Jump to content

Harshen Tsonga

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Harshen Tsonga
Tsonga — Xitsonga
'Yan asalin magana
harshen asali: 13,000,000 (2011)
second language (en) Fassara: 3,400,000 (2002)
4,009,000 (2015)
Baƙaƙen boko
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-1 ts
ISO 639-2 tso
ISO 639-3 tso
Glottolog tson1249[1]

Tsonga ( /ˈ ( t ) sɒŋ ɡə / ⓘ</link> (T)SONG -gə ) ko, a asali, Xitsonga, a matsayin endonym, yaren Bantu ne da al'ummar Tsonga na Afirka ta Kudu ke magana. Yana da fahimtar juna tare da Tswa da Ronga kuma ana amfani da sunan "Tsonga" azaman kalmar rufewa ga duka ukun, kuma wani lokaci ana kiranta Tswa-Ronga. Yaren Xitsonga an daidaita shi don amfani da ilimi da na gida. Tsonga harshe ne na hukuma na Afirka ta Kudu, kuma a ƙarƙashin sunan "Shangani" an amince da shi a matsayin harshen hukuma a cikin Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Zimbabwe. Ana gane duk harsunan Tswa-Ronga a Mozambique. Ba hukuma bane a Eswatini (tsohon Swaziland).

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Henri-Alexandre Junod ɗan ƙasar Switzerland ya yi nazarin harshen Xitsonga dalla-dalla a tsakanin shekarun 1890 zuwa 1920, wanda ya yanke shawarar cewa yaren Xitsonga (wanda ya kira "harshen Thonga" a lokacin) ya fara bunƙasa a Mozambique. tun kafin 1400s. A cikin nasa maganar Junod yana cewa: [2]   Junod da wasu masu wa’azi a ƙasar Switzerland kamar Henri Berthoud da Ernest Creux sun yi ƙarin nazari, waɗanda suka soma haɗa harshen don su kasance da daidaitacciyar hanyar rubutu da karatu. “Shigwamba” kalma ce da ’yan mishan suka yi amfani da ita don haɗa yaren a ƙarƙashin haɗin kai, duk da haka sunan bai saba da yawancin mutanen Tsonga ba kuma dole ne a maye gurbinsa da “Thonga/Tsonga”. Harry ya yi nuni ga wannan: [3]

As the term Gwamba was unknown outside the Spelonken, Henri Berthoud recommended that the mission abandon the term and replace it with the widely accepted genericism, Tonga/Thonga.

Masu wa’azi a ƙasashen waje na Switzerland sun yi aiki tare da mutanen Tsonga, suna taimakawa wajen fassara Littafi Mai Tsarki daga Turanci da Sesotho zuwa Tsonga. Paul Berthoud ya buga littafi na farko a cikin 1883, godiya ga taimako daga fassarorin Mpapele (Mbizana) da Mandlati (Zambia). Mutanen biyu sun ƙware wajen koyarwa da kuma fassara yaren ga masu wa’azi a ƙasashen waje tun da babu wani cikin masu wa’azi a ƙasashen waje da ya san shi kuma suna ba da lokaci mai yawa don koyan shi. An buga yaren mutanen Tsonga da yarukan kuma an buga littattafai na farko. Daga baya an yi rajistar harshen a matsayin "Xitsonga" a cikin Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Afirka ta Kudu (Dokar 108 na 1996) kuma an ayyana shi a matsayin harshen hukuma. Daidaita harshen Xitsonga a sakamakon haka ya sa al'ummar Tsonga za su sami hanyar yin magana da rubutu tare.

Etymology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunan "Tsonga" shine tushen Xitsonga (al'ada, harshe ko hanyoyin Tsonga), Mutsonga (mutum Tsonga), Vatsonga (mutanen Tsonga), da dai sauransu. A cikin harshen Vatsonga da kansu, tushen bai taba bayyana da kansa ba. . Tsonga ce don sauƙi da samun dama ga al'ummar duniya baki ɗaya.

Dangane da asalin sunan, akwai ka'idoji guda uku. Na farko ya bayyana cewa Tsonga wani karin magana ne na Dzonga, wanda ke nufin "Kudu" da kuma sunan daya daga cikin yarukan Xitsonga. Ka'idar ta biyu ita ce, madadin rubutun tsohuwar sunan kakanni na kungiyoyin Chopi da Tembe, Tonga/Thonga. [4] Sauran bayanin Zulu na madadin haruffan "Thonga" shine cewa mutanen Tembe da Rhonga, waɗanda su ne farkon zuwa Delagoa Bay da kewayen Natal Bay, sun canza Rhonga "Rh" zuwa hanyar Zulu na "Th" . Misali shine rhuma (Kalmar Tsonga don "aika") ta zama thuma (kalmar Zulu don aiki iri ɗaya). Na uku kuma mafi karbuwa shi ne, wata lafazin “Rhonga” ne, tushen kalmar “vurhonga” na gabas ko kuma inda rana ta fito. Vurhonga kuma yana nufin wayewar gari a cikin Xitsonga. Rhonga (wanda aka saba rubuta kuma ba da kuskure kamar Ronga) ɗaya ne daga cikin yarukan Tsonga. Shaida ta zahiri na yawancin mutanen Tsonga da ke zaune a bakin tekun gabashin Afirka a kudu, suna faɗaɗa cikin ƙasa zuwa yamma, ya sa wannan bayanin ya kasance mai gayyata. Duk da haka Junod ya fara amfani da ronga ronga amma kuma ya gane cewa dangin arewa ba sa yawan amfani da sunan 'Ronga' a matsayin sunan asalinsu, amma tabbas Tsonga asalin Ronga ne.

Yawancin rubuce-rubucen tarihi game da Tsonga yana la'akari da sakamakon mfecane inda mutanen Nguni suka mamaye yawancin kabilun Afirka da suka kasance a Afirka ta Kudu, Eswatini, Mozambique, da Zimbabwe.

Harsuna da yare[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsonga yaren Bantu ne (Guthrie code S.53), mai alaƙa da sauran membobi zuwa ƙungiyar Tswa-Ronga (S.50):

  1. Yaren Ronga (Rhonga) sune Kalanga (Xinyisa, Xindindindi (Xizingili), Putru, da Xinyondroma.
  2. Yaren Tsonga (Gwamba, Gwapa) sune Bila (Vila), Djonga (Dzonga, Jonga), Hlanganu (Langanu, Nhlanganu), Hlave (Mbayi, Nkuna, Pai), Kande, Khosa, Luleke, N'walungu (Ngwalungu), Nkuma, Songa, Valoyi, Xika, and Xonga.
  3. Yaren Tswa (Tshwa) sune Dzibi (Dzivi), Dzibi-Dzonga (Dzivi-Dzonga), Tshwa, Hlengwe (Lengwe, Lhenge), Khambani, Makwakwe-Khambani, Mandla, Ndxhonge, da Nhayi (Nyai, Nyayi).

Yaren Thonga/Tsonga shida ne kawai ke wanzu kuma an gano waɗannan tun farkon shekarun 1900. Waɗannan su ne xiRonga, xiHlanganu, xiBila, xiDjonga, xiN'walungu, da xiHlengwe. Duk sauran bambance-bambancen da ke cikin Afirka ta Kudu ƙananan yaruka ne na waɗanda aka ambata. Yarukan da aka fi amfani da su a yankunan karkarar Limpopo sune N'walungu, Bila, Hlengwe, da Hlanganu. Kalmomin Xitsonga da kalmomin da aka yi amfani da su suma sun dogara ne akan waɗannan yaruka (cf. Junod 1912, shafi na 1912). 470-473)

Yaren Thonga/Tsonga shida ne kawai ke wanzu kuma an gano waɗannan tun farkon shekarun 1900. Waɗannan su ne xiRonga, xiHlanganu, xiBila, xiDjonga, xiN'walungu, da xiHlengwe. Duk sauran bambance-bambancen da ke cikin Afirka ta Kudu ƙananan yaruka ne na waɗanda aka ambata. Yarukan da aka fi amfani da su a yankunan karkarar Limpopo sune N'walungu, Bila, Hlengwe, da Hlanganu. Kalmomin Xitsonga da kalmomin da aka yi amfani da su suma sun dogara ne akan waɗannan yaruka (cf. Junod 1912, shafi na 1912). 

Don "harshen", harsuna daban-daban da yarukan suna amfani da ɗaya ko fiye daga cikin prefixes masu zuwa: Bi-, Chi-, Ci-, Gi-, Ici-, Ki-, Ma-, Shee-, Shi-, Txi-, Wa-, Wa-, da Xi-. Ga "mutanen", suna amfani da ko dai "Ba-" ko "Va-".

Rubutun Rubutu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Letter IPA Value Letter IPA Value[5] Letter IPA Value[5] Letter IPA Value[5]
a a p p pf p̪f ff ɸ
aa ph pfh p̪fʰ v β
e ɛ py bv b̪v f f
ee ɛː phy pʲʰ bvh b̪vʱ vh v,
i i b b ts ts s s
ii bh tsh tsʰ, tsᶲʰ sw , sᶲ
o ɔ by tsw tsʷ, tsᶲ z z
oo ɔː bhy bʲʱ dz dz zw
u u t t dzh dzʱ hl ɬ
uu th dzhw dzʷʱ hlw ɬʷ
r r tw dzw dzᵝ l l
rh thw tʷʰ dhl lw
rw ty c x ʃ
rhw rʷʱ thy tʲʰ ch tʃʰ xw ʃʷ
m m d d cw tʃʷ xj ʒ
mh dh chw tʃʷʰ hh x
my dw j hhw
n n dy jh dʒʱ h ɦ
nh tl jw dʒʷ hw ɦʷ
nw tlh tˡʰ w w hy ɦʲ
nhw nʷʱ tlw tˡʷ y j
ny ɲ tlhw tˡʷʰ wh
nyw ɲʷ dl yh
n' ŋ dlw dˡʷ yw
n'h ŋʱ k k
n'w ŋʷ kh
n'hw ŋʷʱ kw
q ᵏǀ khw kʷʰ
qh ᵏǀʰ g ɡ
qhw ᵏǀʷʰ gh ɡʱ
gq ᶢǀ gw ɡʷ
gqw ᶢǀʷ ghw ɡʷʱ

Fassarar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsonga yana da bambanci tsakanin modal da baƙon murya mai numfashi : /bʱ, bvʱ, vʱ, dʱ, ɖʐʱ, dʒʱ, ɡʱ/</link> vs /b, bv, v, d, ɖʐ, dʒ, ɡ/</link> daga cikin abubuwan da suka hana (daya daga cikinsu shine /ɮ/</link> ), da /m̤, n̤, ŋ̈, r̤, ȷ̈, w̤/</link> vs /m, n, ŋ, r, j, w/</link> a cikin sonnorants (wanda banda shine /ɲ/</link> ). Ƙididdigar kashi kamar haka:

Wasula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gaba Tsakiya Baya
Kusa i, ( ĩ ), iː u, uː
Tsakar ɛ ( ẽ ), ɛː ( ə̃ ) ɔ, ɔː
Bude a, ã, aː

Dogayen wasula ana rubuta su biyu. Ba a bambanta wasulan da aka sanya hanci a rubuce; [ĩ, ẽ, ə̃]</link> ana samun su ne kawai a cikin kalmomin 'yes' da 'a'a', yayin da [ã]</link> ana samunsa a cikin ƴan kalmomin mimitic. Tsakiyar wasali na iya bambanta daga kusa-tsakiyar zuwa buɗe-tsakiyar; gaba ɗaya suna kusa-tsakiyar [e, o]</link> kafin babban wasali, /i/</link> ko /u/</link> , kuma low-mid [ɛ, ɔ]</link> in ba haka ba. Ana iya gane wasulan kamar gunaguni [i̤, a̤]</link> lokacin bin baƙaƙen numfashi.

Consonants[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Labial Labio-<br id="mwArc"><br>dental Dental Alveolar Lateral Post-<br id="mwAsA"><br>alveolar Velar Glottal
plain pal. plain lab. plain lab. pal. wstld. plain lab. plain lab. plain lab. plain lab. pal.
Click voiceless Samfuri:IPAlink
aspirated Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
voiced Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
Nasal voiced Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
breathy Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
Stop voiceless Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink tˡʷ Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
aspirated Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink tˡʰ tˡʷʰ Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
voiced Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink dˡʷ Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
breathy Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
Affricate voiceless Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink tsᶲ Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
aspirated Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink tsᶲʰ Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
voiced Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink dzᵝ Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
breathy Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
Fricative voiceless Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink sᶲ Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
voiced Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
breathy Samfuri:IPAlink
Trill voiced Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
breathy Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
Approximant voiced Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink
breathy Samfuri:IPAlink Samfuri:IPAlink

Yawancin waɗannan baƙaƙe na iya kasancewa kafin hanci, amma ba baƙar fata ba ne: aƙalla a matsayi na farko, su ne na hanci – jerin abubuwan toshewa inda hancin yake syllabic.

Sautunan baƙar fata daban-daban na iya canza wurin magana. Yawancin masu magana da Tsonga sun bambanta affricates daga alveolar [ts], [tsʰ], [dz], [dzʱ], [dzʷʱ]</link> zuwa retroflex [tʂ], [tʂʰ], [dʐ], [dʐʱ], [dʐʷʱ]</link> ; Na ƙarshe ana busa su da rauni cikin Tsonga daidai kuma cikin yaren Changana. Labiodental [ɱ]</link> da hakori [n̪]</link> suna bayyana a cikin gungu na baƙar fata na homorganic.

Ba kamar wasu harsunan Nguni ba, Tsonga yana da ƴan kalmomi kaɗan tare da latsa baƙaƙe, kuma waɗannan sun bambanta a wuri tsakanin hakori [ᵏǀ], [ᵏǀʰ], [ᵏǀʷʰ], [ᶢǀ], [ᶢǀʷ]</link> da postalveolar [ᵏ!], [ᵏ!ʰ], [ᵏ!ʷʰ], [ᶢ!], [ᶢ!ʷ]</link> . Misalai su ne: ngqondo</link> (mind), gqoka</link> (tufafi), guqa</link> (guiwa), riqingo</link> (phone), qiqi</link> (kunne), qamba</link> (hada), Mugqivela</link> (Asabar).

Nahawu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nahawu gabaɗaya nau'in yarukan Bantu ne tare da tsari-fi'ili-kayan abu . Tsarin yana canzawa zuwa batun — abu — fi’ili lokacin magana da wani mutum:

Tsonga Turanci
Ndza ku rhandza Ina son ku (Ina son ku)
Wa ndzi rhandza Kuna so na
Ha ku tiva Mu ka sani
Va ndzi tiva Sun san ni

Kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kusan duk infinitives suna da prefix ku - kuma sun ƙare da - a .

Tsonga Turanci
ku chava Don tsoro
ku tsaka Don murna
ku rhandza a so

Babban banda wannan shi ne fi’ili ku ri</link> - "in faɗi" Ya yi daidai da "ti" a cikin sauran harsunan Bantu da yawa. Misalan amfaninsa sun haɗa da:</br> u ri yini?</link> - Me kake ce? (Me kake fada?)</br> ndzi ri ka n'wina</link> – Ina gaya muku duka.

A yawancin lokuta ri</link> sau da yawa ana tsallake kuma ta haka ku</link> a kan kansa kuma yana iya nufin "ce".</br> Va ri ndza penga</link> – Suna cewa ni mahaukaci ne.</br> Va ri yini?</link> – Me suke cewa? (Me suke cewa?)

Halin halin yanzu</br> Halin halin yanzu yana samuwa ta hanyar amfani da karin magana na sirri kawai tare da fi'ili.</br> Ndzi lava mali</link> - Ina son kudi,</br> Hi tirha siku hinkwaro</link> - Muna aiki duk rana,</br> Mi(u) lava mani?</link> – Wanene kuke nema?</br> U kota ku famba</link> – S/Ya san tafiya.

Gabatar da ci gaba</br> Gabaɗaya, don nuna ayyuka masu gudana a halin yanzu yana ɗaukar suna na sirri, ya sauke i</link> kuma ya kara a</link> .</br> Ndzi nghena (e)ndlwini</link> - Ina shiga gida,</br> Ha tirha sweswi</link> - Muna aiki a yanzu,</br> Ma hemba</link> - Ku (jam'i) kuna ƙarya.</br> Wa hemba</link> – Kai (mufuradi) karya kake,</br> Wa hemba</link> – S/Ya karya,</br> Tare da jam'i va</link> (su) babu bambanci. Don haka va hemba</link> = "karya suke" da "karya suke".

Lokacin da ya gabata</br> Wannan na daya daga cikin hanyoyi uku, dangane da kalmar.</br> (i) Gabaɗaya, mutum yana sauke a</link> daga fi'ili kuma yana ƙara prefix -ile</link></br> Ndzi nghenile ndlwini</link> - Na shiga gida,</br> Hi tirhile siku hinkwaro</link> - Mun yi aiki duk rana,</br> U hembile</link> – Kun yi karya,</br> U hembile</link> – S/Ya yi karya,</br> Va hembile</link> – Sun yi ƙarya.

(ii) Da kalmomin da suka ƙare da -ala</link> , abin da ya gabata ya canza zuwa -ele</link> or -ale</link> .</br> ku rivala</link> - mantuwa,</br> Ndzi rivele</link> – Na manta, U rivele</link> – kun manta, Va rivele</link> – sun manta,</br> Ku nyamalala</link> – A bace,</br> U nyamalarile</link> – S/Ya – bace,</br> Kalmomin da aka yi amfani da su don kwatanta yanayin zama suma suna amfani da lokacin da ya wuce.</br> Ku karhala</link> - Don gajiya,</br> Ndzi karhele</link> – Na gaji, U karhele</link> – S/Ya gaji, Va karhele</link> – Sun gaji.

(iii) A yawancin lokuta kawai canza na ƙarshe a</link> a cikin fi'ili zuwa e</link> yana nuna ayyukan da suka gabata.</br> Ku fika</link> – Da koma,</br> U fike tolo</link> – S/Ya iso jiya,</br> Ndzi fike tolo</link> – Na iso jiya,</br> Hi tirhe siku hinkwaro</link> - Mun yi aiki duk rana,</br> Ndzi nghene (e)ndlwini</link> – Na shiga gidan.

Zaman gaba</br> Wannan yana samuwa ta hanyar ƙara ta</link> a tsakanin karin magana na sirri da fi’ili.</br> Ndzi ta nghena (e)ndlwini</link> - Zan shiga gidan,</br> Hi ta tirha siku hinkwaro</link> - Za mu yi aiki duk rana,</br> Va ta tirha siku hinkwaro</link> - Za su yi aiki duk rana,</br> Mi ta tirha siku hinkwaro</link> – Ku (jam’i) za ku yi aiki duk rana.

Darasi na suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsonga yana da azuzuwan da yawa, kamar sauran harsunan Bantu, waɗanda ake koyo ta hanyar haddace galibi. Wadannan su ne:

Class Prefix Misalai
1 mu- mufana "boy", murhangeri "shugaban", munhu "mutum"
2 va- vafana "boys", varhangeri "shugabanni", vanhu "mutane"
3 mu-, m-, n- nseve "kibiya", nenge "kafa", nambu "kogin"
4 mi- miseve rai "kibau", milenge "kafafu", milambu "koguna"
5 ri-, Ø- tiko "kasa", rito "kalmar", vito "suna"
6 ma- matiko "kasashe", marito "kalmomi", mavito "names"
7 xi- Xikwembu "Allah", xilo "abu", xitulu "kujera"
8 swi- Swikwembu "alloli", swilo "abubuwa", switulu "kujeru"
9 yi(n)-, (n)- yindlu "gida", mbyana "kare", homu "saniya"
10 tiyi(n), ti(n)- tiyindlu "gidaje", timbyana "karnuka", tihomu "shanu"
11 ri- rihlaya "jaw", rivambu "haƙarƙari", rintiho "yatsa"
14 vu- vutomi "rayuwa", vumunhu "yan Adam", vululami "adalci"
15 ku- ku tshembha "to trust", ku dya "cin abinci", ku biha "muni"
21 dyi- dyimunhu "katon katon mutum", dyiyindlu "katon gida mai ban mamaki"
  • A cikin darasi na 9 da 10, yi</link> yana nan lokacin da tushe na suna yana da sila ɗaya, kuma ba ya nan.

Sunan magana na sirri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunayen karin magana a cikin Tsonga sun yi kama da na sauran harsunan Bantu da yawa, tare da ƴan bambancin.

Ana iya rarraba waɗannan a matsayin mutum na farko (mai magana), mutum na biyu (wanda aka yi magana da shi), da kuma mutum na uku (wanda aka yi magana akai). Hakanan ana rarraba su da lambar nahawu, watau mufurai da jam'i. Babu bambanci tsakanin batu da abu.

Kowane karin magana yana da madaidaicin yarjejeniya ko morpheme yarjejeniya . [ <span title="The text near this tag may need clarification or removal of jargon. (April 2012)">bayani da ake bukata</span> ]

Sunayen Suna
1st sg. 2 ta sg. 3 ta sg. 1st pl. 2 ta pl. 3 ta pl.
Sunan mai suna mina wena yena hina n'wina vona
morpheme yarjejeniya ndzi, ndza u, wa u, wa hi, ha mi, ma va
Misalin jumla Mina ndzi vona huku. ("Na ga kaza.")



Mina ndza yi vona huku. ("Na ga shi - kajin.")
Wena u vona huku. ("Ka ga kaza.")



Wena wa yi vona huku. ("Ka ga shi-kaza.")
Yena u vona huku. ("Ya/ta ga kaza.")



Yena wa yi vona huku. ("Ya / ta gani - kaza.")
Hina hi vona huku. ("Mun ga kaza.")



Hina ha yi vona huku. ("Mun gan shi - kaza.")
N'wina mi vona huku. ("Ka ga kaza.")



N'wina ma yi vona huku. ("Ka ga shi-kaza.")
Vona va vona huku. ("Suna ganin kaza.")



Vona va yi vona huku. ("Suna gani - kaji.")

Kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmomin Xitsonga suna da kamanceceniya ba kawai ga yawancin harsunan Afirka ta Kudu ba har ma da sauran harsunan Bantu na Gabas, misali, Kiswahili. [6]

Lambobi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsonga Turanci
N'we daya
Mbirhi biyu
Nharhu uku
Mune hudu
Ntlhanu biyar
Tsevu shida
Nkombo bakwai
Nhungu takwas
Kaye tara
Khume goma
Khume (na) n'we / Khumen'we goma sha daya
Khume (na) mbirhi / Khumembirhi goma sha biyu
Khume (na) nharhu / Khumenharhu goma sha uku
Mune wa makhume / Makumemune ashirin
Makhume manharhu / Makumenharhu talatin
Mune wa makhume / Makumemune arba'in
Ntlhanu wa makhume / Makumentlhanu hamsin
Dzana dari
Gidi dubu

Watanni na shekara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsonga Turanci
Sunguti Janairu
Nyenyenyani Fabrairu
Nyenyankulu Maris
Dzivamisoko Afrilu
Mudyaxihi Mayu
Khotavuxika Yuni
Mawuwani Yuli
Mhawuri Agusta
Ndzati Satumba
Nhlangula Oktoba
Hukuri Nuwamba
N'wendzamhala Disamba

Lamuni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsonga, kamar sauran harsunan Afirka, harsuna daban-daban na turawa sun yi tasiri a kansu. Kalmomin Tsonga sun haɗa da kalmomin da aka aro daga Turanci, Afrikaans, da Fotigal . Har ila yau, saboda hadewar al'ummar Shangaan, ta dauki wasu kalmomi daga harsunan Nguni.

  • Thelevhixini (Mavonakule) – television
  • Rhediyo (Xiyanimoya) – Radio
  • Xitulu – chair (Stool)
  • Wachi (Xikomba-nkarhi) – watch (to tell time)
  • Movha (Xipandza-mananga) – car (automobile)
  • Sokisi – socks
  • Nghilazi – glass
  • Tliloko – clock(bell)
  • Masipala – municipal (plural: vamasipala)
  • Makhiya/swikhiya (Xilotlela) – keys

Kalmomin da aka aro daga Afirkaans

  • lekere – sweets (lekkers)
  • fasitere – window (venster)
  • lepula – spoon (lepel)
  • kereke – church (kerk)
  • buruku – trousers (broek)
  • domu – idiot (dom)
  • tafula – table (tafel)
  • xipuku – ghost (spook)

Kalmomin da aka aro daga wasu harsunan Nguni:

  • riqingho – phone
  • ku qonda – to head towards (not standard = ku kongoma)
  • ku gcina – to end (not standard = ku hetelela)
  • ku zama – to try (not standard = ku ringeta)

Tsarin rubutu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haruffa Latin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Xitsonga yana amfani da haruffan Latin . Duk da haka, ana rubuta wasu sautuna ta hanyar amfani da haɗin haruffa, waɗanda ko dai babu su a cikin yarukan Indo-Turai, ko kuma ana iya nufin bambance yaren ɗan kaɗan.

Misalin wannan shine harafin "x" da aka ɗauko daga rubutun harshen Portuguese, wanda aka furta /ʃ/</link> . Saboda haka, an rubuta waɗannan kalmomi, [ʃuʃa], [ʃikolo], [ʃilo], a cikin Tsonga as -xuxa, xikolo,</link> da xilo</link> .

Sauran bambance-bambancen rubutun sun haɗa da harafin "c", wanda ake furta /t͡ʃ/</link> . Duk da haka, inda aka ba da fifikon kalma akan wasali mai zuwa harafin yana taurare ta hanyar ƙara "h" wannan kalmar Tsonga -chava ( tsoro)

Sauti daidai da Welsh "ll" ( /ɬ/</link> ) an rubuta "hl" a cikin Tsonga, misali -hlangana (gadu), -hlasela (kai hari), -hleka (dariya)

Sautin busa gama gari a cikin harshen ana rubuta "sw" ko "sv" a cikin ChiShona na Zimbabwe. Wannan sauti a haƙiƙa na cikin ajin "x-sw" a cikin harshe. Misali:

  • sweswi (now)
  • xilo (thing) – swilo (things)
  • xikolo (school) – swikolo (schools)
  • Xikwembu (God) – swikwembu (gods)

Wani sautin busawa ana rubuta "dy" amma ba shi da irin Ingilishi, mafi kusa shine sautin "dr" a kalmar Ingilishi "drive"

An daidaita Xitsonga a matsayin harshen da aka rubuta. Koyaya, akwai yaruka da yawa a cikin harshen waɗanda ƙila ba za su furta kalmomi kamar yadda aka rubuta ba. Alal misali, Littafi Mai Tsarki na Tsonga yana amfani da kalmar byela</link> (gaya), lafazin bwe-la, duk da haka babban rukuni na masu magana za su ce "dzvela" maimakon.

Addu’ar Ubangiji kamar yadda aka rubuta a cikin Littafi Mai Tsarki na Xitsonga (Bibele)

Tata wa hina la nge matilweni,
vito ra wena a ri hlawuriwe;
a ku te ku fuma ka wena;
ku rhandza ka wena a ku endliwe misaveni;
tani hi loko ku endliwa matilweni;
u hi nyika namuntlha vuswa bya hina
bya siku rin'wana ni rin'wana;
u hi rivalela swidyoho swa hina,
tani hi loko na hina hi rivalela lava hi dyohelaka;
u nga hi yisi emiringweni
kambe u hi ponisa eka Lowo biha,
hikuva ku fuma, ni matimba, ni ku twala i swa wena
hi masiku ni masiku.
Amen.

Xiyinhlanharhu xa Mipfawulo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

sintu</link> tsarin rubutu, Isibheqe Sohlamvu/Ditema tsa Dinoko</link> , also known a technically in Xitsonga as Xiyinhlanharhu xa Mipfawulo</link> , ana amfani dashi don duk nau'in Xitsonga. Sunan nau'i-nau'i na aji 7/8 da ke sama ana wakilta kamar haka:

xilo</link>
[ʃiːlɔ]
swilo</link>
[ʂiːlɔ]
xikolo</link>
[ʃikʼɔːlɔ]
swikolo</link>
[ʂikʼɔːlɔ]
xikwembu</link>
[ʃikʷʼɛmbu]
swikwembu</link>
[ʂikʷʼɛmbu]

Karin Magana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar sauran harsuna da yawa, Xitsonga yana da karin magana da yawa; waɗannan suna bayyana a cikin azuzuwan daban-daban. Suna bayyana a rukunin dabbobi, bishiyoyi da mutane.

Tsonga English Meaning
N'wana wa mfenhe a nga tsandziwi hi rhavi The child of baboon does not fail a branch A wiseman's child can do anything.
U nga teki mali u bohela enengeni wa mpfuvu Do not tie money in the leg of hippopotamus Do not lend your money to people who do not pay back.
U nga dlayi nyoka u yi ndzuluta, ta micele ta ku vona Do not kill a snake and swing it, the ones inside the holes are watching you Do not do unnecessary bad things to someone, other people are watching you.
Kuwa ro tshwuka ri na xivungu endzeni. A fig fruit which is pink, it has a worm inside. Most of very beautiful women they have bad habits.
N'wana wa nyoka i nyoka. The child of snake is a snake. A child of a bad person, might be a very bad person.
Ndlopfu a yi fi hi ribambu rin'we An elephant does not die of one (broken) rib When in trouble, a man should try all efforts to find a solution.
Mbuti ya xihaha a yi tswaleli entlhambini A secretive goat does not give birth in a midst. Keep a secret do not say it where there are many people
Matimba ya ngwenya i mati The strength of crocodile is water. A man has power when he is supported by his people
N'hwarimbirhi yin'we yi ta tshwa nkanga If one tries to do more than one thing at the same time, one might not prosper.
N'wana wo ka a nga rili u ta fela a dzobyeni A child who does not cry will die unnoticed at the back of his mother. If you do not raise your voice (in a form of a complaint), you will not be heard.
Mbuti yi dya laha yi nga bohiwa kona A goat eats where it is tied. A person must use properties of a place where he is working.
Ku tlula ka mhala ku letela n'wana wa le ndzeni The way an impala jumps, it influences its unborn child. Whatever bad things a mother does, her daughter will also do.
I malebvu ya nghala. It is a lion's beard. A thing may not be as scary as it looks.
Nomu a wu taleriwi hi nambu A mouth can cross any river. A mouth can say all words of promises.
Mavoko ya munhu a ma mili nhova/byanyi Grass cannot grow on a human being's hands. You must work hard (in every possible way) to succeed.
Xandla famba, xandla vuya. Let the hand go and let the hand come back. A giving hand is a receiving hand.
Humba yi olele nkuma The snail has collected ashes A person has died
Mbyana loko yi lava ku ku luma ya n'wayitela. A dog smiles when it intends to bite something. A person can do (or intend to do) bad things to you, while he is smiling.
Ku hiwa hi Thomo ku suka e palamendhe ya le tilweni. To be given by Thomo (king's name) from heavenly parliament. To be blessed by God.
Vana va munhu va tsemelana nhloko ya njiya. Siblings are sharing the head of locust. Siblings must share good things.
Mhunti yo tlulatlula Mangulwe u ta yi khoma. An antelope which is jumping around next to Mangulwe (dog's name), he will catch it. Any girl who has been seen by this boy, she will accept his proposal (used by a boy when he is in love with a girl).
Tolo a nga ha vuyi. Yesterday will not come back. Wishing to bring interesting old things of old days to nowadays.
Nghala yi vomba exihlahleni. A lion roars in the bush. A warrior is seen in a war.
Ku hundza muti ri xile To pass a home during the day To be stupid
Tinghala timbirhi ta chavana. Two lions fear each other. Two powerful nations fear each other.
Timpfuvu timbirhi a ti tshami xidziveni xin'we. Two hippos cannot stay in the same deep water. Enemies cannot stay in the same place.
Vuhosi a byi peli nambu. Chiefdom does not cross the river. Chiefdom stays in the same family, cannot be passed to other families.
A ndzi ku hi laha ku nga na mpfula ku sala ndzhongo. I thought is where the rain has poured and left fertile soil. I thought it was good things.
I matutu vana va ntavasi It is plenty.
Ku tshwa nomo To have a burnt mouth Referring to someone who constantly lies, e.g. Jephrey Cuma u tshwe nomo.
N'wana u tseme mubya A disobedient child
Ximitantsengele xi tshemba nkolo He who swallows a large stone has confidence in the size of his throat. When you start something you must have power (courage) to complete it.
Mutlhontlhi wa tinyarhi ti vuya hi yena The one who challenges buffaloes they will chase him. He who provokes other people, will face the consequences.
Loko u tsundzuka mhelembe khandziya ensinyeni When you think of rhino, climb a tree. When you think of something, act immediately.
Ku ba ndlopfu hi xibakele To hit an elephant with a fist To make a very slight impression.
Ku banana hi rhambu ra mfenhe To hit each other with a baboon's bone To exchange gifts with relatives only.
Ku banana hi rhanga ro hisa To hit each other with a hot 'pumpkin' To accuse each other.
U nga hlawuli nkuku wa mhangele One must not choose the male of the guinea-fowl (similar to "Don't count your chickens before they are hatched"). This proverb is said to a young husband who might be tempted to prepare something for their babies before their birth, since you do not know if the baby is a male or female.
Tinhlanga ta le ndzhaku ti tiviwa hi mutlhaveri wa tona. The tattooing marks made on the back are known by the tattooer (not by the tattooed) You do not know what may happen when you have turned your back.
Xihlovo a xi dungiwi loko u heta ku nwa mati Do not close the well after having drunk. Do not mess up things after using them, you might need them tomorrow.
U nga sahi nsinya hi vuxika, u ta tshwa hi mumu hi malanga Do not cut the tree in winter, you will burn by sun in summer. Do not mess up things when you do not need them, you will suffer when you need them.
Mhunti yi biwa ya ha ri na mahika An antelope is killed while is sighing A problem must be solved immediately.
Xirhami xi vuyisa na n'wana evukatini Chillness causes a girl to come back to her parents' house from her husband's house. It is very cold.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Tsonga". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Junod, Henry (1912, 1927), The Life of a South African Tribe: The Social Life, Neuchatel: Imprimerie Attinger Freres, p. 32–33
  3. Harries, P. 1987, The Roots of Ethnicity: Discourse and the Politics of Language Construction in South-East Africa, University of the Witwatersrand. p. 16
  4. Elephant Coast, (2009). History of the Thembe – Thonga, Retrieved from http://www.visitelephantcoast.co.za/index.php?history_thembe Archived 2020-08-12 at the Wayback Machine
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Baumbach
  6. DigitalTsonga, (2020). Some Common Xitsonga Words that are also Similar in Kiswahili, Retrieved from https://www.digitaltsonga.com/&page=blog/2020-12-14/Some_Common_Xitsonga_Words_that_are_also_Similar_in_Kiswahili Archived 2020-12-21 at the Wayback Machine

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Software da wuri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]