Jari-hujja

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jari-hujja
social formation (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na economic system (en) Fassara
Bisa private property (en) Fassara da economic profit (en) Fassara
Gagarumin taron Industrial Revolution
Yana haddasa mass production (en) Fassara da income inequality (en) Fassara
Hannun riga da anti-capitalism (en) Fassara da Kwaminisanci
Uses (en) Fassara commodification (en) Fassara
Tarihin maudu'i history of capitalism (en) Fassara
Item disputed by (en) Fassara Marxism (en) Fassara da anti-consumerism (en) Fassara

  

Jari-hujja tsarin tattalin arziki ne da ya ginu bisa kebantaccen ikon mallakar hanyoyin samar da ayyukansu don samun riba. [1] Siffofin jari-hujja na tsakiya sun haɗa da tara jari, kasuwanni masu gasa, tsarin farashi, kadarori masu zaman kansu, sanin haƙƙin mallaka, musayar ra'ayi, da aikin albashi. A cikin tattalin arzikin kasuwa, yanke shawara da saka hannun jari ana ƙaddara ta masu mallakar dukiya, dukiya, ko ikon sarrafa babban jari ko ikon samarwa a kasuwannin jari da kasuwannin kuɗi-yayin da farashin da rarraba kayayyaki da sabis ke ƙayyade ta hanyar gasa a cikin kayayyaki da kasuwannin sabis.

Masana tattalin arziki, masana tarihi, masana tattalin arziki na siyasa da masana ilimin zamantakewa sun ɗauki ra'ayoyi daban-daban a cikin nazarin tsarin jari-hujja kuma sun gane nau'ikansa iri-iri a aikace. Wadannan sun hada da laissez-faire ko jari-hujja na kasuwa kyauta, anarcho-capitalism, jari-hujja na jiha da jari-hujja. Siffofin jari-hujja daban-daban suna da nau'o'in nau'i daban-daban na kasuwanni masu 'yanci, mallakar jama'a, cikas ga gasa ta kyauta da manufofin zamantakewar da jihohi suka amince da su. Matsayin gasa a kasuwanni da rawar shiga tsakani da tsari gami da iyakokin ikon mallakar jihohi sun bambanta a nau'ikan tsarin jari-hujja. Matsakaicin yadda kasuwanni daban-daban suke da 'yanci da kuma ka'idojin da ke bayyana kadarorin masu zaman kansu al'amura ne na siyasa da siyasa. Yawancin tattalin arziƙin jari-hujja da ake da su haɗaɗɗun tattalin arziƙi ne waɗanda ke haɗa abubuwa na kasuwanni masu 'yanci tare da shiga tsakani na jihohi kuma a wasu lokuta shirin tattalin arziki. [2]

jari-hujja kenan

Tattalin arzikin kasuwa ya wanzu a ƙarƙashin nau'ikan gwamnati da yawa kuma a lokuta daban-daban, wurare da al'adu daban-daban. Ƙungiyoyin jari-hujja na zamani sun bunƙasa a Yammacin Turai ta hanyar da ta kai ga juyin juya halin masana'antu. Tsarin jari-hujja tare da matakai daban-daban na shiga tsakani na gwamnati tun daga lokacin suka zama masu rinjaye a yammacin duniya kuma suna ci gaba da yaduwa. Haɓakar tattalin arziƙi wata dabi'a ce ta tattalin arzikin jari-hujja.

Asalin kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wasu kalmomin wasu lokuta ana amfani da su don jari-hujja:
  • Yanayin samar da jari hujja
  • 'Yancin tattalin arziki
  • Kasuwanci kyauta[page needed]
  • Tattalin arzikin kasuwanci na kyauta
  • Kasuwa kyauta[page needed]
  • Tattalin arzikin kasuwa kyauta
  • Laissez-faire [3]
  • Tattalin arzikin kasuwa [4]
  • Tsarin riba[page needed]
  • Kasuwar sarrafa kai[page needed]

Kalmar "'yan jari hujja", ma'ana mai mallakar babban jari, ya bayyana a baya fiye da kalmar "jari-hujja" kuma kwanan wata zuwa tsakiyar karni na 17. "Capitalism" an samo shi daga capitale, wanda ya samo asali daga capitale, kalmar late Latin bisa caput, ma'ana "kai" wanda kuma shine asalin "chattel" da "cattle" a ma'anar dukiya mai motsi (kawai daga baya kawai a koma ga dabbobi kawai). Capitale ya fito a cikin ƙarni na 12 zuwa 13 don yin nuni ga kuɗi, hannun jari, adadin kuɗi ko kuɗin da ke ɗauke da riba. :232[5] A shekara ta 1283, an yi amfani da shi a cikin ma'anar babban kadarorin kamfani na kasuwanci kuma sau da yawa ana musanya shi da wasu kalmomi-dukiya, kuɗi, kuɗi, kaya, dukiya, kadara da sauransu. :233

Hollantse (German) Mercurius yana amfani da "'yan jari-hujja" a cikin shekarun 1633 da 1654 don komawa ga masu mallakar jari. :234A cikin kalmar Faransanci, Étienne Clavier ya yi magana game da 'yan jari-hujja a cikin shekarar 1788, shekaru huɗu kafin yin amfani da Ingilishi na farko da Arthur Young yayi a cikin aikinsa Travels a Faransa (1792). [5] [6] A cikin ka'idojin tattalin arziki na siyasa da haraji (1817), David Ricardo ya yi nuni ga "dan jari hujja" sau da yawa. [7] Mawaƙin Ingilishi Samuel Taylor Coleridge ya yi amfani da “ɗan jari hujja” a cikin aikinsa Table Talk (1823). Pierre-Joseph Proudhon ya yi amfani da kalmar a cikin aikinsa na farko, Menene Dukiya? (1840), don komawa ga masu babban jari. Benjamin Disraeli yayi amfani da kalmar a cikin aikinsa na 1845 Sybil.

Fara amfani da kalmar "jari-hujja" a ma'anarta ta zamani an danganta shi ga Louis Blanc a cikin shekarar 1850 ("Abin da na kira 'jari-hujja' wato a ce rabon jari da wasu ke ware wasu) da kuma Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. a cikin shekarar 1861 ("Tsarin tattalin arziki da zamantakewa a cikin abin da babban jari, tushen samun kudin shiga, ba ya zama na wadanda suka yi aiki ta hanyar aikin su"). :237Karl Marx akai-akai yana magana akan " capital" da kuma "yanayin samar da jari hujja" a Das Capital (1867). [8] [9] Marx bai yi amfani da tsarin jari-hujja ba amma a maimakon haka ya yi amfani da babban jari, tsarin jari-hujja da tsarin jari-hujja, wanda ke bayyana akai-akai. [9] [10] Saboda kalmar da masu sukar tsarin jari-hujja suka kirkiro kalmar, masanin tattalin arziki kuma masanin tarihi Robert Hessen ya bayyana cewa kalmar "jari-hujja" ita kanta kalma ce ta disparagement da kuskuren tattalin arziki. [11] Bernard Harcourt ya yarda da bayanin cewa kalmar ba ta dace ba, ya kara da cewa a cikin kuskure yana nuna cewa akwai wani abu kamar "jari" wanda ke aiki a wasu hanyoyi kuma ana tafiyar da shi ta hanyar tabbatattun dokokin tattalin arziki na kansa. [12]

A cikin harshen Ingilishi, kalmar "jari-hujja" ta fara bayyana, bisa ga ƙamus na Oxford English Dictionary (OED), a cikin shekarar 1854, a cikin novel The Newcomes by marubuci William Makepeace Thackeray, inda kalmar ke nufin "mallakar jari". Har ila yau, bisa ga OED, Carl Adolph Douai, Ba'amurke ɗan gurguzu da abolitionist, ya yi amfani da kalmar "hanyar jari-hujja" a cikin shekarar 1863.

Cosimo de' Medici, wanda ya yi nasarar gina daular kudi ta duniya kuma ya kasance daya daga cikin ma'aikatan bankin Medici na farko.
Hotunan tashar jiragen ruwa na Faransa daga 1638 a tsayin mercantilism
Robert Clive tare da Nawabs na Bengal bayan yakin Plassey wanda ya fara mulkin Birtaniya a Indiya


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Chris Jenks. Core Sociological Dichotomies. "Capitalism, as a mode of production, is an economic system of manufacture and exchange which is geared toward the production and sale of commodities within a market for profit, where the manufacture of commodities consists of the use of the formally free labor of workers in exchange for a wage to create commodities in which the manufacturer extracts surplus value from the labor of the workers in terms of the difference between the wages paid to the worker and the value of the commodity produced by him/her to generate that profit." London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Delhi. Sage. p. 383.
  2. Stilwell, Frank. "Political Economy: the Contest of Economic Ideas". First Edition. Oxford University Press. Melbourne, Australia. 2002.
  3. Barrons Dictionary of Finance and Investment Terms, 1995; p. 74.
  4. "Market economy", Merriam-Webster Unabridged Dictionary[dead link]
  5. 5.0 5.1 James Augustus Henry Murray. "Capital". A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. Oxford English Press. Vol. 2. p. 93.
  6. Arthur Young. Travels in France.
  7. Ricardo, David. Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. 1821. John Murray Publisher, 3rd edition.
  8. Saunders, Peter (1995). Capitalism. University of Minnesota Press. p. 1.
  9. 9.0 9.1 MEW, 23, & Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Oekonomie. Erster Band-Verlag von Otto Meissner (1867)
  10. The use of the word "capitalism" appears in Theories of Surplus Value, volume II. ToSV was edited by Kautsky.
  11. Hessen, Robert (2008) "Capitalism", in Henderson, David R. (ed.) The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics p. 57
  12. Harcourt, Bernard E. (2020) For Coöperation and the Abolition of Capital, Or, How to Get Beyond Our Extractive Punitive Society and Achieve a Just Society, Rochester, NY: Columbia Public Law Research Paper No. 14-672, p. 31