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Cleopatra

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Cleopatra
Pharaoh

29 ga Augusta, 51 "BCE" - 12 ga Augusta, 30 "BCE"
Ptolemy XII Auletes (en) Fassara - Caesarion (en) Fassara
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Alexandria, 13 ga Janairu, 69 "BCE"
ƙasa Ptolemaic Kingdom (en) Fassara
Ƙabila Greeks in Egypt (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Koine Greek (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Alexandria, 12 ga Augusta, 30 "BCE"
Makwanci Alexandria
Yanayin mutuwa Kisan kai (poisoning (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Ptolemy XII Auletes
Mahaifiya unknown value
Abokiyar zama Mark Antony (en) Fassara  (32 "BCE" -  30 "BCE")
Ptolemy XIV of Egypt (en) Fassara  (47 "BCE" -  44 "BCE")
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (en) Fassara  (51 "BCE" -  47 "BCE")
Ma'aurata Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (en) Fassara
Julius Caesar
Yara
Ahali Cleopatra Tryphaena (en) Fassara, Berenice IV of Egypt (en) Fassara, Arsinoe IV of Egypt (en) Fassara, Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (en) Fassara da Ptolemy XIV of Egypt (en) Fassara
Yare Ptolemaic dynasty (en) Fassara
Karatu
Harsuna Koine Greek (en) Fassara
Harshen Misira
Aramaic languages (en) Fassara
Yaren meroitic
Harshen Latin
Siriyanci
Old Arabic (en) Fassara
Median (en) Fassara
Parthian (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a sarki da sarki
Aikin soja
Ya faɗaci Battle of Actium (en) Fassara

Cleopatra VII Philopator (Greek, "Cleopatra Yar' lelen babanta"; [5] 69 BC – 10 ga Agusta 30 BC) Ita ce sarauniyar masarautar Ptolemaic ta Masar daga 51 zuwa 30 BC, wadda tayi mulki na ƙarshe a zuriyarta.[1] Tana cikin daular Ptolemaic, kasan cewar ta fito daga tsatson Ptolemy I Soter, wanda ya kafa daular. Janar ne na Macedonia dake Girka kuma abokin Alexander the Great. Bayan mutuwar Cleopatra, Masar ta zama lardin daular Roma, wanda ya nuna ƙarshen mulkin Hellenisanci a Bahar Rum, mulkin da ya daɗe tun zamanin Alexander (336-323 BC). Yarenta na asali shine Girkancin Koine, kuma ita kaɗai ce cikin wadanda sukayi mulki a daular Ptolemaic da ta koyi yaren Masar. [note 1]

A 58 BC, anyi hasashen cewa Cleopatra ta yiwa mahaifinta, Ptolemy XII Auletes, rakiya zuwa Roma lokacin da aka koreshi daga Misira sakamakon tawaye, (Misira na karkashin mulkin Roma a wancan zamanin) ya ƙyale 'yar kishiyarsa Berenice IV ta ɗauki throne dinsa. An kashe Berenice a shekara ta 55 BC sa’ad da Ptolemy ya koma Masar da taimakon sojan Roma.[2] Lokacin da ya mutu a shekara ta 51 BC, mulkin haɗin gwiwa na Cleopatra da ɗan'uwanta Ptolemy XIII ya fara, amma faɗowa tsakanin su ya kai ga buɗe yakin basasa. Bayan ya yi rashin nasara a yakin Pharsalus na shekara ta 48 kafin haihuwar Annabi Isa a Girka da abokin hamayyarsa Julius Kaisar (mai mulkin kama-karya na Roma kuma mai kula da shi) a yakin basasa na Kaisar, dan siyasar Roma Pompey ya gudu zuwa Masar. Pompey ya kasance abokin siyasa na Ptolemy XII, amma Ptolemy XIII, bisa ga roƙon eunuchs na kotu, Pompey ya yi kwanton bauna ya kashe shi kafin Kaisar ya zo ya mamaye Alexandria.[3] Sai Kaisar ya yi ƙoƙari ya sulhunta ’yan’uwan Ptolemaic, amma babban mashawarcin Ptolemy, Potheinos, ya ɗauki sharuɗɗan Kaisar a matsayin fifita Cleopatra, don haka sojojinsa suka kewaye ta da Kaisar a fada. Ba da daɗewa ba bayan da aka ɗage kewaye ta hanyar ƙarfafawa, Ptolemy XIII ya mutu a yakin Nilu na 47 BC; An kai ’yar’uwar Cleopatra Arsinoe IV zaman talala zuwa Afisa saboda rawar da ta taka wajen kai harin. Kaisar ya bayyana Cleopatra da ɗan'uwansa Ptolemy XIV masu mulkin haɗin gwiwa amma sun ci gaba da zaman sirri tare da Cleopatra wanda ya haifar da ɗa, Caesarion. Cleopatra ta yi tafiya zuwa Roma a matsayin sarauniyar abokin ciniki a cikin 46 da 44 BC, inda ta zauna a gidan Kaisar. Bayan kisan Kaisar da (a kan umarninta) Ptolemy XIV a cikin 44 BC, ta kira Kaisar co-mulkin a matsayin Ptolemy XV.

A cikin Yaƙin basasa na 43-42 BC, Cleopatra ta goyi bayan Triumvirate na Biyu na Roman wanda kakan Kaisar kuma magaji Octavian, Mark Antony, da Marcus Aemilius Lepidus suka kafa. Bayan ganawarsu a Tarsos a shekara ta 41 BC, sarauniyar ta sami sabani da Antony. Ya aiwatar da hukuncin kisa na Arsinoe bisa buƙatarta, kuma ya ƙara dogara ga Cleopatra don duka kudade da taimakon soja a lokacin da ya mamaye Daular Parthia da Masarautar Armeniya. Gudunmawar Alexandria ta ayyana 'ya'yansu Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene II, da Ptolemy Philadelphus masu mulki a kan wasu yankuna daban-daban a ƙarƙashin ikon Antony na nasara. Wannan taron, aurensu, da kisan auren Antony na 'yar'uwar Octavian Octavia Minor ya kai ga yakin karshe na Jamhuriyar Roma. Octavian ya tsunduma cikin yakin farfaganda, ya tilasta wa abokan Antony a Majalisar Dattawan Roma su gudu daga Roma a shekara ta 32 kafin haihuwar Annabi Isa, kuma suka shelanta yaki a kan Cleopatra. Bayan cin nasarar Antony da Cleopatra na jiragen ruwa a yakin Actium na 31 BC, sojojin Octavian sun mamaye Masar a 30 BC kuma suka ci Antony, wanda ya kai ga Antony ya kashe kansa. Lokacin da Cleopatra ya sami labarin cewa Octavian ya shirya ya kawo ta cikin jerin gwanon cin nasara na Romawa, ta kashe kanta ta hanyar guba, sabanin abin da aka sani cewa asp ya cije ta.

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Gadon Cleopatra ya rayu a cikin ayyukan fasaha na zamani da na zamani. Tarihin Romawa da waƙar Latin sun haifar da ra'ayi mai mahimmanci game da sarauniya wanda ya mamaye wallafe-wallafen Medieval da Renaissance daga baya. A cikin zane-zane na gani, tsoffin hotunanta sun haɗa da busts na Romawa, zane-zane, da sassaka-tsalle, sassaƙaƙen cameo da gilashin, Ptolemaic da tsabar kudin Roman, da abubuwan walwala. A Renaissance da Baroque art, ta kasance batun ayyuka da yawa da suka hada da wasan kwaikwayo, zane-zane, wakoki, sassakaki, da wasan kwaikwayo na wasan kwaikwayo. Ta zama alamar al'adun gargajiya na Egyptomania tun zamanin Victorian, kuma a cikin zamani na zamani, Cleopatra ya bayyana a cikin zane-zane da zane-zane, burlesque satire, fina-finai na Hollywood, da hotuna masu alama don samfuran kasuwanci.

Etymology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sigar Latinized Cleopatra ta fito ne daga tsohuwar Girkanci Kleopátra (Κλεοπάτρα), ma'ana "darajar mahaifinta", [6] daga κλέος (kléos, "Daukaka") da πατήρ (patḗr, "baba"). Da an rubuta sigar namiji ko dai a matsayin Kleópatros ( Κλεόπατρος) ko Pátroklos ( Πάτροκλος ).[4] Cleopatra shine sunan 'yar'uwar Alexander the Great, da kuma Cleopatra Alcyone, matar Meleager a cikin tarihin Girkanci.[5] Ta hanyar auren Ptolemy V Epiphanes da Cleopatra I Syra (yar sarki Seleucid ), sunan ya shiga daular Ptolemaic. Babban taken Theā́ Philopátōra ( Θεᾱ́ Φιλοπάτωρα ) yana nufin "bautawa mai son mahaifinta".[6]

Tarihin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fage[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hoton Hellenistic na Ptolemy XII Auletes, mahaifin Cleopatra, wanda ke cikin Louvre, Paris.

Ba

Limamin Ptah na Masar ya naɗa wa Ptolemaic rawani a Memphis, amma suna zaune a cikin al'adu da yawa kuma galibin birnin Girkanci na Alexandria, wanda Alexander the Great na Macedon ya kafa. Suna jin Girkanci kuma suna mulkin Masar a matsayin sarakunan Hellenanci na Girka, sun ƙi koyon harshen Masar na asali.[7] [note 1] Sabanin haka, Cleopatra na iya magana da harsuna da yawa ta hanyar girma kuma itace farkon Ptolemaic mai mulkin da ya koyi harshen Masar. Plutarch yana nuna cewa ita ma tana magana da Habasha, yaren "Troglodytes", Ibrananci (ko Aramaic), Larabci, Harshen Siriya (watakila Siriyac), Median, da Parthian, kuma da alama tana iya magana da Latin, ko da yake ƴan zamaninta na Romawa sun gwammace su yi magana da ita a ƙasarta ta Koine Greek. [21] [19] [22] Baya ga Girkanci, Masarawa, da Latin, waɗannan harsuna sun nuna sha'awar Cleopatra na mayar da yankunan Arewacin Afirka da Yammacin Asiya waɗanda suka kasance na Masarautar Ptolemaic.

Shisshigin Romawa a Masar ya kasance kafin zamanin Cleopatra. Lokacin da Ptolemy IX Lathyros ya mutu a ƙarshen 81 BC, 'yarsa Berenice III ta gaje shi. Duk da haka, tare da ginin 'yan adawa a gidan sarauta a kan ra'ayin sarauta na mace mai mulki, Berenice III ya yarda da mulkin haɗin gwiwa da aure tare da dan uwanta da stepson Ptolemy XI Alexander II, wani tsari da mai mulkin Roma Sulla ya yi.[8] Ptolemy XI ya sa aka kashe matarsa ba da daɗewa ba bayan aurensu a shekara ta 80 BC, amma an lalata shi ba da daɗewa ba a sakamakon tarzoma a kan kisan. Ptolemy XI, kuma watakila kawunsa Ptolemy IX ko mahaifinsa Ptolemy X Alexander I, ya ba da Mulkin Ptolemaic zuwa Roma a matsayin lamuni don lamuni, don haka Romawa suna da dalilai na doka don karɓar Masar, abokin ciniki. jihar, bayan kashe Ptolemy XI. Romawa sun zaɓi maimakon su raba mulkin Ptolemaic a tsakanin 'ya'yan Ptolemy IX na shege, suna ba da Cyprus ga Ptolemy na Cyprus da Masar a kan Ptolemy XII Auletes.



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Raia & Sebesta (2017) .
  2. Burstein (2004) , pp. xx–xxiii, 155.
  3. Hölbl (2001) , p. 231.
  4. Roller (2010) , pp. 15–16.
  5. Burstein (2004) , p. 15.
  6. Fletcher (2008) , pp. 84, 215.
  7. Fletcher (2008) , p. 87, image plates and captions between pp. 246–247.
  8. Fletcher (2008) , pp. 5, 82, 88, 105–106.


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