fly ke ɗauka sun hana jaki da aikin gona daga yaduwa zuwa kudu. Sai kawai a cikin 'yan kwanakin nan aikin gona ya bazu zuwa yankunan da suka fi zafi a kudancin ma'auni, ta hanyar yaduwar shanu, tumaki da amfanin gona kamar millet. Rarraba harsuna sun nuna cewa wannan mai yiwuwa ya faru ne daga Sudan zuwa yankin Great Lakes na Afirka, tunda yarukan Nilotic da waɗannan manoman pre-Bantu ke magana suna da danginsu mafi kusa a tsakiyar kogin Nilu.

Tarihin Da[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  Djibouti, Eritrea, Habasha, Somalia, da gaɓar Bahar Maliya ta Sudan ana ɗaukar su ne mafi kusantar wurin ƙasar da tsoffin Masarawa suka sani da Punt. Magana ta farko da aka ambaci tsohuwar masarautar ta kasance a karni na 25 KZ. Tsohon Puntites al'umma ce ta mutanen da ke da kyakkyawar dangantaka da Fir'auna Masar a zamanin Fir'auna Sahure da Sarauniya Hatshepsut .

Masarautar Aksum daular kasuwanci ce da ke tsakiyar Eritrea da arewacin Habasha . Ya wanzu daga kimanin 100940 AZ, yana girma daga zamanin ƙarfe na Aksumite c. 4th century BCE. don samun matsayi a ƙarni na 1 AZ. An ambaci masarautar a cikin Periplus na Tekun Erythraean a matsayin muhimmiyar kasuwa ga hauren giwa, wanda aka fitar dashi a duk faɗin duniya ta dā. Aksum a lokacin yana ƙarƙashin mulkin Zoskales, wanda kuma ke mulkin tashar jiragen ruwa ta Adulis. Shugabannin Aksumite sun sauƙaƙa cinikayya ta hanyar yin kuɗin Aksumite nasu. Har ila yau, jihar ta kafa ikonta a kan mulkin Kush mai raguwa kuma a kai a kai ta shiga siyasar masarautun a kan tsibirin Larabawa, a ƙarshe ta mika mulkinta a kan yankin laraba tare da cin nasarar Masarautar Himyarite.

Yaɗuwar Bantu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsakanin shekaru 2500 zuwa 3000 da suka gabata, al'ummar Bantu masu magana sun fara ƙaura na tsawon shekaru dubunnan zuwa gabas daga ƙasarsu ta kudancin Kamaru. Wannan fadada Bantu ya gabatar da aikin noma zuwa yawancin yankin manyan tabkunan Afirka. A cikin ƙarni goma sha biyar da suka biyo baya, Bantu sannu a hankali sun ƙarfafa noma da kiwo a duk yankuna masu dacewa na Gabashin Afirka, a cikin wannan tsari suna tuntuɓar mazauna Austronesian - da Larabci - mazauna yankunan kudancin bakin teku. Na karshen kuma ya yada addinin Islama zuwa bel na bakin teku, amma yawancin Bantu sun kasance masu bin Addinin Gargajiya na Afirka .

Binciken ƙarfe na farko a Gabas da Kudancin Afirka

A cikin ƙarnuka da yawa, yawancin mutanen da ke farautar abinci sun yi hijira kuma al'ummomin Bantu masu shigowa sun shawo kansu, da kuma al'ummar Nilotic daga baya. Yaduwar Bantu ya kasance jerin dogon lokaci na ƙaura ta jiki, yaduwar harshe da ilimi a ciki da ciki daga maƙwabta, da kuma kirkirar sabbin ƙungiyoyin al'umma da suka haɗa da aure tsakanin al'ummomi da ƙananan ƙungiyoyi da ke motsawa zuwa al'ummomin da ƙananan ƙungiyoyin da ke motsa zuwa sababbin yankuna.

Bayan motsawa daga asalin ƙasarsu a Yammacin Afirka, Bantus kuma sun haɗu da mutanen tsakiyar gabashin Afirka na asalin Cushitic. [ana buƙatar ƙa'ida] Kamar yadda kalmar shanu da ake amfani da ita tsakanin ƙananan ƙungiyoyin makiyaya na Bantu na zamani ke nunawa, 'yan gudun hijirar Bantu za su sami shanu daga sabbin maƙwabtansu na Cushit. Shaidar harshe ta kuma nuna cewa Bantus mai yiwuwa ya karɓi al'adar shayar da shanu kai tsaye daga mutanen Cushitic a yankin.[24]

A yankin bakin teku na yankin Great Lakes na Afirka, wani al'umma mai gauraye na Bantu ya ci gaba ta hanyar hulɗa da ƴan kasuwa Musulmi Larabawa da Farisa, wanda ya haifar da ci gaban jihohin Larabawa, Farisa da Afirka na Swahili. Al'adun Swahili da suka fito daga waɗannan musayar sun nuna tasirin Larabawa da Islama da yawa waɗanda ba a gani a al'adun gargajiya na Bantu ba, kamar yadda yawancin mambobin Afirka-Arabiya na mutanen Bantu Swahili suke yi. Tare da al'ummarta ta asali da ke kan yankunan bakin teku na Tanzania (musamman Zanzibar) da Kenya da ke bakin teku da ake kira Swahili Coast yaren Bantu Swahili ya ƙunshi kalmomin aro na Larabci da yawa sakamakon waɗannan hulɗar.[25]

Mutanen Bantu na farko na gabar gabashin Kenya da Tanzania da waɗannan mazauna Larabawa da Farisa suka haɗu da su an gano su daban-daban tare da ƙauyukan kasuwanci na Rhapta, Azania da Menouthias da aka ambata a farkon rubuce-rubucen Helenanci da Sinanci daga 50 AZ zuwa 500 AZ, wanda ya haifar da sunan Tanzania.[26][27][28][29] Waɗannan rubuce-rubucen farko wataƙila sun rubuta raƙuman farko na mazauna Bantu don isa tsakiyar gabashin Afirka yayin ƙaura.

Tsakanin ƙarni na 14 da 15, manyan masarautu da jihohin Great Lakes na Afirka sun fito, kamar masarautun Buganda[30] da Karagwe[30] na Uganda da Tanzania.

Tarihin zamani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Zamanin Larabawa da Mutanen Fotugal[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Portuguese sune Turawa na farko da suka binciki yankin Kenya, Tanzania, da Mozambique ta teku. Vasco da Gama ya ziyarci Mombasa a cikin 1498. Tafiyar Da Gama ta yi nasara wajen isa Indiya, wanda ya ba da damar Portuguese su yi ciniki tare da Gabas ta Tsakiya kai tsaye ta teku. Wannan kuma ya kalubalanci tsofaffin hanyoyin kasuwanci na hanyoyin ƙasa da na teku, kamar hanyoyin kasuwancin kayan yaji waɗanda ke amfani da Tekun Farisa, Bahar Maliya, da kuma raƙuma don isa gabashin Bahar Rum.[31]

Jamhuriyar Venice ta sami iko a kan yawancin hanyoyin kasuwanci tsakanin Turai da Asiya. Bayan da Turks na Ottoman suka rufe hanyoyin ƙasa na gargajiya zuwa Indiya, Portugal na fatan amfani da hanyar teku da da da Gama ya jagoranci don karya ikon cinikin Venetian. Mulkin Portuguese a yankin Great Lakes na Afirka ya fi mayar da hankali a kan wani bakin teku da ke kewaye da Mombasa. Kasancewar Portuguese a yankin ya fara ne bayan 1505, lokacin da flagships a karkashin umurnin Don Francisco de Almeida suka ci Kilwa, tsibirin da ke cikin abin da ke yanzu kudancin Tanzania.

A watan Maris na shekara ta 1505, bayan ya karbi nadin mataimakin sarki na sabuwar yankin da aka ci nasara a Indiya daga Manuel I na Portugal, ya tashi daga Lisbon a matsayin kwamandan babban jirgin ruwa mai karfi, kuma ya isa watan Yuli a Quiloa (Kilwa), wanda ya mika shi kusan ba tare da gwagwarmaya ba. Moors na Mombasa sun ba da juriya mai ƙarfi. Koyaya, an kwace garin kuma an lalata shi, kuma manyan dukiyarsa sun tafi don ƙarfafa albarkatun Almeida. Hare-haren sun biyo baya a kan Hoja (wanda yanzu ake kira Ungwana, wanda ke bakin Kogin Tana), Barawa, Angoche, Pate da sauran garuruwan bakin teku har zuwa yammacin Tekun Indiya ya zama mafaka mai aminci ga bukatun kasuwanci na Portugal. A wasu wurare a kan hanyarsa, kamar tsibirin Angediva, kusa da Goa, da Cannanore, Portuguese sun gina sansanoni, kuma sun dauki matakai don tabbatar da ikon Portuguese.

Lokacin mulkin mallaka na Turawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taswirar Burtaniya ta Gabashin Afirka a cikin 1911

Tsakanin karni na 19 da 20, Gabashin Afirka ya zama gidan wasan kwaikwayo na gasa tsakanin manyan kasashen Turai masu mulkin mallaka na lokacin. Manyan launuka uku na ƙasar Afirka sune beige, ja, da shuɗi. Jar ya tsaya ga Turanci, shuɗi ya tsaya ga Faransanci, kuma beige ya tsaya ga Jamus a lokacin mulkin mallaka. A lokacin Scramble for Africa, kusan kowace ƙasa a cikin yankin da ya fi girma zuwa digiri daban-daban sun zama wani ɓangare na mulkin mallaka na Turai.

Portugal ta fara kafa ƙarfi a kudancin Mozambique da Tekun Indiya tun daga ƙarni na 15, yayin da a wannan lokacin dukiyarsu ta karu ciki har da sassa daga arewacin Mozambique na yanzu, har zuwa Mombasa a Kenya ta yanzu. A Tafkin Malawi, a ƙarshe sun sadu da Ƙungiyar Burtaniya ta Nyasaland (yanzu Malawi), wanda ke kewaye da tafkin mai suna a bangarori uku, ya bar Portuguese ikon mallakar gabashin tafkin. Daular Burtaniya ta kafu a cikin yankunan da suka fi amfani da su da kuma alkawura da ke samun abin da ke Uganda a yau, da Kenya. The Protectorate of Uganda da Colony of Kenya sun kasance a cikin wani yanki mai arziki gonar da ya fi dacewa da noman amfanin gona kamar kofi da shayi, da kuma kiwon dabbobi tare da kayayyakin da aka samar daga shanu da awaki, kamar naman awaki, naman sa da madara. Bugu da ƙari, wannan yanki yana da damar fadada zama mai mahimmanci, ya dace da sake komawa yawancin 'yan Burtaniya zuwa yankin. Yanayin yanayi da ke faruwa da yanayin yanayin yankuna sun ba da damar kafa ƙauyuka masu tasowa na Turai kamar Nairobi, Vila Pery, Vila Junqueiro, Porto Amélia, Lourenço Marques da Entebbe.

Faransanwa sun zauna tsibirin mafi girma a Tekun Indiya (kuma na huɗu mafi girma a duniya), Madagascar, tare da ƙungiyar ƙananan tsibirai da ke kusa, wato Réunion da Comoros.[32] Madagascar ta zama wani ɓangare na mulkin mallaka na Faransa bayan yaƙe-yaƙe biyu na soja a kan Masarautar Madagascar, wanda ya fara bayan ya shawo kan Burtaniya ta bar abubuwan da take so a tsibirin don musayar ikon Zanzibar a bakin tekun Tanganyika, wani muhimmin tsibirin tsibirin cinikin kayan yaji. Har ila yau, Burtaniya ta mallaki tsibirai da yawa a yankin, gami da tsibirin Seychelles da tsibirin noma mai arziki na Mauritius, a baya a ƙarƙashin ikon mallakar Faransa.

Daular Jamus ta sami iko da babban yanki mai suna Jamus Gabashin Afirka, wanda ya ƙunshi Rwanda, Burundi da kuma yankin Tanzania mai suna Tanganyika. A shekara ta 1922, Birtaniya ta sami umarnin League of Nations a kan Tanganyika wanda ta gudanar har sai an ba da 'ƴancin kai ga Tanganyika a 1961. Bayan juyin juya halin Zanzibar na 1965, jihar Tanganyika mai zaman kanta ta kafa Jamhuriyar Tarayyar Tanzania ta hanyar kirkirar hadin kai tsakanin yankin, da tsibirin tsibirin Zanzibar. Zanzibar yanzu jiha ce mai cin gashin kanta a cikin hadin gwiwa tare da babban yankin wanda aka hada kai kuma ana kiransa Tanzania. Jamusanci Gabashin Afirka, ko da yake yana da yawa, ba shi da irin wannan mahimmancin dabarun kamar yankunan mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya a arewa: zama a waɗannan ƙasashe yana da wahala kuma saboda haka yana da iyaka, galibi saboda yanayin yanayi da yanayin ƙasa na gida. Italiya ta sami iko da sassa daban-daban na Somaliya a cikin shekarun 1880. Kudancin kashi uku cikin hudu na Somaliya ya zama mai kula da Italiya (Italian Somaliland).

A halin yanzu, a cikin 1884, wani karamin bakin teku na Somaliland ya kasance ƙarƙashin ikon Burtaniya (British Somaliland). Wannan kariya ta Somaliland ta kasance a gaban mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya na Aden a yankin Larabawa. Tare da waɗannan yankuna da aka tabbatar, Burtaniya ta sami damar zama mai tsaron ƙofar hanyar teku da ke kaiwa Indiya ta Burtaniya. A cikin 1890, farawa da sayen ƙaramin tashar jiragen ruwa na (Asseb) daga wani sultan na gida a Eritrea, Italiyanci sun mallaki dukan Eritrea.

A shekara ta 1895, daga sansanoni a Somaliya da Eritrea, Italiyanci sun kaddamar da Yakin Italiya na farko da Habasha a kan Daular Orthodox ta Habasha. A shekara ta 1896, yakin ya zama bala'i ga Italiyanci kuma Habasha ta sami damar riƙe 'yancin kanta. Habasha ta kasance mai zaman kanta har zuwa 1936 lokacin da, bayan Yaƙin Italo-Abyssinian na Biyu, ta zama wani ɓangare na Gabashin Afirka ta Italiya. Kasuwancin Italiya na Habasha ya ƙare a 1941 a lokacin yakin duniya na biyu a matsayin wani ɓangare na yakin Gabashin Afirka .Har ila yau, Faransanci sun kafa wani sansanin Gabashin Afirka a kan hanyar zuwa Indochina ta Faransa. Farawa a cikin shekarun 1850, ƙaramin mai kariya na Djibouti ya zama Somaliland na Faransa a cikin 1897.    

Yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gabashin Afirka yana da sauye-sauyen yanayi daban-daban wanda ya kunshi yankuna masu zafi, yankunan hamada masu bushe, masu sanyi, da tsaunuka.

Shahararrun hotuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai fina-finai da suka nuna Gabashin Afirka a cikin siffofi daban-daban. 7 Days a Entebbe, Sarkin Scotland na Ƙarshe, Daga Afirka, Sarauniyar Katwe, The Constant Gardener, Otal Rwanda, The Good Lie, da Kyaftin Phillips wasu daga cikin fina-fallafen da aka yaba da su. A cikin wasannin bidiyo Halo 2 da Halo 3, Gabashin Afirka yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan wurare don kamfen ɗin.

Fasaha[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Addini[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kasashe, manyan birane da manyan birane[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cewar CIA, tun daga shekarar 2017, kasashen da ke gabashin Afirka suna da yawan jama'a kusan mazauna miliyan 537.9.

Ƙasar / Yankin Babban Birni Birni mafi girma ta yawan jama'a Birni na biyu mafi girma ta yawan jama'a[33]
Al'ummar Gabashin Afirka
Burundi Gitega (22,989; 2012 gabas.) Bujumbura Muyinga
Jamhuriyar dimokuradiyya Kwango Kinshasa Kinshasa Mbuji-Mayi
Kenya Nairobi Nairobi Mombasa (915,101; 2009 gabas.)
Ruwanda Kigali Kigali Gitarama
Sudan ta Kudu Juba Juba Malakal
Tanzaniya Dodoma Dar es Salaam Mwanza
Uganda Kampala (1,507,114; 2014 gabas.) Kampala Gulu
Ƙahon Afirka
Jibuti Birnin Djibouti (529,000; 2018 gabas.) Birnin Djibouti Ali Sabieh
Eritrea Asmara Asmara Keren
Habasha Addis Ababa Addis Ababa (2,739,551; 2007 gabas.) Ka ce Dawa
Somaliya Mogadishu (2,572,125) Mogadishu Hargeisa
Tekun Indiya
Birtaniya Camp Thunder Cove Camp Thunder Cove Sanya
Komoros Moroni Moroni Mutsamudu
Faransa Saint Peter Tashar jiragen ruwa ta Faransa Sanya
{{country data Madagascar}} Antananarivo (1,015,140; 2005 ya kasance.) Antananarivo Toamasina (3,133,518; 2009 ya kasance.)
Moris Port Louis Port Louis Beau Bassin-Rose Hill
Faransa Mamoudzou Mamoudzou Dzaoudzi
Faransa Saint Denis Saint Denis Saint Paul
Seychelles Victoria Victoria Tauraron Anse
Arewa maso gabashin Afirka
Sudan Khartoum Omdurman Khartoum
Kudu maso gabashin Afirka
Malawi Lilongwe (868,800; 2012 gabas.) Lilongwe Blantyre (783,296; 2012 gabas.)
Mozambik Maputo Maputo Nampula
Zambiya Lusaka Lusaka Kitwe
Zimbabwe Harare Harare Bulawayo

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "East Africa". The New Oxford Dictionary of English, Judy Pearsall, ed. 2001. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; p. 582. "The eastern part of the African continent, especially the countries of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania."
  2. Robert M. Maxon, East Africa: An Introductory History, 2 Revised edition, (West Virginia University: 1994), p. 1
  3. Mary Fitzpatrick and Tom Parkinson, Lonely Planet East Africa, 7th edition, (Lonely Planet Publications: 2006), p. 13
  4. Stock, Africa South of the Sahara, Second Ed., p. 24
  5. Somaliland is not included in the United Nations geoscheme, as it is internationally recognized as a part of Somalia.
  6. "East Africa". Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed. 2001. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.; p. 339. "A term often used of the area now comprising the countries of Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Somalia; sometimes used to include also other neighboring countries of E Africa."
  7. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc, Jacob E. Safra, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.61
  8. "East Africa". Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. 2003. The Gage Group Inc. "East Africa comprises ten countries: Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, and Kenya."
  9. Sandra Fullerton Joireman, Institutional Change in the Horn of Africa, (Universal-Publishers: 1997), p.1
  10. Robert Stock, Africa South of the Sahara, Second Edition: A Geographical Interpretation, (The Guildford Press; 2004), p. 26
  11. Michael Hodd, East Africa Handbook, 7th Edition, (Passport Books: 2002), p. 21: "To the north are the countries of the Horn of Africa comprising Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia."
  12. Encyclopedia Britannica, inc, Jacob E. Safra, The New Encyclopedia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.61: "The northern mountainous area, known as the Horn of Africa, comprises Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia and Somaliland."
  13. Sandra Fullerton Joireman, Institutional Change in the Horn of Africa, (Universal-Publishers: 1997), p.1: "The Horn of Africa encompasses the countries of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia. These countries share similar peoples, languages, and geographical endowments."
  14. Emslie, R. (2012). Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en
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  24. J. D. Fage, A history of Africa, Routledge, 2002, p.29
  25. Daniel Don Nanjira, African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st Century, ABC-CLIO, 2010, p.114
  26. Casson, Lionel (1989). The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Lionel Casson. (Translation by H. Frisk, 1927, with updates and improvements and detailed notes). Princeton, Princeton University Press.
  27. Chami, F. A. (1999). "The Early Iron Age on Mafia Island and its relationship with the mainland." Azania Vol. XXXIV 1999, pp. 1–10.
  28. Chami, Felix A. 2002. "The Egypto-Graeco-Romans and Paanchea/Azania: sailing in the Erythraean Sea." From: Red Sea Trade and Travel. The British Museum. Sunday 6 October 2002. Organised by The Society for Arabian Studies
  29. Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. See especially Section 15 on Zesan = Azania and notes.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Roland Oliver, et al. "Africa South of the Equator," in Africa Since 1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 24–25.
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