Kishin ƙasa

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Kishin kasa ra'ayi ne kuma yunkuri ne da ke ra'ayin cewa al'ummar kasa ta dace da kasa. A matsayin yunkuri, kishin kasa yana kokarin inganta muradun wata al'umma (kamar yadda yake a cikin gungun jama'a), musamman da nufin samun da kuma kiyaye yancin al'umma (mulkin kai) a kan mahaifarta don samar da wata nation-state. Kishin kasa ya yi imanin cewa kowace al'umma ya kamata ta mallaki kanta, ba tare da tsoma baki daga waje ba (yancin kai), cewa al'umma ita ce tushen asali kuma manufa ta siyasa, kuma al'umma ita ce kawai tushen ikon siyasa. [1] [2] Yana kara da nufin ginawa da kiyaye asalin kasa daya, bisa ga hadaddiyar dabi'un zamantakewa kamar al'adu, kabilanci, wurin yanki, harshe, siyasa (ko gwamnati), addini, al'adu da imani a cikin tarihi guda daya, da kuma inganta hadin kan kasa ko hadin kai. Don haka kishin kasa na neman kiyayewa da raya al'adun gargajiyar al'umma. [3] Akwai ma'anoni daban-daban na "al'umma", wanda ke haifar da nau'ikan kishin ƙasa daban-daban. Fuskokin biyu daban-daban sune Ethnic nationalism da civic nationalism.

Kishin kasa ya ci gaba a karshen karni na 18, musamman tare da juyin juya halin Faransa da kuma yada ka'idar ikon mallaka (ra'ayin cewa "mutane" su yi mulki). An yi amfani da manyan ka'idoji guda uku don bayyana bayyanar ta. Primordialism (perennialism) ya haɓaka tare da kishin ƙasa a lokacin lokacin soyayya kuma sun ɗauka cewa akwai ƙasashe koyaushe. Wannan ra'ayi tun da masana suka yi watsi da shi, kuma a yanzu ana kallon al'ummomi a matsayin gine-ginen zamantakewa da tarihi. Ka'idar zamani, a halin yanzu ka'idar kishin kasa da aka fi yarda da ita, ta ɗauki hanyar ginawa kuma ta ba da shawarar cewa kishin ƙasa ya samo asali ne saboda hanyoyin zamani, kamar haɓaka masana'antu, haɓaka birane, da ilimin jama'a, wanda ya sa fahimtar ƙasa ta yiwu. Magoya bayan wannan ka'idar sun bayyana kasashe a matsayin "al'ummomin da aka zayyana" da kuma kishin kasa a matsayin "al'adar da aka kirkira" wanda ra'ayi daya ya ba da wani nau'i na ainihi na gama kai da kuma haɗa mutane tare cikin haɗin kai na siyasa. Ka'idar ta uku, ethnosymbolism ya bayyana kishin kasa a matsayin samfurin alamomi, tatsuniyoyi, da al'adu, kamar yadda aka danganta da aikin Anthony D. Smith. Bugu da ƙari, yaduwar ƙungiyoyin kishin ƙasa a lokacin mulkin mallaka ya sa da yawa daga cikin masu ra'ayin ra'ayi nazarin rawar da manyan mutane ke takawa wajen tara al'umma don ci gaba da mulkinsu.

Ƙimar ɗabi'a na kishin ƙasa, dangantakar dake tsakanin kishin ƙasa da kishin ƙasa, da kuma dacewa da kishin ƙasa da tsarin duniya duk batutuwa ne na muhawarar falsafa. Ana iya haɗa kishin ƙasa da manufa da akidu daban-daban na siyasa kamar ra'ayin mazan jiya (masu ra'ayin mazan jiya da ra'ayin dama) ko gurguzu (kishin ƙasa na hagu). A aikace, ana kallon kishin kasa a matsayin mai kyau ko mara kyau dangane da akida da sakamakonsa. Kishin kasa ya kasance siffa na ƙungiyoyi da 'yanci da adalci, an danganta su da farfaɗowar al'adu, [4] kuma yana ƙarfafa girman kai ga nasarorin ƙasa. An kuma yi amfani da ita don halasta rarrabuwar kabilanci, kabilanci, da addini, murkushe ko kai hari ga tsiraru, da kuma tauye haqqoqin yan Adam da al’adun dimokuradiyya. Ƙaunar kishin ƙasa mai tsattsauran ra'ayi tare da ƙiyayyar launin fata shine babban dalilin Holocaust da Nazi Jamus ta yi.

Kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shafin taken daga bugu na biyu (Amsterdam 1631) na De jure belli ac pacis

An inganta amfani da kalmomi na "al'ummai", "sarauta" da ra'ayoyin da ke da alaƙa tare da rubuce-rubucen Hugo Grotius na De jure belli ac pacis a farkon karni na 17. Rayuwa a lokacin yakin shekaru tamanin tsakanin Spain da Netherlands da kuma yakin shekaru talatin tsakanin Katolika da Furotesta na Turai (Katolika Faransa yana cikin sansanin Furotesta), ba abin mamaki ba ne cewa Grotius ya damu sosai game da al'amuran. rikice-rikice tsakanin al'ummomi a cikin mahallin adawa da suka samo asali daga bambance-bambancen addini. Kalmar al'umma kuma an yi amfani da ita da amfani kafin 1800 a Turai don komawa ga mazauna wata ƙasa da kuma ga ƙungiyoyin jama'a waɗanda zasu iya haɗa da tarihin da aka raba, doka, harshe, 'yancin siyasa, addini da al'adu, a cikin ma'anar mafi kama da na zamani. tunani.

Kishin kasa kamar yadda aka samo daga sunan da ke nuna ‘al’ummai’ wata sabuwar kalma ce; a cikin harshen Ingilishi, kalmar ta samo asali daga 1798. Kalmar ta fara zama mai mahimmanci a cikin karni na 19. [5] Kalmar ta ƙara zama mara kyau a cikin ma'anarta bayan 1914. Glenda Sluga ta lura cewa "ƙarni na ashirin, lokacin da ake tsananin rashin jin daɗi da kishin ƙasa, shi ma babban zamanin duniya ne." [6]

Masana ilimin kimiyya sun bayyana kishin kasa a matsayin ka'idar siyasa da ta nuna cewa kasa da kasa su kasance tare. A cewar Lisa Weeden, akidar kishin kasa tana zaton cewa "mutane" da kuma jihar suna tare.

Katin waya daga 1916 yana nuna alamun ƙasa na wasu ƙawayen yaƙin duniya na ɗaya, kowannensu yana riƙe da tutar ƙasa.


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Smith1
  2. Yack, Bernard. Nationalism and the Moral Psychology of Community. University of Chicago Press, 2012. p. 142
  3. Smith, Anthony. Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History. Polity, 2010. pp. 6–7, 30–31, 37
  4. Smith, Anthony. Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History. Polity, 2010. pp. 6–7, 30–31, 37
  5. See Norman Rich, The age of nationalism and reform, 1850–1890 (1970).
  6. Glenda Sluga, Internationalism in the Age of Nationalism (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013) ch 1