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Abdul Halim Mahmoud

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Abdul Halim Mahmoud
46. Grand Imam of al-Azhar (en) Fassara

1973 - 1978
Muhammad al-Fahham (en) Fassara - Muhammad Abd al-Rahman Bisar (en) Fassara
Minister of Religious Endowment (en) Fassara


Abdul Aziz Kamel (en) Fassara - Abdul Aziz Kamel (en) Fassara
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Bilbeis (en) Fassara, 12 Mayu 1910
ƙasa Daular Usmaniyya
Misra
Republic of Egypt (en) Fassara
United Arab Republic (en) Fassara
Kingdom of Egypt (en) Fassara
Sultanate of Egypt (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Kairo, 17 Oktoba 1978
Karatu
Makaranta Faculty of Arts of Paris (en) Fassara
Jami'ar Al-Azhar
Harsuna Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a Liman
Employers Jami'ar Al-Azhar
Imani
Addini Mabiya Sunnah

Abdel-Halim Mahmoud (Arabic) (12 ga watan Mayu 1910- 17 ga watan Oktoba aka haife shi 1978; 2 Jumaada al-awal 1328 AH - 14 Al-Qi Canaldah 1398 AH) ya yi aiki a matsayin Babban Imam na al-Azhar daga 1973 har zuwa mutuwarsa a 1978. Wasu sun kira shi "mai son zuciya da ƙaunatacce"[1] an san shi da tsarin zamani na koyarwa a Jami'ar Al-Azhar, yana wa'azi da daidaitawa da kuma rungumar kimiyya ta zamani a matsayin aikin addini.

An haifi Abdel-Halim Mahmoud a ranar 12 ga Mayu 1910 a ƙauyen Abou Ahmed (yanzu Al Salam), a cikin Gwamnatin Sharqia, kilomita 50 a arewa maso gabashin Alkahira, Misira. Ya haddace Alkur'ani tun yana ƙarami sannan ya fara karatunsa a Jami'ar Al-Azhar inda ya kammala a 1932. Daga nan ya ci gaba da karatunsa a Faransa, inda ya sami digiri na biyu a Falsafa daga Jami'ar Paris - La Sorbonne a 1940.

A cewar masana Moshe Albo da Yoram Meital, jigogi da suka sake faruwa a rubuce-rubucen Mahmoud sune:

muhimmancin ilimi da ilimi; fifiko na ɗabi'ar Musulunci da ɗabi'a; bambancin tarihin Musulmi; haɗin ruhaniya da shari'ar Musulmi; ƙin yarda da Sauran (misali, Yamma, Zionist, kwaminisanci, na duniya, da kuma ridda); hauhawar tauhidin Musulunci da doka; da kuma buƙatar sake fasalin siyasar Masar da al'umma daidai da ginshiƙan Islama.

Dokar Musulunci

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mahmoud ya kasance mai goyon baya na maye gurbin dokar farar hula ta Masar da Sharia . Ya yi jayayya cewa Hudud (waɗannan hukunce-hukuncen shari'a waɗanda aka ba da umarni kuma an gyara su) hukuncin yanke hannun ɓarawo Allah ne ya ba da umarnin kuma lokacin da Ibn Saud ya aiwatar da shi ya kawo doka da oda ga Saudi Arabia - duk da cewa dole ne a aiwatar da shi sau bakwai kawai.[2]

A gefe guda, Mahmoud ya ba da fatwa na shari'a wanda ke tallafawa mafi ƙarancin shekaru goma sha shida na aure ga 'yan mata, duk da cewa ya yarda da cewa al'adar Shari'a ba ta ƙayyade ainihin shekarun ba. Ya yi jayayya cewa "al'ummomin da suka ci gaba sun sanya shekarun aure a goma sha shida, kuma wannan ya dace".[2][3]

Ga Mahmoud, "duk wani gyare-gyare - ko a matakin mutum ko a matakin al'umma - ya fara da kimiyya, ya zama kimiyya addini ko kayan aiki..... Ko mun fara hanyar sake fasalin daga mahimmancin kimiyyar ka'ida ko daga na kayan aiki ko kimiyyar kwarewa, dole ne a cika kokarinmu da manufa. Wannan manufar wajibi ne ga Musulunci, saboda kimiyya dole ne ta zama tushen hanyar zuwa ga Allah. Lalle ne, ilimi wani nau'i ne na bauta da kuma wani nau'in jihadi.

A lokacin da yake Babban Imam, Al-Azhar ya ga sauye-sauye da farfadowa da ba a taɓa gani ba, gami da gabatar da sabbin fannoni, hanyoyin koyarwa da salon gudanarwa.

Ana kuma tunawa da Abdel-Halim Mahmoud don farfado da Sufism ta hanyar rubuce-rubucensa da laccoci game da batun. An rinjaye shi sosai daga Sudanese Sufi Sheikh Mohammed Osman Abdu al-Burhany wanda ilimin sa ya tsara ra'ayinsa game da Sufism.

"Abd al-Halim Mahmud (1910-1978) ana tunawa da shi a matsayin tsohon shugaban al-Azhar wanda ya rubuta abubuwa da yawa game da Sufism. Ana kiransa da taken girmamawa, 'al-Ghazali, a cikin karni na 14 A.H.'2, taken da aka ba shi saboda ikonsa na musamman na haɗa bangarorin da ba su dace ba da kuma bangarorin addinin Islama (wanda galibi ana ɗaukarsa masu sabawa a kallo na farko). Ya zama mai tasiri a cikin shekarun 1960 zuwa 1970, lokacin Sadat wanda farfadowar Islama ta fara tasowa a Masar.

"Abd al-Halim ya gabatar da tasawwuf a matsayin hanyar kimiyya wacce za ta ba mutane damar fahimtar ainihin gaskiyar. An bayyana ainihin tasawwuf a matsayin ilimi (ma Destiny) na yankin metaphysical. Metaphysics shine kimiyya na bayyana ɓoyayyun fannoni na Allah da kuma bayyana annabce-annabce. Ya jaddada bambancin da yake da shi na 'mysticism'-ya ba da shawarar cewa tasawwuf ba hanya ce kawai ta camfi ba, amma filin kimiyya ne (Mahmud Al-Munqidh: 224-233). Chanin Abd al-Halim ya ambaci Chanin Abbas Mahmud al- Chanin Abbad (d. 1964) a cikin cewa Chanin Abbalah wani yanki ne na ilimi wanda babu kimiyyar jiki, fahimta (fikr), ko kuma nau'ikan fahimta daban-daban (basira da dai sauransu) da ke da damar shiga. Tasawwuf shine kawai kimiyya da za ta iya shiga wannan masarautar, saboda kodayake wasu kimiyyar suna da alaƙa da ikon ɗan adam, tasawwuf ba (wanda aka ambata daga ibid. 352-353).

"Abd al-Halim's Sufism ya kunshi abubuwa uku- Sukiya, Jihad, da kuma Sukiya. Na farko shi ne da'awar, ilimin Shari'ar Musulunci. Ya jaddada muhimmancin rayuwa bisa ga shari'a, kuma ya tsara cewa ya kamata a fahimci Dokar Islama kuma a yi ta yadda ya kamata. Bugu da ƙari, ya ambaci aikin Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, wanda ya bayyana cewa Allah zai albarkaci waɗanda suka aikata bisa ga ilimin su na Dokar - ba tare da la'akari da yadda jahilci suke ba - amma zai azabtar da waɗanda suka yi watsi da dokar ba tare da sanin su ba. Na biyu shi ne jihadi, ƙoƙarin sanya kanka a cikin gaskiyar zamantakewa da kuma warware matsalolin da mutum ke fuskanta. Yanayin Abd al-Halim na Sufi ba a nuna shi ta hanyar manufar 'masu sihiri' (waɗanda ke zaune a ɓoye, suna yin tsattsauran ra'ayi). Ya bayyana cewa dole ne Sufi ya himmatu ga warware matsalolin lokacin, kuma ya ba da misalin Chan Abd al-Qadir al-Jazai'rli (d.1883), wanda ya yi yaƙi don kare Aljeriya daga Faransa (ibid. 15-16). Na uku shi ne "bautar Allah": kasancewa daidai da sadaukarwa. Lokacin da aka kai ga shi, an ba da shi, kuma Allah ya ba mai bi da Rahama (ibid. 12) ".[4]

  • Manhaj al-islah al-islami fi-al-mujtam' (Hanyar Gyara Musulunci a cikin Al'umma), Abdel-Halim Mahmoud, Alkahira: Janar kungiyar Littafin Masar (GEBO), 2005.
  • "Babban Imamai na Al-Azhar (Shuyukhul Azhar) " a www.sunnah.org.
  1. Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. pp. 150–151. ISBN 978-1780744209. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Empty citation (help)
  3. `Abd al-Halim Madmud, Fatawa, 2:132, 434
  4. Paper originally prepared by Hatsuki Aishima for an international conference "Sufism, Culture, Music" held from 12 to 15 November 2005 in Tlemcen, Algeria Archived 11 Oktoba 2009 at the Wayback Machine

Haɗin waje

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