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Harshen Tupi

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Tsohon Tupi, Tsohuwar Tupi ko Tupi na gargajiya ( </link> ) Mataccen harshe ne na Tupian wanda ƴan asalin Tupi na Brazil ke magana, galibi waɗanda ke zaune a yankunan bakin teku a Kudu da Kudu maso Gabashin Brazil . A cikin kalmomin masanin ilimin tupin dan kasar Brazil Eduardo Navarro, "harshen gargajiya na Brazil ne na gargajiya, kuma wanda ke da matukar muhimmanci ga tsarin al'adu da ruhaniya na kasar". [1]

Yana cikin dangin harshen Tupi-Guarani, kuma yana da rubutaccen tarihin da ya wuce ƙarni na 16, 17, da farkon ƙarni na 18. A farkon lokacin mulkin mallaka, Turawa da ƴan asalin ƙasar Amirka sun yi amfani da Tupi a matsayin yare a duk faɗin Brazil, kuma yana da amfani da adabi, amma daga baya an danne shi ya kusan ƙarewa. A yau, zuriyar zamani ɗaya ce kawai ke rayuwa, yaren Nheengatu

A matsayin mafi mahimmancin harshen asalin ƙasar Brazil, shine asalin yawancin sunayen birni na asali na asali ( Pindamonhangaba, Ubatuba, Botucatu, Jacareí ). Har ila yau, ya ba da sunayen tsire-tsire da dabbobi da yawa, kuma yawancin sunayen da suka dace sune sunayen tupi, kamar Moacir, Iara, Iracema da Jandaia. Yana da ɗimbin adabi, waɗanda suka haɗa da cathechisms, waƙoƙi da wasan kwaikwayo. [2]

Sunayen Old Tupi ko Classical Tupi ana amfani dasu don harshen a cikin Ingilishi da kuma masanan zamani (ana kiransa tupi antigo</link> in Portuguese ). An san shi, a cikin Portuguese, kamar língua brasílica</link> "Harshen Brazil".

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yusufu na Anchieta (1534-1597), masanin nahawu na farko na Tupi, kamar yadda Antônio Parreiras ya yi hasashe.

Mutanen Tupinambá ne suka fara magana da tsohon Tupi, waɗanda suka rayu ƙarƙashin yanayin al'adu da zamantakewa ba kamar waɗanda ake samu a Turai ba . Ya bambanta da harsunan Indo-Turai a cikin phonology ,[ana buƙatar hujja]</link> ilimin halittar jiki, da nahawu, amma yawancin mutanen Luso-Brazil da aka haifa a Brazil sun karbe shi a matsayin harshen yare .

Ya kasance na dangin harshen Tupi – Guarani, wanda ya yi fice a tsakanin sauran harsunan Kudancin Amurka don faffadan yankin da ya rufe. Har zuwa karni na 16, ana samun waɗannan harsuna a cikin kusan gabaɗayan gabar tekun Brazil, daga Pará zuwa Santa Catarina, da kuma Río de la Plata basin . A yau, ana jin harsunan Tupi a Brazil (jihohin Maranhão, Pará, Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, da Espírito Santo ), da kuma a cikin Guiana na Faransa, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, da Argentina .

Kuskure ne na yau da kullun don yin magana game da "harshen Tupi-Guarani": Tupi, Guarani da wasu ƙananan ƙananan harsuna ko manyan harsuna duk suna cikin dangin harshen Tupian, a daidai wannan ma'anar cewa Ingilishi, Romanian, da Sanskrit na cikin Iyalin harshen Indo-Turai . Ɗaya daga cikin manyan bambance-bambance tsakanin harsuna biyu shine maye gurbin Tupi /s/</link> ta Glottal fricative /h/</link> in Guarani.

Bayanan farko na tsohon yaren Tupi sun samo asali ne tun daga farkon karni na 16, amma an samar da rubuce-rubuce na farko da ke dauke da ainihin bayanai game da shi daga 1575 zuwa gaba. - lokacin da Jesuits André Thévet da José de Anchieta suka fara fassara addu'o'in Katolika da labaran Littafi Mai Tsarki zuwa harshen. Wani baƙon, Jean de Lery, ya rubuta na farko (kuma mai yiwuwa kawai) Tupi "littafin jimla", wanda ya rubuta dukan tattaunawa. Ayyukan Lery shine mafi kyawun rikodin yadda ake magana da Tupi.

A cikin ƙarni biyu ko uku na farko na tarihin Brazil, kusan dukkan masu mulkin mallaka da ke zuwa Brazil za su koyi tupinambá bambance-bambancen Tupi, a matsayin hanyar sadarwa tare da ƴan asalin ƙasar da sauran ƴan mulkin mallaka na farko waɗanda suka karɓi harshen.

Jesuit, duk da haka, ba kawai sun koyi magana tupinambá ba, amma sun ƙarfafa ’yan ƙasa su kiyaye shi. Sashe na aikinsu na aikin wa’azi a ƙasashen waje, sun fassara wasu littattafai a cikinsa kuma sun buga wasu littattafai na asali da aka rubuta kai tsaye a Tupi. An ba da rahoton cewa José de Anchieta ya rubuta waƙoƙi fiye da 4,000 a cikin tupinambá (wanda ya kira linga Brasilica ) da nahawu na Tupi na farko . Luís Figueira wani muhimmin adadi ne na wannan lokacin, wanda ya rubuta nahawu na Tupi na biyu, wanda aka buga kusan 1628. A cikin rabin na biyu na karni na 18, an sake buga ayyukan Anchieta da Figueira kuma Uba Bettendorff ya rubuta sabon catechism kuma mafi cikakke. A lokacin, harshen ya shiga cikin limaman coci kuma shi ne ainihin harshen ƙasar Brazil – ko da yake mai yiwuwa ba safai ake rubuta shi ba, kamar yadda Cocin Roman Katolika ke da kusanci da ilimin karatu.

Lokacin da Firayim Ministan Portugal Marquis na Pombal ya kori Jesuit daga Brazil a shekara ta 1759, harshen ya fara raguwa da sauri, saboda ’yan Brazil kaɗan ne suka iya karatu a cikinsa. Wani sabon gudun hijira na Portuguese ya kasance yana faruwa tun farkon karni na 18, saboda gano zinare, lu'u-lu'u, da duwatsu masu daraja a cikin Brazil, kuma waɗannan sababbin 'yan mulkin mallaka suna magana da harshensu na asali kawai. Tsohuwar Tupi ya rayu a matsayin yaren magana (wanda Turawa da Indiyawa ke amfani da shi) kawai a cikin keɓantattun yankuna na cikin ƙasa, nesa da manyan cibiyoyin birni. Amfani da shi da wasu masu magana da ba Indiyawa ba a waɗancan wuraren keɓe zai daɗe har yanzu sama da ƙarni guda.

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  2. Eduardo Navarro (2005), Método Moderno de Tupi Antigo