Johannes Kepler

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Johannes Kepler
Portrait of Johannes Kepler.jpg
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Johannes Kepler
Haihuwa Weil der Stadt (en) Fassara, 27 Disamba 1571
ƙasa Holy Roman Empire (en) Fassara
Mazauni Württemberg (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Regensburg (en) Fassara, 15 Nuwamba, 1630
Makwanci Regensburg (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Heinrich Kepler
Mahaifiya Katharina Kepler
Abokiyar zama Barbara Müller (en) Fassara  (27 ga Afirilu, 1597 -
Ahali Margarethe Maickler (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta University of Tübingen (en) Fassara
Evangelical Seminaries of Maulbronn and Blaubeuren (en) Fassara
Tübinger Stift (en) Fassara
Matakin karatu Bachelor of Arts (en) Fassara
Master of Arts (en) Fassara
Thesis director Michael Maestlin (en) Fassara
Harsuna Harshen Latin
Jamusanci
Malamai Michael Maestlin (en) Fassara
Tycho Brahe (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a naturalist (en) Fassara, astrologer (en) Fassara, Malamin akida, masanin lissafi, Ilimin Taurari, musicologist (en) Fassara, physicist (en) Fassara, cosmologist (en) Fassara, music theorist (en) Fassara, mai falsafa, marubuci da mai koyarwa
Wurin aiki Graz (en) Fassara, Linz (en) Fassara, Ulm (en) Fassara da Prag
Employers University of Graz (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Astronomia nova (en) Fassara
Harmonices Mundi (en) Fassara
Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae (en) Fassara
De Cometis Libelli Tres (en) Fassara
Rudolphine Tables (en) Fassara
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Nicolaus Copernicus (en) Fassara
Mamba Lincean Academy (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Lutheranism (en) Fassara
atheist (en) Fassara
Unterschrift Kepler.svg
Johannes Kepler 1610.jpg

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) ya mai Jamus falaki da lissafi malami.

Wannan Muƙalar guntuwa ce: tana buƙatar a inganta ta, kuna iya gyara ta.

Johannes Kepler (27 Disamba 1571 - 15 Nuwamba 1630) masanin taurari ne dan kasar Jamus, masanin lissafi da falaki da falsafar halitta sannan kuma marubucin wakoki ne. Mutum ne mai mahimmanci a juyin juya halin kimiyya na karni na 17, wanda aka fi sani da dokokinsa a kan motsi na duniya, da littattafansa Astronomia nova, Harmonice Mundi, da Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae. Waɗannan ayyukan kuma sun ba da ɗaya daga cikin tushe na ka'idar Newton na maganadison kasa na duniya.

Kepler malamin lissafi ne a makarantar hauza a Graz, inda ya zama abokin Yarima Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Daga baya ya zama mataimaki ga masanin ilmin taurari Tycho Brahe a Prague, kuma daga karshe masanin lissafin daular mulkin Sarki Rudolf na biyu da magadansa biyu Matthias da Ferdinand II. Ya kuma koyar da ilimin lissafi a Linz, kuma ya kasance mai ba da shawara ga Janar Wallenstein. Bugu da ƙari, ya yi aiki a fagen ilimin gani, ya ƙirƙiri ingantacciyar na'urar hangen nesa (ko Keplerian), kuma an ambace shi a cikin binciken na'urar hangen nesa (telescopic) na Galileo Galilei na zamani. Shi mamba ne na Accademia dei Lincei a Roma. Kepler ya rayu a zamanin da babu wani bambanci tsakanin ilmin taurari da taurarin kansu, amma akwai rarrabuwa mai ƙarfi tsakanin ilimin taurari (reshe na lissafi a cikin fasaha na sassaucin ra'ayi) da kimiyyar lissafi (reshe na falsafar halitta). Kepler kuma ya shigar da hujjoji na addini da tunani a cikin aikinsa, wanda yakinin addini da imani da cewa Allah ya halicci duniya bisa ga wani tsari mai hankali wanda ake iya samunsa ta hanyar haske na dabi’a. Kepler ya bayyana sabon ilmin taurarinsa a matsayin "ilimin kimiyyar sararin samaniya, a matsayin " balaguro zuwa cikin Aristotle's Metaphysics, kuma a matsayin "kari ga Aristotle's On the Heavens", yana canza tsohuwar al'adar ilmin sararin samaniya ta hanyar yin magani. ilmin taurari a matsayin wani bangare na kimiyyar lissafi ta duniya.

An haifi Kepler a ranar 27 ga watan Disamba 1571, a cikin Free Imperial City of Weil der Stadt (yanzu wani yanki ne na Stuttgart a cikin Jahar Baden-Württemberg ta Jamus, mai nisan kilomita 30 yamma da tsakiyar Stuttgart). Kakansa, Sebald Kepler, ya kasance magajin gari. A lokacin da aka haifi Johannes, yana da ’yan’uwa biyu da ’yar’uwa ɗaya kuma dukiyar iyalin Kepler ta ragu lokacin da aka haife shi. Mahaifinsa, Heinrich Kepler, ya yi rayuwa mai wahala , kuma ya bar iyali sa’ad da Johannes lokacin yana ɗan shekara biyar. An yi imanin ya mutu a yakin shekaru tamanin a Netherlands. Mahaifiyarsa, Katharina Guldenmann, ta kasance likita ce. Johannes ya yi iƙirarin cewa ya kasance mai rauni da rashin lafiya tun yana yaro. Amma duk da haka, ya kan burge matafiya a masaukin kakansa da kwarewarsa a ilmummuka ta ban mamaki . Lokacin yana yaro, Kepler ya shaida Babban Comet na 1577, wanda ya ja hankalin masana ilmin taurari a fadin Turai. An sanar da shi ilimin taurari tun yana karami kuma ya sami sha'awar hakan wanda hakan ya kasance har iya tsawon rayuwarsa. Yana da shekaru shida, ya lura da Great Comet na 1577, ya rubuta cewa "mahaifiyarsa ta ɗauke shi zuwa wani wuri mai tsayi don ya duba shi. A cikin 1589, bayan ya yi makarantar nahawu, makarantar Latin, da makarantar hauza a Maulbronn, Kepler ya halarci Tübinger Stift a Jami'ar Tübingen. A can, ya karanci falsafa a karkashin Vitus Müller da ilimin tauhidi karkashin Jacob Heerbrand (dalibin Philipp Melanchthon a Wittenberg), wanda kuma ya koyar da Michael Maestlin lokacin yana dalibi, har ya zama Chancellor a Tübingen a 1590. Ya nuna kansa a matsayin ƙwararren masanin ilimin lissafi kuma ya yi suna a matsayin ƙwararren masanin taurari, yana yin duba ho ga abokan karatunsa. A ƙarƙashin umarnin Michael Maestlin, farfesa na Tübingen na lissafi daga 1583 zuwa 1631, ya koyi duka tsarin Ptolemaic da tsarin Copernican na motsi na duniya. Ya zama Copernican a lokacin. A cikin takaddamar ɗalibi, ya kare heliocentrism daga mahangar ka'ida da tauhidi, yana mai tabbatar da cewa Rana ita ce babbar tushen ƙarfin motsa jiki a cikin sararin duniya. Duk da sha'awarsa na zama minista, a kusa da ƙarshen karatunsa, an ba Kepler shawarar samun matsayi a matsayin malamin lissafi da ilmin taurari a makarantar Furotesta a Graz. Ya karbi mukamin a watan Afrilu 1594, yana da shekaru 22.

Kafin ya kammala karatunsa a Tübingen, Kepler ya karɓi tayin koyar da ilimin lissafi a matsayin wanda zai maye gurbin Georg Stadius a makarantar Furotesta a Graz (yanzu a Styria, Austria). A cikin wannan lokacin (1594-1600), ya ba da kalandar hukuma da yawa da tsinkaye waɗanda suka haɓaka sunansa a matsayin masanin taurari. Ko da yake Kepler yana da ra'ayi iri ɗaya game da ilmin taurari kuma ya ɓata yawancin al'adar taurari, ya yi imani da gaske game da alaƙa tsakanin sararin samaniya da mutum. Daga ƙarshe ya buga wasu ra'ayoyin da ya nishadantar da shi yayin da yake ɗalibi a cikin Mysterium Cosmographicum (1596). A watan Disamba na shekara ta 1595, an gabatar da Kepler ga Barbara Müller, gwauruwa ’yar shekara 23 (sau biyu) tare da ’yar matashiya mai suna Regina Lorenz, kuma ya fara zawarcinta. Müller, wadda ita ce magajiyar magidanta da suka mutu, ita ma diyar mai masana'anta ce. Da farko mahaifinta Jobst ya yi adawa da auren. Ko da yake Kepler ya gaji sarautar kakansa. Jobst ya tuba bayan Kepler ya kammala aiki a kan Mysterium, amma haɗin gwiwa ya kusan faɗuwa yayin da Kepler ya tafi yana kula da cikakkun bayanai na ɗab'a. Barbara da Johannes sun yi aure a ranar 27 ga Afrilu 1597.A cikin shekarun farko na aurensu, Keplers sun haifi 'ya'ya biyu (Heinrich da Susanna), dukansu sun mutu tun suna jarirai.