Gado a Musulunci

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Daga Ci gaban Rake na William Hogarth . "Saurayin Magaji Ya Mallake Illar Mazaje".

Gado shi ne al'adar karɓar dukiya, mukamai, basussuka, gata, haƙƙoƙi, da wajibai bayan mutuwar mamallakinsu . Dokokin gado sun bambanta tsakanin al'ummomi kuma sun canza a tsawon lokaci. Bayar da kadarori masu zaman kansu da/ko basussuka bisa hukuma na iya yin ta ta hanyar wasiyya, kamar yadda notary ko wasu hanyoyin halal suka tabbatar.

Kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shari’a, magaji shi ne mutumin da ke da hakkin ya sami kaso na dukiyar mamaci (wanda ya rasu), bisa ka’idojin gado a hurumin da mamacin dan kasa ne ko kuma inda marigayin (marigayi ya rasu). ) ya mutu ko ya mallaki dukiya a lokacin mutuwa.

Gadon yana iya kasancewa ko dai a ƙarƙashin sharuɗɗan wasiyya ko kuma ta dokokin ƙasa idan marigayin ba shi da wasiyya. Koyaya, wasiyyar dole ne ta bi ka'idodin ikon a lokacin da aka ƙirƙira ta ko kuma a ce ba ta da inganci (alal misali, wasu jihohin ba su amince da wasiyyin da aka rubuta da hannu ba a matsayin inganci, ko kuma a cikin takamaiman yanayi) sannan kuma a yi amfani da dokokin haɗin gwiwa. .

Keɓanta daga gadon wanda ya kasance magaji a cikin wasiyyar da ta gabata, ko kuma ana sa ran zai gaji, ana kiransa “rashin gado”.

Mutum ba ya zama magaji kafin mutuwar mamacin, tun da a lokacin ne ake tantance ainihin mutanen da ke da hakkin cin gado. Mambobin masu mulki ko na sarakuna da ake sa ran za su zama magada, ana kiransu magada idan na farko a layi kuma ba za a iya raba su daga gado ta hanyar wani da'awar ba; in ba haka ba, su magada ne. Akwai ƙarin ra'ayi game da gadon haɗin gwiwa, wanda ke jiran renunciation da kowa sai ɗaya, wanda ake kira coparceny .

A cikin dokar zamani, kalmomin gado da magada suna magana ne kawai ga gado ga dukiya ta zuriyar mamaci da ke mutuwa. Masu karɓar kadarorin da aka yi nasara a ƙarƙashin wasiyya ana kiransu gabaɗaya masu cin gajiyar , kuma musamman suna ƙirƙira don dukiya ta gaske, wasiyya don kadarorin mutum (sai dai kuɗi), ko wakilai don kuɗi.

Sai dai a wasu hukunce-hukuncen da ba za a iya raba wa mutum gado bisa doka ba (kamar jihar Louisiana ta Amurka, wacce ke ba da izinin raba gado kawai a ƙarƙashin takamaiman yanayi). Ana iya raba mutumin da zai zama magaji a ƙarƙashin dokokin ƙasa gaba ɗaya a misali na wasiyyar ɗan wasan barkwanci Jerry Lewis ; wasiyyarsa ta musamman ya raba wa 'ya'yansa shida gadon matarsa ta farko., da zuriyarsu, ya bar dukan dukiyarsa ga matarsa ta biyu).

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An yi cikakken nazarin ilimin ɗan Adam da zamantakewa game da al'adun gadon uba, inda ƴaƴa maza kaɗai ke iya gado. Wasu al'adu kuma suna amfani da gadon matrilineal, inda dukiya ba za ta iya wucewa ta layin mata ba, yawanci suna zuwa ga 'ya'yan 'yar'uwar da aka haifa; amma kuma, a wasu al’ummomi, tun daga uwa zuwa ‘ya’yanta mata. Wasu tsoffin al'ummomi da mafi yawan jihohin zamani suna ɗaukar gadon adalci, ba tare da nuna bambanci dangane da jinsi da/ko tsarin haihuwa ba.

Dokokin addini game da gado[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dokokin Yahudawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gadon na ubansa ne. Uban—wato, wanda ya mallaki ƙasar—ya ba da gado ga zuriyarsa maza ne kaɗai, saboda haka Ƙasar Alkawari ta wuce daga uba Bayahude zuwa ga ’ya’yansa. ( Deuteronomy 21:15–17 ).

Idan babu 'ya'ya maza masu rai, ko zuriyar 'ya'ya maza na dā, 'ya'ya mata sun gaji. A cikin Littafin Ƙidaya ta 27, ’ya’yan Zelofehad (Mahlah, Noa, Hogla, Milka, da Tirza) na kabilar Manassa suka zo wurin Musa suka nemi gādon mahaifinsu, da yake ba su da ’yan’uwa. [1] An tsara tsarin rabon gado: 'ya'yan mutum maza su fara gado, 'ya'ya mata idan ba maza, 'yan'uwa idan ba su da 'ya'ya, da dai sauransu. [2]

Daga baya, a cikin Littafin Ƙidaya sura 36, wasu shugabannin iyalan kabilar Manassa suka zo wurin Musa suka nuna cewa, idan ’ya mace ta yi gādo, ta kuma auri wanda ba na kabilarta ba, ƙasarta za ta rabu da na kabilarta ta haihuwa. gado a cikin aurenta-kabilarta. Don haka an ɗora wani ƙarin doka: idan diya ta gaji ƙasa, sai ta auri wani daga cikin kabilar mahaifinta. [3] 'Ya'yan Zelofehad suka auri 'ya'yan 'yan'uwan mahaifinsu. Babu alamar cewa wannan ba zabinsu bane. )

The tractate Baba Bathra, wanda aka rubuta a lokacin marigayi Antiquity a Babila, ya yi magana sosai game da batutuwan mallakar dukiya da gado bisa ga Dokar Yahudawa. Sauran ayyukan Dokar Rabbinical, irin su Hilkhot naḥalot: mi-sefer Mishneh Torah leha-Rambam, da Sefer ha-yerushot: ʻim yeter ha-mikhtavim be-divre ha-halakhah be-ʻAravit uve-ʻIvrit uve- Aramit kuma yana magance matsalolin gado. Na farko, sau da yawa ana rage shi zuwa Mishneh Torah, Maimonides ne ya rubuta shi kuma yana da mahimmanci a al'adar Yahudawa .

Duk waɗannan bayanai sun yarda cewa ɗan fari yana da hakkin ya sami kashi biyu na dukiyar mahaifinsa. [4] Wannan yana nufin cewa, misali, idan uba ya bar ’ya’ya maza biyar, ɗan fari ya karɓi kashi ɗaya bisa uku na dukiyar kuma kowane ɗayan huɗu ya karɓi na shida. Idan ya bar 'ya'ya tara, ɗan fari zai karɓi na biyar, kowane ɗayan takwas kuma zai karɓi ɗari ɗaya. Idan ɗan fari ba ɗan fari ba ne, ba zai sami rabo biyu ba.

Philo na Iskandariya [5] da Josephus [6] suma sunyi tsokaci akan dokokin gadon yahudawa, yana yaba su sama da sauran ka’idojin dokokin zamaninsu. Sun kuma yarda cewa ɗan fari dole ne ya karɓi kashi biyu na dukiyar ubansa.

Dokokin Kirista[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Da farko, Kiristanci ba shi da nasa al'adun gado da ya bambanta da addinin Yahudanci. Da hawan sarki Constantine a shekara ta 306, Kiristoci duka sun fara nisantar da kansu daga addinin Yahudanci kuma suna da tasiri a kan doka da ayyukan cibiyoyi na duniya. Tun daga farko, wannan ya haɗa da gado. Ayyukan ɗaukan Romawa wata manufa ce ta musamman, domin ana ganin ya ci karo da koyarwar Yahudu da Kiristanci na primogeniture . Kamar yadda Stephanie Coonz takardu a cikin aure, tarihi (Penguin, 2006), ba wai kawai nasara bane, aikace-aikacen ba kowa ya canza a cikin Yammacin Turai daga wani samfurin Greco-Roman zuwa A Tsarin Judeo-Kirista, bisa ga ƙa'idodin Littafi Mai-Tsarki da na al'ada na Yahudu-Kirista. Canjin ya kasance cikakke a tsakiyar zamanai, kodayake a cikin ƙasashen Ingilishi an sami ƙarin ci gaba a ƙarƙashin rinjayar Furotesta . Ko a lokacin da Turai ta zama mai zaman kanta kuma Kiristanci ya dushe a baya, harsashin doka na Kiristendam ya kasance. Sai a zamanin fikihu na zamani ne aka samu gagarumin sauyi.

Dokokin Musulunci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Alkur'ani ya gabatar da wasu hakkoki daban-daban da bayar da cikakken hakki a kan sha'anin gado, da suka hada da inganta rayuwar mata da rayuwar iyali idan aka kwatanta da al'ummomin jahiliyya da suka wanzu a yankin Larabawa a lokacin da. Bugu da kari, Alkur'ani ya gabatar da karin magada wadanda ba su cancanci gado ba a zamanin jahiliyya, inda ya ambaci dangi tara musamman wadanda shida mata ne uku kuma maza. Sai dai hakkin gadon mata ya kasance bai kai na maza ba domin a Musulunci a koda yaushe wani yana da alhakin kula da abin da mace za ta kashe. Kamar yadda Alqur’ani 4:11 ya nuna, alal misali, ɗa yana da hakkin ya ninka rabon gadon ‘ya mace. [7] Alkur'ani ya kuma gabatar da kokarin gyara dokokin gado, da kuma samar da cikakken tsarin shari'a. Wannan ci gaban ya bambanta da al'ummomin jahiliyya inda ka'idojin gado suka bambanta sosai. [8] Baya ga sauye-sauyen da suka gabata, Alkur'ani ya sanya takunkumi a kan ikon wasiyya na musulmi wajen zubar da dukiyarsa. Ayoyi uku na Alqur'ani, sura 4:11; 4:12 da 4:176, sun ba da takamaiman bayani game da gado da rabon gado, baya ga wasu ayoyi kalilan da suka yi magana game da wasiyya. [9] Amma wannan bayani ya kasance mafari ne daga malaman fikihu musulmi wadanda suka kara fayyace hukunce-hukuncen gado har ma da yin amfani da Hadisi, da hanyoyin tunani na fikihu kamar Kiyasi . A zamanin yau, ana ɗaukar gado a matsayin wani ɓangare na Shari'a kuma aikace-aikacensa ga Musulmai wajibi ne, kodayake yawancin mutane (duba tsarin gado na Tarihi ), duk da kasancewarsu musulmi, suna da wasu al'adun gado.

Rashin daidaito[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gado ta adadin da aka karɓa da kuma matakin da aka ɗauka tare da gado a Biritaniya tsakanin 2008 da 2010

Rarraba dukiyar da aka gada ya bambanta sosai tsakanin al'adu da tsarin shari'a daban-daban. A cikin al'ummomi masu amfani da dokar farar hula, alal misali, haƙƙin 'ya'ya na gadon dukiya daga iyaye a cikin ƙayyadaddun rabon da aka riga aka tsara an sanya shi a cikin doka, har zuwa ka'idar Hammurabi (ca. 1750 BC). [10] A cikin Jihar Louisiana ta kasar Amurka, jihar kawai ta Amurka inda tsarin shari'a ya samo asali daga Napoleonic Code, ana kiran wannan tsarin a matsayin " masu gadon tilastawa " wanda ya hana cin gadon yara balagaggu sai dai wasu ƴan ƙayyadaddun dalilai da suka wajabtawa iyaye don tabbatarwa. Sauran al'adun shari'a, musamman a cikin al'ummatai masu amfani da doka na gama gari, suna ba da damar raba gado duk yadda mutum yake so, ko kuma a ba da gado ga kowane yaro saboda wadansu dalilai.

A cikin yanayin gadon da bai yi daidai ba, yawancin na iya samun ɗan kaɗan yayin da ƙaramin adadi ne kawai za su gaji adadi mai girma. Ya yi ƙasa da kimar kasuwancin da aka fara baiwa ɗa, musamman ma idan ɗa ya mallaki kasuwancin miliyoyin daloli, amma duk da haka ana baiwa 'yar ma'auni na ainihin gadon da ya kai kasa da kimar kasuwancin da aka fara baiwa dan. Ana ganin wannan musamman a cikin tsoffin al'adun duniya, amma yana ci gaba a cikin iyalai da yawa har ya zuwa yau. [11]

Hujjojin kawar da gadon tilas sun hada da ‘yancin mallakar dukiya da kuma cancantar rabon kadarori na daidaikun jama’a a kan kwace dukiyar gwamnati da sake rabon su, amma hakan bai warware abin da wasu ke yi ba.  Bayyana a matsayin matsalar rashin daidaiton gado. Dangane da rashin daidaiton gado, wasu masana tattalin arziki da zamantakewa sun fi mayar da hankali ne kan yadda ake yada kudaden shiga ko dukiya wanda aka ce yana da tasiri kai tsaye ga motsi (ko rashin motsi) da matsayi a cikin al'umma. Kasashe sun bambanta kan tsarin siyasa da zabin manufofin da ke tafiyar da mika mulki. [12]

Bisa kididdigar gwamnatin tarayya ta Amurka da Mark Zandi ya tattara a cikin shekarar 1985, yawan gadon Amurka ya kai dala 39,000. A cikin shekaru masu zuwa, jimillar adadin gadon shekara-shekara ya ninka fiye da ninki biyu, wanda ya kai kusan dala biliyan 200. Nan da shekara ta 2050, za a yi kiyasin dala tiriliyan 25 da za a watsa gadan gadan gadan-gadan.

Wasu masu bincike sun danganta wannan tasowa da tsarar jarirai . A tarihi, ƴan jarirai su ne mafi girma na kwararar yara da aka haifa bayan WW2. Don haka, Thomas Shapiro ya ba da shawarar cewa wannan tsarar "suna tsakiyar cin gajiyar gado mafi girma a tarihi". [13] Dukiyar da aka gada na iya taimakawa wajen bayyana dalilin da yasa yawancin Amurkawa da suka yi arziƙi ƙila sun sami "farawa mai mahimmanci". A cikin watan Satumba na shekarar 2012, bisa ga Cibiyar Nazarin Siyasa, "fiye da kashi 60" na Forbes mafi arziki 400 Amirkawa "sun girma cikin gata mai mahimmanci", kuma sau da yawa (amma ba koyaushe) sun sami gado mai mahimmanci ba.

Wani bincike ya nuna cewa, gada da yawa, babba ko karami, ana saurin salwanta. Hakazalika, bincike ya nuna cewa sama da kashi biyu bisa uku na iyalai masu arziki suna rasa dukiyoyinsu a cikin tsararraki biyu, kuma kusan kashi 80% na iyaye masu arziki "suna jin cewa tsara na gaba ba su da alhakin kuɗi don sarrafa gado".

Tasirin zamantakewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An yi iƙirarin cewa gado yana da tasiri mai mahimmanci a cikin zamantakewa . Gado muhimmin bangare ne na iyali, tattalin arziki, da cibiyoyi na shari'a, da kuma ainihin hanyar haduwar kawunan al'umma . Haka kuma yana shafar rabon arziki a matakin al'umma. Jimillar tasirin rabon gado a kan sakamakon rarrabuwa yana ɗaukar nau'i uku, a cewar masana da suka yi nazarin batun.

Sigar farko ta gado ita ce gadon jarin al'adu (watau salon harshe, mafi girman matsayi na zamantakewa, da abubuwan da ake so). [14] Hanya ta biyu ta gado shi ne ta hanyar shiga tsakani na iyali ta hanyar canja wurin inter vivos (watau kyauta tsakanin masu rai), musamman a lokuta masu mahimmanci a cikin darussan rayuwa. Misalai sun haɗa da lokacin matakan ci gaban yaro, kamar zuwa kwaleji, yin aure, samun aiki, da siyan gida. [14] Nau'i na uku na gado shi ne canja wurin kadarori masu yawa a lokacin mutuwar masu yin shaida, don haka yana haifar da fa'idar tattalin arziki mai yawa ga yara a lokacin girma. [15] Asalin kwanciyar hankali na rashin daidaito abu ne (dukiyoyi na sirri mutum zai iya samu) kuma yana da al'ada, tushen ko dai a cikin nau'o'in tarbiyyar yara da suka dace da zamantakewa bisa ga zamantakewar zamantakewa da matsayi na tattalin arziki. Ayyukan renon yara a tsakanin waɗanda suka gaji dukiya na iya kasancewa wajen fifita wasu ƙungiyoyi a kashe wasu a ƙasan tsarin zamantakewa . [16]

Illolin zamantakewa da tattalin arziki na rashin daidaiton gado[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An kuma yi iƙirarin cewa girman matsayin tattalin arziki da rabon gado a cikin al'ummomi yana ƙayyade damar rayuwa a cikin al'umma. Ko da yake mutane da yawa sun danganta asalin zamantakewar mutum da samun ilimi ga damar rayuwa da dama, ilimi ba zai iya zama mafi tasiri mai hasashen motsin tattalin arziki ba. A gaskiya ma, ’ya’yan iyaye masu arziki gabaɗaya suna samun ingantacciyar makaranta kuma suna amfana daga kayan gado, al’adu, da gado. [17] Hakazalika, samun nasarar makaranta sau da yawa yana dawwama a cikin tsararraki kuma iyalai masu yawan gado suna iya samun da kuma watsa babban adadin jarin ɗan Adam. Ƙananan jari na ɗan Adam da gado na iya haifar da rashin daidaito a kasuwannin gidaje da ilimi mafi girma. Bincike ya nuna cewa gado yana taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen tara dukiyar gidaje. Wadanda suka sami gado sun fi samun gida fiye da wadanda ba su yi la’akari da girman gadon ba. [18]

Sau da yawa, tsirarun kabilanci ko addini da kuma daidaikun mutane daga cikin marasa galihu suna samun ƙarancin gado da dukiya.Sakamakon a iya keɓance gaurayawan jinsi a cikin gata na gado kuma suna iya yin hayan gidaje ko zama a unguwannin matalauta, da kuma samun ƙarancin ilimi idan aka kwatanta da turawa a Amurka. Mutanen da ke da ɗimbin dukiya da gado sukan yi aure tare da sauran jama'a iri ɗaya don kare dukiyoyinsu da tabbatar da ci gaba da rarraba gado a cikin tsararraki; don haka dawwamar da zagayowar gata.

Kasashen da ke da mafi girman kudin shiga da rashin daidaiton arziki galibi suna da mafi girman adadin kisan kai da cututtuka (kamar kiba, ciwon sukari, da hauhawar jini) wanda ke haifar da yawan mace-mace. [19] Wani labarin The New York Times ya bayyana cewa Amurka ita ce kasa mafi arziki a duniya, amma "ta yi matsayi na ashirin da tara a tsawon rayuwa, a bayan Jordan da Bosnia" kuma "tana da mafi girman adadin mace-mace na biyu na kwatankwacin kasashen OECD". An yi la'akari da wannan a matsayin babban gibin rashin daidaiton gado a cikin ƙasa, [20] ko da yake akwai wasu dalilai a fili irin su araha na kiwon lafiya .

Lokacin da rashin daidaiton zamantakewa da tattalin arziki da ya ta'allaka kan gado ke gudana ta hanyar manyan cibiyoyin zamantakewa kamar iyali, ilimi, addini, da dai sauransu, waɗannan damar rayuwa daban-daban ana jayayya cewa ana yada su daga kowane tsara. Sakamakon haka, an yi imanin wannan rashin daidaituwa ya zama wani ɓangare na tsarin zamantakewa gaba ɗaya.

Gadon dadaddiyar dukiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gadon daɗaɗɗiyar dukiya, shi ne gadon kuɗi da ake bayarwa ga tsararraki waɗanda ba su samu ba. [21] Dynastic arziki yana da alaƙa da kalmar Plutocracy . An yi rubuce-rubuce da yawa game da haɓaka da tasirin dukiyar daular da ta haɗa da littafin da aka fi sayar da jari a cikin ƙarni na ashirin da ɗaya na masanin tattalin arzikin Faransa Thomas Piketty . [22]

Bill Gates yayi amfani da kalmar a cikin labarinsa mai suna "Me ya sa rashin daidaito ke da muhimmanci". [23]

Amsar Soviet ga gado[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar yadda tsarin gurguzu ya kafu akan ka'idar Marxist Labor Theory of Value, duk wani kudi da aka tattara a tsawon rayuwa yana da hujja idan ya dogara ne akan 'ya'yan aikin mutum na kansa ba daga cin gajiyar wasu ba. Gwamnatin kwaminisanci ta farko da aka kafa bayan juyin juya halin Rasha ta yanke shawarar soke haƙƙin gado, tare da wasu keɓantacce.

Haraji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jihohi da yawa suna da harajin gado ko harajin gidaje, wanda a ƙarƙashinsa wani kaso na kowane gado ko ƙasa ya zama kudaden shiga na gwamnati .

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Mai amfana
  • Gadon dijital
  • Dokokin gado a Kanada
  • Kwangila mai wayo
  • Kadara mai canzawa
  • Tsarin gidaje
  • Dokar iyali

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hebrew-English Bible Numbers 27:1–4
  2. Hebrew-English Bible Numbers 27:7–11
  3. Hebrew-English Bible Numbers 36
  4. Hebrew-English Bible Deuteronomy 21:17
  5. Spec. Leg. 2.130
  6. Ant. 4.249
  7. [Al Kur'ani 4:11]
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named EI2
  9. [Al Kur'ani 4:11,12,176]
  10. Edmond N. Cahn. Restraints on Disinheritance University of Pennsylvania Law Review and American Law Register, Vol. 85, No. 2 (Dec., 1936), pp. 139-153
  11. Davies, James B. "The Relative Impact of Inheritance and Other Factors on Economic Inequality". The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 471
  12. Angel, Jacqueline L. Inheritance in Contemporary America: The Social Dimensions of Giving across Generations. p. 35
  13. Shapiro, Thomas M. The Hidden Cost of Being African American: How Wealth Perpetuates Inequality. Oxford University Press. 2004. p. 5
  14. 14.0 14.1 (Edited By) Miller, Robert K., McNamee, Stephen J. Inheritance and Wealth in America. p. 2
  15. (Edited By) Miller, Robert K., McNamee, Stephen L. Inheritance and Wealth in America. p. 4
  16. Clignet, Remi. Death, Deeds, and Descendants: Inheritance in Modern America. p. 3
  17. Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert, "The Inheritance of Inequality." Journal of Economic Perspectives Vol. 16, No. 3, 2002, p. 4
  18. Flippen, Chenoa A. "Racial and Ethnic Inequality in Homeownership and Housing Equity." The Sociological Quarterly, Volume 42, No. 2 p. 134
  19. page 20 of "The Spirit Level"by Wilkinson & Pickett, Bloomsbury Press 2009
  20. Dubner, Stephen. "How Big of a Deal Is Income Inequality? A Guest Post". The New York Times. August 27, 2008.
  21. John J. Miller, "Open the FloodGates", "The Wall Street Journal", July 7, 2006
  22. Piketty, Thomas, "Capital in the Twenty-First Century". Harvard University Press, Mar 10, 2014
  23. BILL GATES, "Why Inequality Matters", "LinkedIn", 15 October 2014

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • "Inheritance" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
  • 26 July 2006 USA Today article on dilemma the rich face when leaving wealth to children