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Jiragen saman Afirka

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Kasashen Afrika a launin Kore, a Taswirar duniya
Jirgin saman Afirka ta Kudu Airbus A350 a Filin jirgin saman JFK
Jirgin Sama na Habasha Boeing 787-8

Jiragen sama sun karu a Afirka saboda, a kasashe da yawa, hanyoyin sadarwa na hanya da na dogo ba su da kyau saboda matsalolin kudi, ƙasa, da lokutan ruwan sama. Ben R. Guttery, marubucin Encyclopedia of African Airlines, ya ce "Ko da yake yawancin masu jigilar ba su taɓa zama babba bisa ka'idodin Turai ko Amurka ba, sun yi tasiri sosai ga tattalin arziki da mutane".[1] Yawancin manyan kamfanonin jiragen sama na Afirka mallakar gwamnatocin ƙasa ne ko kuma gaba ɗaya.[1] Wasu kamfanonin jiragen sama na[2] Afirka sun kasance ko a baya suna da kamfanonin jiragen saman Turai a matsayin manyan masu hannun jari, kamar KLM wanda ke da kashi 7.8% a Kenya Airways da British Airways wanda a baya yana da kashi 18% a Comair.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jirgin Sama na Afirka Airbus A310-300
Jirgin saman Afirka ta Kudu Airbus A340 a gasar Olympics ta 2012 Livery

A tarihi, hukumomin Burtaniya sun kafa kamfanonin jiragen sama na cikin gida, yayin da kamfanonin jiragen saman Belgium, Faransa, Portugal, da Spain suka yi wa yankunansu hidima.[3] Bayan kasashe na Afirka sun sami 'yanci, gwamnatocin kasa sun kafa kamfanonin jiragen sama na kansu.[1] Yawancin sabbin kasashe masu zaman kansu suna so su sami masu ɗaukar tutar su don nuna 'yancin kansu, kuma waɗancan ƙasashe suna son manyan jiragen sama kamar DC-10s da 747s koda kuwa buƙatar iska ba ta ba da izini ga waɗancan jiragen ba. Wasu kamfanonin jiragen sama, kamar Air Afrique, gwamnatoci da yawa sun tallafawa tare. Wasu kamfanonin hadin gwiwa, kamar su Central African Airways, East African Airways, da West African Airways, an kafa su ne lokacin da Ingila ta mallaki sassan Afirka.[3] An yi amfani da ilimin jirgin sama, masana'antar jirgin sama, da babban birnin kuɗi, wanda ya samo asali ne daga Turawa, don kafa sabbin masu jigilar Afirka.[4]

mallakar gwamnati[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A lokuta da yawa kamfanonin jiragen sama na Turai suna da tasirin mulkin mallaka a kan kamfanonin jiragen saman Afirka, don haka batutuwan sun taso bayan masu mulkin mallaka sun bar Afirka kuma 'yan Afirka sun fara aiki da masu jigilar jiragen.[1] Kamfanonin jiragen sama da yawa na gwamnati suna aiki da wadanda aka nada daga gwamnati kamar yadda kamfanonin jiragen sama masu yawa suka kasance wani ɓangare na tsarin gwamnatocin su na kasa.[5] A cewar Guttery, sabili da haka, kamfanonin jiragen sama da yawa na Afirka ba a sarrafa su da kyau.[3] Wannan ya haifar da kamfanonin jiragen sama da ke aiki a cikin asarar gaske da / ko warwarewa.[3]

Bugu da kari, ribar sau da yawa tana shiga cikin asusun aiki na ƙasashensu, yayin da gwamnatoci da yawa ke ba da isasshen kuɗi ga kamfanonin jiragen sama.[1] Har ila yau, gwamnatoci da yawa suna sanya cibiyoyin kamfanonin jiragen sama don aiki da kuma yawan ma'aikata kamfanonin jiragen su, suna sa su marasa inganci. Guttery ya ce duk da cewa bambancin gudanarwar gwamnati da mallakar kamfanonin jiragen sama na Afirka "za a iya la'akari da cikas a kasuwar duniya da tattalin arziki ke jagoranta," saboda matsalolin da ke tattare da tara kudaden kuɗi da rashin ababen more rayuwa na gwamnati, shiga gwamnati yana da mahimmanci wajen kafa kamfanonin jiragen ruwa.[3] Kamfanonin jiragen sama na Afirka sun dogara da hanyoyin kasa da kasa masu fa'ida don tallafawa hanyoyin cikin gida marasa fa'ida, da yawa daga cikinsu suna ba da sabis ga ƙananan al'ummomi.[3]

Jirgin Ruwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jirgin saman Afirka ta Kudu Boeing 747-300 tare da lambar yabo ta zinariya Livery (Ndizani) a Zurich, Switzerland
Kamfanin jirgin sama na Kenya Boeing 777-300ER

Idan aka kwatanta da jirgin sama a wasu yankuna na duniya, jirgin sama a Afirka ya tsufa. Ya zuwa shekara ta 2010, kashi 4.3% na dukkan jiragen sama a duniya suna tashi a cikin Afirka. Daga cikin tsofaffin jiragen sama, [ƙididdige] 12% suna tashi a cikin Afirka. Duk da yake tsofaffin jiragen sama suna da ƙananan farashi, suna da ƙimar amfani da man fetur da farashin kulawa fiye da sababbin jiragen sama. Saboda yawancin kamfanonin jiragen sama na Afirka suna da ƙarancin ƙididdigar kuɗi, Afirka tana da ƙaranci na kwangilar haya. 5% na jirgin sama da aka hayar a duniya yana tashi a Afirka.

Kasancewar Alliance[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamfanin jiragen sama na Afirka ta Kudu Airbus A340-600 a cikin Star Alliance livery

Haɗin gwiwar kamfanonin jiragen sama a cikin Afirka ya haɗa da yarjejeniyar codeshare tsakanin kamfanonin jiragen ruwa da yawa a cikin ƙungiya ɗaya, da kuma mai ɗaukar jirgin Afirka ɗaya wanda ke da daidaito a cikin wani mai ɗaukar jirgin ƙasa na Afirka. Kamfanonin jiragen sama na Afirka kalilan ne ke shiga cikin kawance tare da masu jigilar jiragen sama wadanda ba na Afirka ba, saboda ba su isa su iya jan hankalin zuba jari ba, sabili da haka ba su iya haɓaka hanyoyin sadarwar da ke da kyau ga haɗin gwiwar jirgin sama ba. Koyaya, yawancin masu ɗaukar tutar Afirka sun sami damar shiga cibiyoyin haɗin gwiwar jiragen sama na duniya: South African Airways ta zama memba na Star Alliance a ranar 10 ga Afrilu 2006. Kenya Airways ta zama memba na SkyTeam a ranar 4 ga Satumba 2007, kuma ta zama cikakken memba na Sky Team a cikin 2010. Egyptair ya zama memba na Star Alliance a watan Yulin 2008, kamar yadda kamfanin Ethiopian Airlines ya yi a watan Disamba na shekara ta 2011.[6] Royal Air Maroc ta shiga Oneworld a ranar 1 ga Afrilu 2020.

Tsaro[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kulula.com Boeing 737

Ya zuwa 1998, Ƙungiyar Jirgin Sama ta Duniya ta sanya Afirka da Latin Amurka a matsayin yankuna na duniya tare da mafi ƙarancin hanyoyin sufuri na iska. Cibiyar sadarwar jiragen sama ta Afirka ta kasa da kayan aiki. Ya zuwa 1998, tsarin kula da zirga-zirgar jiragen sama na Afirka ba su da ci gaba kamar tsarin ATC a wasu sassan duniya; Ben R. Guttery ya ce rashin zirga-zane a Afirka ya biya tsarin ATC da ba a ci gaba ba.[4] Har ila yau, idan aka kwatanta da filayen jirgin sama mafi girma, ƙananan filayen jirgin saman ba su da damar samun hanyoyi masu wuya. Guttery ya ce a cikin 1998 cewa manyan filayen jirgin saman Afirka "kusan ba za a iya rarrabe su ba daga waɗanda ke cikin ƙasashe masu tasowa".[4] Ya kuma ce a cikin 1998 cewa "Matsalar tsaro ta filin jirgin sama ta ci gaba da zama matsala, amma ana magance su".[4]

A shekara ta 2005, kusan kashi 25% na hadarin jirgin sama a duniya ya faru ne a Afirka, yayin da jiragen Afirka suka kai kashi 5% na zirga-zirgar jiragen sama a duniya. Jaridar Wall Street ta bayyana cewa "Shekaru da yawa, jirgin saman Afirka ya sha wahala daga tsofaffin jiragen sama, filayen jirgin sama masu rushewa, kayan aiki da matukan jirgi marasa horo" kuma Afirka tana da "rashin kulawa da yawa wanda ya sa sararin samaniya ya zama mafi haɗari a duniya". WSJ ta bayyana cewa rashin tilasta ka'idojin tsaro mafi ƙarancin gwamnatoci saboda rashin iko ko rashin gaskiya shine "mafi girman dalilin rikodin tsaro".

A shekara ta 2020 duk da haka, jirgin sama na Afirka ya inganta tsaro har zuwa lokacin da tashi a Afirka ya fi matsakaicin duniya lafiya dangane da haɗari a kowace jirgi miliyan.

Dubi kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayanan da aka yi amfani da su[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Guttery, Ben R. Encyclopedia of African Airlines. McFarland & Company, 1 August 1998. 1. Retrieved from Google Books on 15 February 2012.
  2. Kenya Airways Annual Report 2018, https://corporate.kenya-airways.com/uploadedFiles/Content/Investor_Information/KQ_Annual_Report_for_43rd_Annual_General_Meeting.pdf Archived 2022-10-06 at the Wayback Machine
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Guttery, Ben R. Encyclopedia of African Airlines. McFarland & Company, 1 August 1998. 2. Retrieved from Google Books on 15 February 2012.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Guttery, Ben R. Encyclopedia of African Airlines. McFarland & Company, 1 August 1998. 3. Retrieved from Google Books on 15 February 2012.
  5. Guttery, Ben R. Encyclopedia of African Airlines. McFarland & Company, 1 August 1998. 1-2. Retrieved from Google Books on 15 February 2012.
  6. "Ethiopian Airlines." Star Alliance. Retrieved on 15 February 2012.

Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • "Independence in the Air: African Aviation a cikin shekarun 1960". Nunin dijital. Cibiyar Nazarin Sufuri ta Jami'ar Arewa maso Yamma.