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Din-i Ilahi

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Din-i Ilahi
Founded 1580s
Mai kafa gindi Akbar (en) Fassara
Classification
  • Din-i Ilahi
Sunan asali دین الهی
Gurin bautan Din--i-ilàhí

Din-i-Ilāhī ( Persian , lit. ' Addinin Allah ' ),[1] wanda ada aka fi sani da shi da Tawḥīd-i-Ilāhī ("Tauhidi Allah", lit. ' kadaita Allah ' ) ko Imani na Allahntaka, sabon addini ne na daidaitawa ko tsarin ruhaniya wanda Sarkin Mughal Akbar ya gabatar a cikin 1582. A cewar Iqtidar Alam Khan, ya dogara ne akan ra'ayin Timurid na Yasa-i Changezi (Lambar Genghis Khan ), don ɗaukar dukkan ƙungiyoyi a matsayin ɗaya.[2] Abubuwan da aka zana daga addinai daban-daban.

Suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunan Dīn-i Ilāhī a zahiri ana fassara shi daa "addinin Allah", "addinin Allah", ko "addini na allahntaka". A cewar sanannen ɗan tarihi Mubarak Ali, Dīn-i Ilāhī suna ne da ba a yi amfani da shi a zamanin Akbar ba. A lokacin, ana kiran ta Tawhid-i-Ilāhī ("Tauhidi na Allah"), kamar yadda Abu'l-Fazl, masanin tarihin kotu ya rubuta a lokacin mulkin Akbar.[3] Wannan suna yana nuna fifikon tauhidi musamman ga imanin Akbar. Dabestan-e Mazaheb wanda ba a bayyana sunansa ba yana amfani da sunan Ilahiya don komawa ga bangaskiya.[4]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abu'l-Fazl, ɗaya daga cikin almajiran Din-i-Ilahi, yana gabatar da Akbarnama ga Akbar, Mughal miniature.

Akbar ya karfafa juriya ga sauran addinai har ma ya karfafa muhawara kan batutuwan falsafa da na addini. Wannan ya haifar da ƙirƙirar Ibādat Khāna ("Gidan Bauta") a Fatehpur Sikri a cikin 1575, wanda ya gayyaci masana tauhidi, mawaƙa, malamai, da masana falsafa daga dukkan ƙungiyoyin addini, ciki har da Kiristoci, Hindu, Jains, da Zoroastrians.

Tun da Akbar yana fama da dyslexia mai tsanani, wanda ya sa ya kasa karantawa ko rubutawa gabaɗaya, irin wannan tattaunawa a cikin Gidan Ibada ya zama hanyarsa ta farko ta binciko tambayoyin bangaskiya.[ana buƙatar hujja]Duk da ambata, a ƙarshe Akbar zai tara ɗakin karatu mai cike da litattafai.[5]

i sama da 24,000 a cikin Hindustani, Farisa, Girkanci, Latin, Larabci da Kashmiri . Sarkin Mughal daga baya kuma dan Akbar, Jahangir, ya bayyana cewa mahaifinsa "koyaushe yana da alaƙa da ilimin kowane akida da addini." A cikin wata wasiƙa zuwa ga Sarki Philip na biyu na Spain, Akbar ya yi baƙin ciki cewa mutane da yawa ba sa yin tambaya game da batutuwan da ke cikin addininsu, yana mai cewa a maimakon haka yawancin mutane za su “bi addinin da [su] aka haife su a cikinsa kuma aka karantar da su, don haka ban da kansu. ] daga yiyuwar tabbatar da gaskiya, wadda ita ce mafi girman manufar hankalin dan Adam."

A lokacin da Akbar ya kafa Dīn-i Ilāhī, ya riga ya soke jizya (haraji a kan waɗanda ba musulmi ba) fiye da shekaru goma kafin a 1568. Abin da ya faru na addini a lokacin da yake farauta a 1578 ya ƙara daɗa sha'awar al'adun addini na daularsa. Daga tattaunawar da aka yi a Ibadat Khāna, Akbar ya kammala da cewa, babu wani addini guda da zai iya cewa shi ne ke da iko na gaskiya. Wannan wahayin ya ƙarfafa shi ya bar Musulunci ya ƙirƙiri sabon addini Din-i Ilāhī a shekara ta 1582 kuma Akbar tare da jami’ansa masu aminci sun karɓi wannan sabon addini Din-i Ilāhī a shekara ta 1582.

Wannan barin musulucin na Akbar zuwa Din-i Ilāhī ya fusata musulmi daban-daban, daga cikinsu akwai Qadi na Bengal Subah da Shaihu Ahmad Sirhindi, suka mayar da martani da bayyana hakan a matsayin kafirta musulmi.

Wasu malaman zamani sun yi jayayya cewa Din-i Ilahi almajiri ne na ruhaniya na Akbar na imaninsa wanda ya bayyana a cikin sabon addininsa.[6]

Bayan Akbar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dīn-i Ilāhī ya bayyana ya tsira daga Akbar bisa ga Dabestān-e Mazāheb na Mohsin Fani . Duk da haka, hukuncin da ƙarfi ya ɗakushe yunƙurin bayan mutuwarsa kuma Aurangzeb ya kawar da shi gaba daya, aikin da ya sawwaka saboda gaskiyar cewa addini bai taba samun mabiya sama da 19 ba.[7]

A cikin karni na 17, babban ɗan Shah Jahan, Dara Shikoh, ya yi ƙoƙari na sake kafa Dīn-i-Ilāhī, amma ɗan'uwansa, Aurangzeb, ya dakatar da duk wani buri na farfaɗo da hukuma. shi a kan dalilan ridda. Daga baya Aurangzeb ya tattara Fatawa-e-Alamgiri,[8] ya sake kafa jizya, kuma ya kafa shari'ar Musulunci a duk fadin yankin Indiya, yana yada tsarin addinin Musulunci da kuma kashe duk wata dama ta gyara addini ga tsararraki.[9]

Imani da ayyuka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duk da cewa ruhi da ƙa'idodin Din-i Ilāhī sun samo asali ne daga Sufanci (ciki har da ra'ayoyi daga sufi na Andalusi Sufi, Ibn al-'Arabi ), Akbar ya yi ƙoƙari ya haifar da haɗakar wasu aqida don haka addininsa na kansa ya ari ra'ayoyi. da rukunan wasu addinai da yawa. Daidaita da ayyukan Sufaye, ana ƙarfafa ran mutum ya tsarkake kansa ta wurin marmarin Allah.[ana buƙatar hujja] haɗa da karimci, gafara, kamewa, hankali, hikima, alheri, da taƙawa.[10] Cikakkun bayanai masu zuwa suna misalta bukukuwan addini na Akbar:


Ziyarar masu wa’azin mishan na Jesuit irin su Rodolfo Acquaviva ya kawo ɗabi’ar rashin aure a cikin gidan ibada, inda sakamakon haka ya zama ɗabi’ar bangaskiyar Akbar wadda ba ta wajaba (kamar yadda firistoci na Roman Katolika yake) amma ana girmama su. Har ila yau, bangaskiyar ta ɗauki ƙa'idar ahimsa, tsohuwar dabi'a ta kusan dukkanin addinan Indiya, ciki har da Hindu, Buddha da Jainism . Rashin tashin hankalin ya yadu daga mutane zuwa dabbobi, yana ƙarfafa cin ganyayyaki da kuma haramta yankan dabbobi saboda kowane dalili. Din-i Ilāhī ba shi da nassosi masu tsarki kuma, kama da Musulunci da Sikhi, babu wani matsayi na firist.[11]

Haske ya kasance abin da ake mayar da hankali ga bautar Allah, tare da al'adar wuta mai haske bisa yasna (nau'i na farko na ibada a Zoroastrianism ) da kuma ɗaukar waƙoƙin yabo na sunayen Sanskrit 1,000 na rana . An kira mabiya a matsayin chelah (ma'ana "almajirai").

Manyan ayyuka da aƙidar Din-i-Ilahi sun kasance kamar haka;

  1. Hadin kan Allah
  2. Mabiya suna yin sallama ga junansu da Allah-u-Akbar ko Jalla Jalalahu (ma'ana: "Tsarki ya tabbata a gare shi").
  3. Rashin nama kowane iri
  4. Jam'iyyar " kan-haihuwa-ta-biki " ya zama dole ga kowane memba
  5. Ahimsa (ba tashin hankali); An hana mabiya cin abinci tare da masunta, mahauta, mafarauta, da sauransu.

Sulhu-i-kul[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An yi jayayya cewa ka'idar Dīn-i Ilāhī sabon addini kuskure ne wanda ya taso saboda kuskuren fassarar aikin Abu'l-Fazl da masana tarihi na Burtaniya daga baya suka yi. Duk da haka, an kuma yarda da cewa manufar sulh-i-kul, wadda ta zama ainihin Din-i Ilāhī, Akbar ta karɓe shi a matsayin wani ɓangare na manufofin gudanarwa na mulkin mallaka. Sulh-i-Kul yana nufin " amincin duniya ". A cewar Abu'l-Fazl, sarki wakilin allah ne na duniya, don haka ikon mallakarsa ba ya daure ga wata bangaskiya guda. A haka Akbar ya nada jami’ai bisa la’akari da iyawa da cancantarsu ba tare da la’akari da addininsu ko asalinsu ba. Wannan ya taimaka wajen samar da ingantacciyar gwamnati tare da ba da gudummawa ga wadata da nasarorin al'adu na zamanin Mughal.[12][5] An kuma haramta wa sarki wariya tsakanin addinai daban-daban na wannan daula kuma idan mai mulki ya yi wariya, to ba su dace da matsayin wakilin Allah ba.[13] Abu'l-Fazl yana ganin ra'ayoyin addini na Akbar a matsayin yanke shawara mai ma'ana don kiyaye jituwa tsakanin addinai daban-daban na daular.[14]

Almajirai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Almajiran Din-i Ilāhī a zamanin sarki Akbar sun haɗa da:[15]

  • Shaikh Mubarak
  • Faizi|Shaikh Faizi
  • Jafar Beig
  • Qasim Khan
  • Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak
  • Azam Khan
  • Abd al-Samad
  • Mulla Shah Muhammad Shahadad
  • Sufi Ahmad
  • Mir Sharif Amal
  • Sultan Khwaja
  • Mirza Jani Thatta
  • Taki Shustar
  • Shaikhzada Gosala Benarasi
  • Sadar Jahan
  • Sadar Jahan's first son
  • Sadar Jahan's second son
  • Birbal
  • Murad Mirza (ɗan Akbar)

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Din-i Ilahi - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Archived from the original on 2008-05-14. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
  2. Frontline: Volume 14, Issues 20-26. S. Rangarajan for Kasturi & Sons. 1997. p. 74.
  3. Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak (2010) [1902–39]. The Akbarnama of Abu'l-Fazl. Delhi: Low Price Publications. ISBN 978-81-7536-481-3.
  4. "THE DABISTÁN, OR SCHOOL OF MANNERS, Trans. DAVID SHEA and ANTHONY TROYER, 1843, Persian Literature in Translation, The Packard Humanities Institute". Archived from the original on 2018-03-17. Retrieved 2017-01-31.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Finding Tolerance in Akbar, the Philosopher-King". 10 April 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  6. Lefèvre, Corinne (2015-04-01). "Dīn-i ilāhī". Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE (in Turanci). Archived from the original on 2021-07-11. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  7. "Din-i Ilahi - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Archived from the original on 2008-05-14. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
  8. Dara Shikoh Archived 2022-07-20 at the Wayback Machine Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, by Josef W. Meri, Jere L Bacharach. Routledge, 2005. 08033994793.ABA. Page 195-196.
  9. Jackson, Roy (2010). Mawlana Mawdudi and Political Islam: Authority and the Islamic State. Routledge. ISBN 9781136950360.
  10. Roychoudhury, Makhanlal (1941). The Din-i-Ilahi, or, The Religion of Akbar. University of Calcutta. p. 279. OCLC 3312929.
  11. Roychoudhury, Makhanlal (1941). The Din-i-Ilahi, or, The Religion of Akbar. University of Calcutta. p. 303. OCLC 3312929.
  12. "Why putting less Mughal history in school textbooks may be a good idea". Archived from the original on 2018-01-24. Retrieved 2016-10-12.
  13. "Sulh-i-Kul: Features of Akbar's Policy | UPSC » Newscoop" (in Turanci). 2023-01-22. Retrieved 2023-01-22.
  14. Roy, Himanshu (2020). Indian Political Thought themes and thinkers. Pearson. p. 131. ISBN 978-93-325-8733-5.
  15. Roychoudhury, Makhanlal (1941). The Din-i-Ilahi, or, The Religion of Akbar. University of Calcutta. pp. 292–293. OCLC 3312929.