Jump to content

Alodia

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Alodia

Wuri
Map
 17°39′00″N 33°59′00″E / 17.65°N 33.98333°E / 17.65; 33.98333

Babban birni Soba (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Addini Coptic Orthodox Church (en) Fassara
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira <abbr title="Circa (en) Fassara">c. First half (en) Fassara 6 century
Rushewa <abbr title="Circa (en) Fassara">c. 1504
Tsarin Siyasa
Tsarin gwamnati Sarauta
Alodia

Wuri
Map
 17°39′00″N 33°59′00″E / 17.65°N 33.98333°E / 17.65; 33.98333

Babban birni Soba (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Addini Coptic Orthodox Church (en) Fassara
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira <abbr title="Circa (en) Fassara">c. First half (en) Fassara 6 century
Rushewa <abbr title="Circa (en) Fassara">c. 1504
Tsarin Siyasa
Tsarin gwamnati Sarauta


Alodia, wacce kuma aka fi sani da Alwa (Greek, Aruwa; [1] Larabci: علوة‎, ʿAlwa), wata masarauta ce a kudancin Sudan a yanzu. Babban birninta shine birnin Soba, dake kusa da Khartoum na zamani a mahaɗar kogin Blue and White Nile.

wani mashahurin ginin alodia

An kafa ta a wani lokaci bayan daular Kush ta faɗi, kusan shekara ta 350 AD, an fara ambaton Alodia a cikin tarihin tarihi a shekara ta 569. Ita ce ta ƙarshe daga cikin masarautun Nubian uku da suka koma Kiristanci a shekarar 580, bayan Nobadia da Makuria. Ta yiwu ta kai kololuwarta a cikin ƙarni na 9 zuwa 12 lokacin da bayanai suka nuna cewa ta zarce makwabciyarta ta arewa, Makuria, wadda take da alaƙa ta kut-da-kut, girmanta, ƙarfin soja da wadatar tattalin arziki. Da yake Alodia babbar ƙasa ce mai al'adu dabam-dabam, wani sarki mai iko da hakiman larduna da ya naɗa ne ke gudanar da mulkin Alodia. Soba babban birnin kasar, wanda aka kwatanta shi a matsayin gari mai "zaman gidaje da coci-coci cike da zinariya da lambuna", [2] ya ci gaba a matsayin cibiyar kasuwanci. Kayayyakin sun zo ne daga Makuria, Gabas ta Tsakiya, Yammacin Afirka, Indiya har ma da China. Ilimin karatu a cikin Nubian da Girkanci ya bunƙasa.

Tun daga karni na 12, musamman a karni na 13, Alodia tana raguwa, mai yiyuwa ne saboda mamayewa daga kudanci, fari da kuma canjin hanyoyin kasuwanci. A cikin karni na 14, watakila annobar ta lalata kasar, yayin da kabilun Larabawa suka fara ƙaura zuwa kwarin Upper Nile. A kusan shekarun 1500 Soba ta faɗa hannun Larabawa ko Funj. Wataƙila wannan ya nuna ƙarshen Alodia, kodayake wasu al'adun baka na Sudan sun yi iƙirarin cewa ta rayu a cikin tsarin mulkin Fazughli a cikin iyakokin Habasha da Sudan. Bayan rugujewar Soba, Funj ya kafa Sarkin Musulmin Sennar, inda ya kawo lokacin Musulunci da kuma Larabawa.

Sources[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Old photo of a man looking at a capital
Wani jami'in mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya yana kallon babban birni a Soba, 1905
A photo of the site of Soba
Soba yayin da ake tonowa a ƙarshen 2019

Alodia ita ce mafi ƙarancin karatu game da masarautun Nubian uku na tsakiya, [3] don haka shaida ba ta da ƙarfi sosai. [3] Mafi yawan abin da aka sani game da ita ya fito ne daga ƴan tsirarun malaman tarihi na Larabci na zamanin da. Mafi mahimmancin wadannan su ne masana ilimin kasa na Musulunci al-Yaqubi (karni na 9), Ibn Hawqal da al-Aswani (karni na 10), wadanda dukkansu suka ziyarci kasar, da kuma dan Copt Abu al-Makarim [4] (karni na 12). [2] Abubuwan da suka faru a kusa da Kiristanci na mulkin a cikin karni na 6 an kwatanta su ta wurin bishop John na Afisa na wannan lokacin; [2] Madogara daban-daban na Sudan ta baya-bayan nan suna magana game da faɗuwarta. [5] [6] Al-Aswani ya lura cewa ya yi hulɗa da wani masanin tarihi na Nubian wanda ya kasance "masanin al'ummar Alwa", [2] amma har yanzu ba a gano wani aikin tarihin Nubian na tsakiya ba. [5]

Duk da yake an san wuraren Alodian da yawa, [2] babban birnin Soba ne kawai aka tona sosai. [4] An gano sassa na wannan rukunin yanar gizon a farkon shekarun 1950, an sake yin tono abubuwa a cikin shekarun 1980s da 1990s. [7] Wani sabon aikin bincike da yawa ana shirin farawa a ƙarshen 2019. [8] Soba tana kusan 2.75 km2 girmansa kuma an lulluɓe shi da tarkacen bulo da yawa a baya mallakar manyan gine-gine. [7] Binciken da aka yi ya zuwa yanzu sun haɗa da coci-coci da dama, gidan faɗa, makabartu da ƙananun abubuwa masu yawa. [4]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bronze figurine of a bound man.
Figurine na tagulla na Kushite, karni na farko BC. Rubutun Meroitic a ƙarƙashinsa yana bayyana wanda aka kama a matsayin sarkin Nubian . [9]
Aerial photography of fort remains
Ragowar kagara na Umm Marrahi kusa da Omdurman, tun daga karni na 6.
Graffito in the form a cross carved into a brick.
Ketare rubutu daga Musawwarat es-Sufra
Monograms na Shugaban Mala'iku Mika'ilu a cikin wani dutse kusa da Meroe. Irin waɗannan monograms ɗin da alama sun kasance mafi shaharar magana a cikin Alodia, yayin da dogon rubutun ba safai ba. [10]
A pen and ink drawing of a mounted man wearing Arab dress and carrying a spear
Misalin ƙarshen karni na 15 na mahayin doki Balarabe na Arnold von Harff
Portrait of brown-skinned man wearing a white turban and with scarification on his cheek
Abdallab mai irin tabon kabilanci . Abdallab dai ya samo asali ne daga Abdallah Jammah, wanda ake zargin ya halaka Alodia.
A robed man with a sword
Farkon karni na 19 Funj manjil ("kinglet") na Fazughli kamar yadda Frédéric Cailliaud ya kwatanta. A kansa yana sanye da takiyya umm qarnein .
A sketch of Nubian inscriptions
Rubutun Nubian daga Musawwarat es-Sufra
Dutsen kabarin Sarki Dauda (ƙarni na 9 ko na 10), wanda aka sassaƙa a cikin harshen Hellenanci a Soba.
  1. Lajtar 2009.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Zarroug 1991.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Welsby 2014.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Werner 2013.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Welsby 2002.
  6. Vantini 2006.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Edwards 2004.
  8. Drzewiecki et al. 2018.
  9. Rilly 2008.
  10. Tsakos & Kleinitz 2018.