Madatsar ruwan Akosombo

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Madatsar ruwan Akosombo
Akosombo Dam.jpg
Location (en) Fassara
Sovereign state (en) FassaraGhana
Yankuna na GhanaYankin Gabashi (Ghana)
Gundumomin GhanaAsuogyaman District (en) Fassara
Human settlement (en) FassaraAkosombo (en) Fassara
Geographical location Volta River (en) Fassara
Flanked by Volta River (en) Fassara
Coordinates 6°17′59″N 0°03′34″E / 6.29972°N 0.05944°E / 6.29972; 0.05944Coordinates: 6°17′59″N 0°03′34″E / 6.29972°N 0.05944°E / 6.29972; 0.05944
History and use
Opening1961
Inauguration (en) Fassara1965
Manager (en) Fassara Volta River Authority
Use (en) Fassara hydroelectricity (en) Fassara
Architecture (en) Fassara
Tsawo 114 m
Faɗi 366 meters
Tsawo 660 meters
Maximum capacity (en) Fassara 1,020 megawatt (en) Fassara
Parts spillway (en) Fassara: 1

Madatsar ruwan Akosombo, wanda kuma aka fi sani da Madatsar ruwan Volta (da Turanci Akosombo Dam ko Volta Dam), madatsar ruwa ce da ke kan Kogin Volta da ke kudu maso gabashin Ghana a cikin kwazazzabar Akosombo da wani bangare na Hukumar Kogin Volta. Gina madatsar ruwan ya mamaye wani ɓangare na Kogin Volta, kuma ya haifar da ƙirƙirar Tafkin Volta mai zuwa. Ambaliyar da ta haifar da tafkin Lake Volta ya raba mutane da dama da muhallansu kuma ya yi matukar tasiri ga yanayin yankin. Tafkin Volta shine babban tafki da mutum yayi a duniya ta hanyar yanki. Tana ɗaukar 8,502 square kilometreகள் (3,283 sq mi), wanda shine 3.6% na yankin ƙasar Ghana. Tare da girman kilomita dubu dari da arba'in da takwas, Lake Volta shine tafki na uku mafi girma a duniya da mutum yayi da girma, mafi girma shine Lake Kariba wanda yake tsakanin Zimbabwe da Zambiya a Kudancin Afirka kuma yana da ruwa mai tsawon cubic kilomita 185.

Manufa ta farko na Akosombo Dam ya zuwa samar da wutar lantarki ga aluminum masana'antu. An kira Dam din Akosombo "mafi girman jari guda cikin tsare-tsaren bunkasa tattalin arzikin Ghana." Dam din yana da mahimmanci don samar da yawancin wutar lantarki ta Togo da Benin, duk da cewa gina Dam din Adjarala na fatan rage dogaro da wadannan kasashe kan wutar lantarki da ake shigowa da su.

Asalin wutar lantarki da madatsar ta samu ya kai 912 megawattகள் (1,223,000 hp), wanda aka inganta zuwa 1,020 megawattகள் (1,370,000 hp) a cikin aikin retrofit wanda aka kammala a 2006.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akosombo dam tare da bude magudanan ruwa

Masanin Albert Ernest Kitson ne ya ɗauki dam ɗin a cikin 1915, amma ba a shirya wani shiri ba har zuwa 1940s. An gabatar da cigaban Kogin na Volta a cikin 1949, amma saboda kudaden basu isa ba, kamfanin Amurka Volta Aluminium Company (Valco) ya ba Ghana rance don a gina madatsar ruwan. Kwame Nkrumah ya amince da aikin samar da wutar lantarki daga Kogin Volta.

A karshe tsari kayyade ginin wani aluminum smelter a Tema, a dam gina a Akosombo iko da smelter, da kuma wani cibiyar sadarwa na ikon Lines shigar ta kudancin kasar Ghana. Daga baya ana tsammanin mai narkar da karafa na aluminium zai samar da kudaden shigar da suka dace don kafa hakar ma'adanin bauxite da tace shi, wanda zai ba da damar samar da aluminium ba tare da shigo da alumina ta waje ba. Bunkasar masana'antar aluminium a cikin Ghana ya dogara ne akan samarda wutar lantarki. Kamfanin ba'amurke mai suna Kaiser Aluminium ne ya sa ido kan aikin narkar da narkon alminium din, kuma kamfanin na Valco ne ke kula da shi. Mai narkar da karafan ya sami jarinsa na kudi daga hannun masu hannun jari na Valco, tare da tallafi daga Bankin Export-Import na Washington, DC. Koyaya, Valco bai saka hannun jari ba tare da farko ya buƙaci inshora daga gwamnatin Ghana ba, kamar keɓewar kamfanoni daga haraji akan kasuwanci da ragin siyan wutar lantarki. Kimanin kudin aikin, gabaɗaya, an kiyasta dala 258 miliyan.

A watan Mayu 1960, gwamnatin Ghana ta yi kira da a bayar da tayin takara don gina madatsar ruwan. A cikin 1961, wani kamfanin Italia, Impregilo wanda ya kammala Dam din Kariba, ya sami kwangilar. Sun gudanar da aikin hako gadon kogin da kuma lalata tashar, kuma suka kammala madatsar wata daya kafin lokacin da aka tsara duk da ambaliyar kogin Volta a 1963 wanda ya jinkirta aiki sama da watanni uku. Tsakanin 1961 da 1966, ma'aikatan Impregilo 28 suka mutu yayin gina madatsar ruwan. Tunawa da tunawa a garin Akosombo da St. Barbara Cocin Katolika an sanya su don girmama su.

A cikin 1961, Majalisar Dokokin Ghana ta kafa Hukumar Kogin Volta (VRA) ta hanyar zartar da Dokar Bunkasa Kogin Volta. Sabbin ayyukan VRA mambobi shida ne suka tsara kuma Kwame Nkrumah a matsayin shugaba. Babban aikin VRA shine gudanar da bunkasar Kogin Volta, wanda ya hada da ginawa da kuma lura da madatsar ruwan, tashar wuta da kuma hanyar sadarwar wutar. Kungiyar VRA ce ke da alhakin tafkin da madatsar ruwan ta mamaye, kamun kifi a cikin tabkin, safarar tabki da sadarwa, da jin dadin wadanda ke kewaye da tabkin.

An gina madatsar ruwan ne tsakanin 1961 da 1965. Gwamnatin Ghana ce ta aiwatar da ci gabanta kuma ta biya kuɗaɗen 25% daga Bankin Duniya don sake ginawa da haɓaka Bankin Duniya, Amurka, da Ingila .

Gina madatsar ruwan na Akosombo ya haifar da ambaliyar wani ɓangare na Kogin Volta da filayen da ke gefen ta, da kuma ƙirƙirar Tafkin Volta wanda ya rufe kashi 3.6% na ƙasar Ghana baki ɗaya. An kirkiro Lake Volta tsakanin 1962 da 1966, kuma ya zama dole a canza wurin kusan 80,000   mutane, waɗanda suka wakilci 1% na yawan jama'a. Mutanen 700 kauyuka sun koma cikin 52 kauyukan sake tsugunar da shekaru biyu kafin cikar tafkin; shirin sake matsuguni yana karkashin jagorancin VRA. Kashi biyu cikin ɗari na mutanen da aka sake tsugunar da su masunta ne kuma galibi manoma ne da ke cin abinci. Yankin Gabashin Ghana da yawan mutanen da aka haɗu a cikin gundumominta, sun kasance mafi yawan tasirin aikin.

A farkon shekara ta 2007, an nuna damuwa kan wutar lantarki da ake samu daga madatsar saboda ƙarancin ruwa a tafkin Volta. Wasu majiyoyi sun ce hakan ya samo asali ne daga matsaloli na fari wadanda sakamakon dumamar yanayi ya haifar. A ƙarshen rabin shekarar 2007, yawancin wannan damuwar sun ragu lokacin da ruwan sama mai karfi ya faɗo a yankin ruwan Kogin Volta. A cikin 2010, an rubuta matakin ruwa mafi girma a madatsar ruwan. Wannan ya haifar da buɗe ƙofofin ambaliyar a tsaunukan tafki na 84.45 metreகள் (277 ft), kuma tsawon makonni da yawa, ruwa ya malala daga tabkin, wanda ya haifar da wasu ambaliyar zuwa can kasa.

Zane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dam din 660 metreகள் (2,170 ft) doguwa kuma 114 metreகள் (374 ft) mai girma, wanda ya ƙunshi babban dam mai cike dutsen. Tana da fadin tushe na 366 metreகள் (1,201 ft) da kuma tsarin tsari na 7,900,000 cubic metreகள் (10,300,000 cu yd) Ruwan da madatsar ruwa ta kirkira, Lake Volta, yana da damar 148 cubic kilometreகள் (120,000,000 acre·ft) da kuma fadin fili na 8,502 square kilometreகள் (3,283 sq mi). Tekun 400 kilometreகள் (250 mi) dogo Matsakaicin matsakaicin tafki shine 84.73 metreகள் (278.0 ft) kuma mafi ƙarancin shine 73.15 metreகள் (240.0 ft). A gefen gabashin madatsar ruwan akwai wasu magudanan ruwa guda biyu wadanda zasu iya sauke kimanin 34,000 cubic metres per second (1,200,000 cu ft/s) na ruwa Kowace kwararar ruwa ta ƙunshi 11.5 metreகள் (38 ft) shida 11.5 metreகள் (38 ft) -a ko'ina kuma 13.7 metreகள் (45 ft) -kullun karfen ambaliyar karfe.

Tashar wutar lantarki ta Akosombo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cibiyar samar da wutar ta madatsar ruwan ta ƙunshi 170 megawattகள் (230,000 hp) shida na 170 megawattகள் (230,000 hp) Francis. Ana kawo kowace turbine da ruwa ta hanyar 112–116 metreகள் (367–381 ft) tsayi da 7.2 metreகள் (24 ft) pencil pencil tare da matsakaicin 68.8 metreகள் (226 ft) na kan mai karfin ruwa.

Rarraba wutar lantarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dam din ya samar da wutar lantarki ga Ghana da makwabtanta da kasashen Afirka ta Yamma, ciki har da Togo da Benin. Da farko an samar da kashi 20% na wutar lantarki ta Akosombo Dam (wanda yakai kashi 70% na bukatar kasa) ga 'yan Ghana ta hanyar wutar lantarki, sauran kashi 80% an samar dasu ne ga Kamfanin Volta Aluminium na Volta (VALCO) mallakar Amurka. An tilasta Gwamnatin Gana, ta hanyar kwangila, ta biya sama da kashi 50% na kudin ginin Akosombo, amma an yarda da kasar ne kawai 20% na wutar da aka samar. Wasu masu sharhi suna da damuwa cewa wannan misali ne na mulkin mallaka. A cikin 'yan shekarun nan samarwa daga kamfanin VALCO ya ragu tare da mafi yawan ƙarin ƙarfin aiki a cikin Akosombo wanda aka yi amfani da shi don haɓaka buƙatun cikin gida.

Tasiri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wurin samarda wutar lantarki akan tafkin Volta

Dam din Akosombo ya sami fa'idodin wasu masana'antu da tattalin arziki daga ƙari na safarar tafki, ƙarar kamun kifi, sabbin ayyukan noma a gabar teku, da yawon buɗe ido. Powerarfin wutar da aka samar ya samar da buƙatu na farko a cikin Ghana, yayin da ya samar da wutar ga ƙasashe maƙwabta na Togo da Benin. Haɓaka masana'antu da tattalin arziƙin Ghana ya haifar da buƙatar buƙata mai ƙarfi, fiye da ƙarfin tashar wutar lantarki ta Akosombo. Zuwa 1981, an gina ƙaramar madatsar ruwa a garin Kpong, daga ƙasan Akosombo kuma ƙarin haɓakawa zuwa Akosombo ya zama dole don kiyaye samar da wutar lantarki. Da farko, karfin samar da wutar dam din ya wuce ainihin bukatun; yayin da, bukatar tunda aka fara madatsar ta haifar da noman samar da wutar lantarki sau biyu. Demandsara yawan buƙata don iko ya wuce abin da za a iya bayarwa ta hanyoyin yau da kullun. Bukatun wutar lantarki, tare da yanayin muhalli da ba a zata ba, sun haifar da juyawa da manyan katsewar wutar lantarki. An lura da yanayin yanayin ƙananan tafkin gaba ɗaya, wani lokacin ƙasa da abin da ake buƙata don aikin Dam Akosombo.

Mahalli mazauninsu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lake Volta daga sararin samaniya

A lokacin da aka gina madatsar ruwan a Akosombo, an sami raguwar ci gaba a yawan amfanin gona a gefen tabkin da kuma rarar rarar. Surroundingasar da ke kewaye da Tafkin Volta ba ta da dausayi kamar yadda ƙasar da take noman da take zaune a ƙasan tafkin, kuma aikin noma mai yawa ya riga ya gajiyar da ƙarancin ƙasa. Tsarin aikin gona na kasa yana rasa wadatar kasa ba tare da ambaliyar lokaci-lokaci da ke kawo abinci mai gina jiki ga kasar ba kafin ambaliyar ruwan ta dakatar da ita. Bunkasar aikin noma mai karfin gaske ya haifar da hauhawar takin zamani da ke guduwa cikin kogi. Wannan, tare da gudu daga hannayen shanu da ke kusa da gurɓatar ruwan najasa, sun haifar da eutrophication na ruwan kogin. Ingantaccen abinci mai gina jiki, a haɗe da ƙarancin motsi na ruwa, ya ba da izinin mamaye ciyawar ruwa (Ceratophyllum). Wadannan ciyawar sun zama babban kalubale ga zirga-zirgar ruwa da sufuri.

Lafiyar Jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasancewar ciyawar cikin ruwa a bakin tafki da kuma cikin rafuka ya haifar da ma illa ga lafiyar ɗan adam na gari. Ciyawar tana samar da mazaunin da ya dace don ƙwarin baƙi, sauro da katantanwa, waɗanda sune magudanar cututtukan da ake ɗauka ta ruwa kamar su bilharzia, makantar kogi da malaria. Tun da aka sanya dam din, wadannan cututtukan sun karu sosai. Musamman, kauyukan sake tsugunne sun nuna karuwar yaduwar cututtuka tun bayan kafuwar Lake Volta, kuma yiwuwar yuwuwar kamuwa da cuta ya yi daidai da kusancin ta da tabkin. Yara da masunta sun kasance cikin mawuyacin hali sakamakon wannan kamuwa da cutar. Bugu da kari, lalatar da yanayin ruwa ya haifar da raguwar yawan jatan lande da na clam. Lafiyar jikin al'ummomin gida ta ragu daga wannan asarar da aka yi na yawan kifin kifin, kamar yadda suka samar da tushen asalin furotin na abinci. Hakanan, tattalin arziƙin ƙauyuka da na masana'antu sun sami asarar kuɗaɗe da ke tattare da lalata noman rafin kogi.

Tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rashin ƙasar da mutane 80,000 suka fuskanta ta hanyar tilasta musu matsuguni ya zama sanadin asarar ayyukan tattalin arzikinsu na farko daga kamun kifi da noma, asarar gidajensu, asarar wuraren kabarin danginsu, rashin kwanciyar hankali a cikin al'umma, da kuma rasa muhimman dabi'u na zamantakewar al'umma. Shirin sake matsugunin ya nuna irin rikitarwa da zamantakewar da ke tattare da kafa al'ummomin "masu zaman tare da hadewa". Rashin isasshen tsari ya haifar da ƙaurar al'ummomin zuwa yankunan da ba su da ikon wadatar da rayuwarsu da al'adunsu na da. Rashin ƙasa mai dausayi a ƙasan Tafkin Volta da gaske ya haifar da asarar ayyukan noman gargajiya. Yanayin talaucin rayuwa da aka bayar a cikin ƙauyukan matsuguni ya nuna ta hanyar rage yawan jama'a tun lokacin sake matsuguni. Daga cikin ƙauyukan tsugunar da ƙauyuka musamman sun sami raguwar yawan mutane sama da 50% a cikin shekaru 23 bayan ƙaura. Risksarin haɗarin tattalin arziki da ƙwarewar talauci suna haɗuwa da waɗancan al'ummomin da ci gaban Kogin Volta ya fi shafa. Yawan ƙaurawar ɗan adam da lalacewar albarkatun ƙasa a cikin yankin yankin Volta-basin, sune kayan talauci hade da matsin lamba.

Cuta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Migrationara yawan ƙaura na 'yan adam a cikin yankin ya haifar da talauci da yanayin sake tsugunar da marasa kyau. Wannan ƙaura ya ba da damar rage ƙwayar cutar ta HIV kuma tun daga lokacin ya haifar da ƙaruwa sosai tsakanin al'ummomin Basin na Volta. Gundumomin Manya Krobo da Yilo Krobo, waɗanda ke tsakanin kudu maso yammacin yankin Volta Basin, galibi 'yan asalin al'ummomin ne da suka sami yaduwar kwayar cutar HIV. Halin da ake ciki ya nuna ƙarfin abubuwan cikin gida akan waɗannan gundumomin. An kafa aikin yin jima'i ta hanyar mayar da martani ga dubban ma'aikata maza waɗanda ke yankin don gina madatsar. Kashi goma na mata masu haihuwa daga wadannan gundumomi biyu sun yi ƙaura daga gundumominsu a wannan lokacin. A 1986, "90% na wadanda ke fama da cutar kanjamau a Ghana mata ne, kuma kashi 96% daga cikinsu ba su dade da zama a wajen kasar ba".

Dam din Akosombo da sauran madatsun ruwa na Volta River Hydro Development Project sun karu sosai da yaduwar cututtukan schistosomiasis.

Yanayi na zahiri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An yi rikodin girgizar kasa da ke haifar da tafki saboda gyare-gyaren ɓawon burodi daga ƙarin ruwan da ke cikin Lake Volta. Akwai canjin gabas na bakin kogin daga canje-canje zuwa yankin yankin kogin kuma wannan ya haifar da ci gaba da zaizayar bakin ruwa. Canje-canjen da aka samu a cikin kogin hydrology sun canza kasafin kudin zafi na cikin gida wanda ya haifar da sauyin yanayin sauyin yanayi kamar rage ruwan sama da matsakaicin yanayi na wata-wata. Duk waɗannan tasirin tasirin muhalli mafi girma duka zasu ƙara haɓaka matsalolin da ke tattare da rikice-rikice ga ayyukan tattalin arziƙin cikin gida da alaƙa, mawuyacin yanayin jin daɗin ɗan adam. Wani bincike na harka da Kungiyar Malaman Kasa da Kasa ta nuna cewa madatsar ruwan ta yi tasiri matuka kan zaizayar gabar tekun da ke raba shingen Keta da teku. Dokta Isaac Boateng ya kirga raguwar danshi mai gudana kamar daga miliyan 71 m3/a   zuwa kadan kamar miliyan 7 m3/a.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bibliography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]