Mughal Empire

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Mughal Empire
Flag of the Mughal Empire (en)
Flag of the Mughal Empire (en) Fassara


Wuri

Babban birni Agra, Fatehpur Sikri (en) Fassara, Old Delhi (en) Fassara, Lahore da Delhi
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 150,000,000 (1700)
• Yawan mutane 37.5 mazaunan/km²
Harshen gwamnati Farisawa
Addini Din-i Ilahi da Musulunci
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 4,000,000 km²
Bayanan tarihi
Mabiyi Delhi Sultanate (en) Fassara, Chero dynasty (en) Fassara, Sultanate of Bengal (en) Fassara da Deccan sultanates (en) Fassara
Ƙirƙira 1526
Rushewa 1857
Ta biyo baya Gondal State (en) Fassara
Tsarin Siyasa
Tsarin gwamnati absolute monarchy (en) Fassara
Ikonomi
Kuɗi rupee (en) Fassara

Daular Mughal wata daula ce ta farkon-zamani wacce ke sarrafa yawancin Kudancin Asiya tsakanin ƙarni na 16 da 19. Kimanin shekaru dari biyu, daular ta taso ne daga bakin kogin Indus a yamma, arewacin Afghanistan a arewa maso yamma, da Kashmir a arewa, zuwa tsaunukan Assam da Bangladesh na yau a gabas, da kuma saman tsaunukan Deccan Plateau a Kudancin Indiya.[1]

Mughal Empire

Daular Mughal an ce an kafa daular Mughal a shekara ta 1526 ta Babur, babban jigo daga abin da ke Uzbekistan a yau, wanda ya yi aiki da taimako daga daulolin Safavid da Ottoman makwabta, don cin nasara kan Sultan na Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, a cikin Yakin farko na Panipat, da kuma share filayen Arewacin Indiya. Tsarin mulkin Mughal, duk da haka, a wani lokaci ana kwanan wata zuwa 1600, ga mulkin jikan Babur, Akbar. Wannan tsarin daular ya ci gaba har zuwa 1720, har zuwa jim kadan bayan mutuwar babban sarki na ƙarshe, Aurangzeb, wanda a lokacin mulkinsa kuma daular ta sami iyakar iyakarta. Rage daga baya zuwa yankin a ciki da wajen Old Delhi ta 1760, masarautar Burtaniya ta rushe daular bayan Tawayen Indiya na 1857.

Duk da cewa daular Mughal an ƙirƙire ta da kuma dorewar yaƙin soji, ba ta da ƙarfi da murkushe al'adu da al'ummomin da ta zo mulkin; maimakon haka ya daidaita su kuma ya sanya su ta hanyar sabbin ayyukan gudanarwa, da masu mulki daban-daban, wanda ke haifar da ingantaccen tsari, daidaitacce, da daidaitacce.[2] Tushen arzikin gama gari na daular shine harajin noma, wanda sarki Mughal na uku, Akbar ya kafa. Waɗannan haraji, waɗanda suka kai fiye da rabin abin da manoman manoma ke fitarwa, ana biya su a cikin kuɗin azurfa da aka tsara sosai, kuma ya sa manoma da masu sana'a shiga manyan kasuwanni.

Dangantakar zaman lafiya da daular ta samu a yawancin karni na 17 ya kasance wani abu na fadada tattalin arzikin Indiya. Burgeon kasancewar Turai a cikin Tekun Indiya, da karuwar buƙatunsa na ɗanye indiya da gamayya, ya haifar da ƙarin wadata a kotunan Mughal. An sami ƙarin fa'ida a tsakanin manyan Mughal, wanda ya haifar da babban ikon yin zanen, nau'ikan adabi, yadi, da gine-gine, musamman a lokacin mulkin Shah Jahan. Daga cikin wuraren tarihi na Mughal na UNESCO a kudancin Asiya akwai: Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri, Red Fort, Humayun's Kabarin, Lahore Fort, Shalamar Gardens da Taj Mahal, wanda aka bayyana a matsayin "kayan fasahar musulmi a Indiya, kuma daya daga cikin ƙwararrun al'adun duniya waɗanda duniya ke yabawa."

Suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masu zamani suna ambaton daular da Babur ya kafa a matsayin Daular Timurid, [3] wanda ke nuna gadon daularsa, kuma wannan shine kalmar da Mughal da kansu suka fi so.

Sunan Mughal na daular nasu shine Gurkani (Persian). [4] Amfani da "Mughal" da "Moghul" sun samo asali ne daga Larabci da Farisa na "Mongol", kuma ya jaddada asalin Mongol na daular Timurid. Kalmar ta sami kuɗi a cikin karni na 19, amma masana kimiyyar Indologists suna jayayya. An yi amfani da irin wannan fassarar daular, game da "Mogul" da "Moghul". [5] Duk da haka, kakannin Babur sun bambanta sosai daga Mongols na gargajiya har zuwa lokacin da suke karkata zuwa Farisa maimakon al'adun Turco-Mongol. Mughals da kansu sun yi iƙirarin zuriya ta ƙarshe daga wanda ya kafa daular Mongol Genghis Khan.

Mughal Empire

Wani suna na daular shine Hindustan, wanda aka rubuta a cikin Ain-i-Akbari, kuma wanda aka bayyana a matsayin mafi kusa da sunan hukuma na daular. [6] A yamma, an yi amfani da kalmar "Mughal" ga sarki, kuma ta hanyar tsawo, daular gaba ɗaya.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Richards, John F. (1995), The Mughal Empire, Cambridge University Press, p. 2, ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2 Quote: "Although the first two Timurid emperors and many of their noblemen were recent migrants to the subcontinent, the dynasty and the empire itself became indisputably Indian. The interests and futures of all concerned were in India, not in ancestral homelands in the Middle East or Central Asia. Furthermore, the Mughal empire emerged from the Indian historical experience. It was the end product of a millennium of Muslim conquest, colonization, and state-building in the Indian subcontinent."
  2. Stein, Burton (2010), A History of India, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 159–, ISBN 978-1-4443-2351-1 Quote: "Another possible date for the beginning of the Mughal regime is 1600, when the institutions that defined the regime were set firmly in place and when the heartland of the empire was defined; both of these were the accomplishment of Babur’s grandson Akbar."
  3. Ayesha Jalal. Missing |author1= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. Wheeler Thackston; Babur. Missing |author2= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. Rutherford 2010.
  6. Gilbert, Marc Jason (2017), South Asia in World History, Oxford University Press, pp. 75–, ISBN 978-0-19-066137-3 Quote: "Babur then adroitly gave the Ottomans his promise not to attack them in return for their military aid, which he received in the form of the newest of battlefield inventions, the matchlock gun and cast cannons, as well as instructors to train his men to use them."Empty citation (help)