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Harshen Nobin

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Harshen Nobin
Coptic script (en) Fassara, Baƙaƙen boko da Arabic script (en) Fassara
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 fia
Glottolog nobi1240[1]

Nobiin, wanda aka fi sani da Halfawi, Mahas, yare ne na Arewacin Nubian na dangin yaren Nilo-Sahara. "Nobiin" shine nau'in asali na Nòòbíí ("Nubian") kuma a zahiri yana nufin " (harshe) na Nubians". Wani kalmar aka yi amfani da ita ita ce Noban tamen, ma'ana "harshen Nubian".

Akalla shekaru 2500 da suka gabata, masu magana da Nubian na farko sun yi ƙaura zuwa kwarin Nilu daga kudu maso yamma. Tsohon Nubian ana zaton kakannin Nobiin ne. Nobiin yare ne na sauti tare da wasula mai banbanci da tsawon ma'ana. Tsarin kalma na asali shine batun-abu-kalma.

Nobiin a halin yanzu ana magana da shi a bakin kogin Nilu a Upper Egypt da arewacin Sudan da kusan Nubians 610,000. shekara ta 1996 akwai masu magana da Nobiin 295,000 a Sudan, kuma a shekara ta 2006 akwai masu magana le Nobiin 310,000 a Masar. Fedicca a Misira da Mahas a Sudan suna magana da shi. Masu magana da Nobiin na yau da kullun kusan suna da Harsuna da yawa a cikin nau'ikan Larabci na gida, gabaɗaya suna magana da Larabci ta zamani (don dalilai na hukuma) da Saʽidi Larabci, Larabciyar Masar ko Larabciwar Sudan. tilasta wa Nubians da yawa masu magana da Nobiin su koma baya a 1963-1964 don samar da wuri don gina madatsar ruwan Aswan a Aswan, Misira da kuma Tafkin Nasser.

Babu daidaitattun rubutun Nobiin. An rubuta shi a cikin rubutun Latin da Larabci; Hakanan, kwanan nan an yi ƙoƙari don farfado da Tsohon Nubian. Wannan labarin ya ɗauki rubutun Latin da aka yi amfani da shi a cikin ƙamus ɗin da aka buga na Nobiin, Roland Werner's (1987) Grammatik des Nobiin .

Yanayin ƙasa da yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fayil:Distribution of Nobiin speaking communities.png
Kafin gina madatsar ruwan Aswan, mutanen Nobiin sun fi zama tsakanin ruwa na farko da na uku na Kogin Nilu tare da gabar Kogin Niru. Dots masu launin rawaya suna nuna wuraren da ake samun al'ummomin masu magana da Nobiin a yau.
Bikin aure na Nubian kusa da Aswan, Misira

Kafin gina madatsar ruwan Aswan, masu magana da Nobiin sun zauna a kwarin Nilu tsakanin cataract na uku a kudu da Korosko a arewa. Kimanin kashi 60% na yankin Nubia an lalata shi ko kuma ya zama bai dace da zama ba sakamakon gina madatsar ruwan da kuma kirkirar Tafkin Nasser. Akalla rabin yaw[2] mutanen Nubian an sake su da karfi. A zamanin yau, masu magana da Nobiin suna zaune a cikin yankuna masu zuwa: (1) kusa da Kom Ombo, Misira, kimanin kilomita 40 a arewacin Aswan, inda gwamnatin Masar ta samar da sabbin gidaje ga kimanin Nubians 50,000; (2) a cikin Sabon Tsarin Halfa a Kassala, Sudan, inda gwamnatin Sudan ta samar da gidaje da aiki ga Nubians daga yankunan da ambaliyar ruwa suka mamaye; (3) a kusa da Jihar Arewa, Sudan, arewa daga Burgeg zuwa iyakar Masar a Wadi Halfa">Wadi Halfa.  Bugu da ƙari, yawancin Nubians sun koma manyan birane kamar Alkahira da Khartoum. A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, wasu daga cikin Nubians da suka sake zama sun koma yankunansu na gargajiya a kusa da Abu Simbel da Wadi Halfa.

Kusan duk masu magana da Nobiin suna da harsuna biyu a cikin Larabci na Masar ko Larabci na Sudan. Ga maza, an lura da wannan tun farkon 1819 ta matafiyi Johann Ludwig Burckhardt a cikin tafiye-tafiyensa zuwa Nubia . Maido da aka tilasta a rabi na biyu na karni na ashirin ya kawo karin Nubians, musamman mata da yara, cikin hulɗa na yau da kullun da Larabci. Babban abubuwan [3] ke cikin wannan ci gaban sun haɗa da karuwar motsi (sabili da haka sauƙin samun dama ga ƙauyuka da birane marasa Nubian), canje-canje a cikin tsarin zamantakewa kamar mata da ke zuwa kasuwa sau da yawa don sayar da samfuran su, da sauƙin samun damar zuwa jaridu na Larabci. A cikin birane, mata da yawa na Nubian suna zuwa makaranta kuma suna iya magana da Larabci; yawanci suna magana da yaransu a Larabci, suna ajiye Nobiin ga mijinsu. [4] da damuwa game da yiwuwar sauya harshe zuwa Larabci, Werner ya lura da halin harshe mai kyau. Rouchdy (1992a) duk da haka ya lura cewa amfani da Nobiin yafi a cikin gida, kamar yadda Larabci shine harshen da ya fi dacewa a kasuwanci, ilimi, da rayuwar jama'a. [5] fannin zamantakewa da harshe, ana iya bayyana halin da ake ciki a matsayin daya daga cikin Harsuna biyu masu ɗorewa: harshen da ya fi dacewa (Larabci a wannan yanayin), kodayake ana amfani dashi ko'ina, ba ya sauƙaƙe maye gurbin yaren 'yan tsiraru tunda ƙarshen yana da alaƙa sosai da asalin Nubian.

An kira Nobiin Mahas (i) , Mahas-Fiadidja, da Fiadicca a baya. Mahas [6] Fiadidja kalmomi ne na ƙasa waɗanda suka dace da bambance-bambance guda biyu na Nobiin; bambance-mbance tsakanin waɗannan yarukan biyu ba su da mahimmanci, kuma wasu sun yi jayayya cewa babu wata shaida ta bambancin yaren kwata-kwata. Bai kamata a rikita Nobiin da yaren Nubi ba, yaren Larabci na Larabci.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nobiin yana daya daga cikin 'yan harsuna na Afirka da ke da tarihin rubuce-rubuce wanda za'a iya biye da shi a cikin fiye da shekaru dubu. Tsohon Nubian, wanda aka adana a cikin tarin tarin yawancin rubuce-rubucen Kirista na farko kuma Gerald M. Browne (1944-2004) ya rubuta shi dalla-dalla, an dauke shi kakannin Nobiin. Yawancin rubuce-rubuce, gami da matani na Littafi Mai-Tsarki na Nubian, an gano su a cikin kwarin Nilu, galibi tsakanin cataracts na farko da na biyar, suna ba da shaida ga kasancewar Nubian a yankin a cikin karni na farko. Ana samun tarin yaren da ke da alaƙa da Nobiin, Dongolawi, a cikin wannan yanki. Harsunan Nilu-Nubian sune harsunan masarautun Nubian na Kirista na Nobatia, Makuria da Alodia .

Sauran yarukan Nubian suna samuwa daruruwan kilomita zuwa kudu maso yamma, a Darfur da kuma Dutsen Nuba na Kordofan. Tsawon lokaci an ɗauka cewa mutanen Nubian sun warwatse daga kwarin Nilu zuwa kudu, mai yiwuwa a lokacin faduwar masarautun Kirista. Koyaya, bincike na kwatankwacin lexicostatistic a rabi na biyu na karni na ashirin ya nuna cewa yaduwar dole ne ta kasance a wata hanya. Joseph Greenberg (kamar yadda aka ambata a cikin Thelwall 1982) ya lissafa cewa rabuwa tsakanin Hill Nubian da harsunan Nilu-Nubian guda biyu sun faru aƙalla shekaru 2500 da suka gabata.  Wannan ya tabbatar da gaskiyar cewa al'adar baki ta Ƙabilar Shaigiya ta ƙungiyar Jaali ta Nubians na Nilu ta Larabawa ta ce ta fito ne daga kudu maso yamma tun da daɗewa. Ana zaton masu magana da Nobiin sun zo yankin kafin masu magana da harsunan Kenzi-Dongolawi masu alaƙa (duba rarrabuwa a ƙasa).

Tun daga karni na bakwai, Larabci ya kalubalanci Nobiin. Tasirin tattalin arziki da al'adu na Masar a yankin ya kasance mai yawa, kuma, a cikin ƙarni, Larabci na Masar ya bazu kudu. Yankunan kamar al-Maris sun zama kusan cikakkun Larabawa. Juyowa na Nubia zuwa Islama bayan faduwar masarautun Kirista ya kara inganta tsarin Arabisation. A cikin abin da ke Sudan a yau, Larabci na Sudan ya zama babban yaren Funj Sultanate, tare da Nobiin ya zama yaren 'yan tsiraru. A Misira, masu magana da Nobiin sun kasance wani ɓangare na yawancin mutanen da ke magana da Larabci, amma ikon Masar a kudu yana da iyaka. Tare da cin nasarar Ottoman na yankin a karni na sha shida, goyon bayan hukuma ga Arabization ya ƙare, kamar yadda gwamnatocin Turkiyya da Circassian a Alkahira wani lokacin suna ganin masu magana da Nobiin a matsayin abokin tarayya mai amfani. Koyaya, yayin da Larabci ya kasance harshe ne mai mahimmanci a Sudan kuma musamman Masar, Nobiin ya ci gaba da kasancewa a ƙarƙashin matsin lamba, kuma amfani da shi ya zama mafi yawa a gidajen Nubian.

Rarraba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nobiin yana daya daga cikin kusan yarukan Nubian goma sha ɗaya.  [ana buƙatar hujja][ana buƙatar ƙa'ida] A al'adance an haɗa shi tare da rukunin Dongolawi, galibi bisa ga kusanci na ƙasa na biyun (kafin gina madatsar ruwan Aswan, ana magana da nau'ikan Dongolawi a arewa da kudu na yankin Nobiin, a Kunuz da Dongola bi da bi). Daidaitawar wannan reshen 'Nile-Nubian' an fara kiranta cikin shakku ta Thelwall (1982) wanda ya yi jayayya, bisa ga shaidar lexicostatistical, cewa Nobiin dole ne ya rabu da sauran yarukan Nubian kafin Dongolawi. [7] cikin rarrabuwa na Thelwall, Nobiin ya zama reshe na "Northern" da kansa yayin da Dongolawi an dauke shi wani ɓangare na Nubian na Tsakiya, tare da Birged (North Darfur) da yarukan Hill Nubian (Nuba Mountains, Kordofan). [1]

A cikin 'yan kwanakin nan, binciken da Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst ya yi ya ba da haske game da dangantakar da ke tsakanin Nobiin da Dongolawi. raba kungiyoyin har tsawon lokacin da ba su da wani abu; Bugu da ƙari, sun bambanta da al'adunsu game da asalin su. Harsunan suna [8] alaƙa da kwayar halitta, amma hoton yana da rikitarwa saboda gaskiyar cewa akwai alamun Canjin harshe da aka haifar da tuntuɓar. Nobiin ya bayyana yana da tasiri mai karfi a kan Dongolawi, kamar yadda aka tabbatar da kamanceceniya tsakanin kayan aikin phoneme da kuma faruwar yawancin nau'ikan ilimin lissafi. [8] [9] haifar da wasu su ba da shawarar cewa Dongolawi a zahiri "harshe ne 'haɗe-haɗe' tsakanin tsohuwar Nobiin da Dongolawi kafin tuntuɓar. " [1] Shaidar tasirin baya ya fi wuya, kodayake akwai wasu rance na baya-bayan nan a Nobiin waɗanda ake zaton sun fito ne daga Dongolawi.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Nobin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Rouchdy 1992b:92, citing Adams 1977.
  3. Rouchdy 1992a:93.
  4. Werner 1987:31: "Zwar ist fast jeder nubische Mann zweisprachig, und durch die Schule dringt das Arabische immer weiter vor, doch konnte nie der 'Verlust der Sprachkompetenz' beobachtet werden." [It is true that almost every Nubian man is bilingual, and that Arabic is pervading through education — but a 'loss of competence' was never observed.]
  5. Rouchdy 1992a:95
  6. Werner (1987:18—24), see also Bell (1974).
  7. Thelwall 1982.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Bechhaus-Gerst 1996.
  9. Heine & Kuteva 2001.