Kwame Nkrumah

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Kwame Nkrumah
The National Archives UK - CO 1069-50-1.jpg
chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity (en) Fassara

Oktoba 21, 1965 - ga Faburairu, 24, 1966
Gamal Abdel Nasser - Joseph Arthur Ankrah (en) Fassara
Shugaban kasar Ghana

ga Yuli, 1, 1960 - ga Faburairu, 24, 1966
← no value - Joseph Arthur Ankrah (en) Fassara
Prime Minister of Ghana (en) Fassara

ga Maris, 6, 1957 - ga Yuli, 1, 1960
← no value
Member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom (en) Fassara


Minister for Foreign Affairs (en) Fassara


Member of the Parliament of Ghana (en) Fassara


Interior minister of Ghana (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Haihuwa Nkroful (en) Fassara, Satumba 21, 1909
ƙasa Kogin Zinariya (Mulkin mallaka na Birtaniyya)
Ghana
Mutuwa Bukarest, ga Afirilu, 27, 1972
Makwanci Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa natural causes (en) Fassara (skin cancer (en) Fassara
prostate cancer (en) Fassara)
Yan'uwa
Yara
Karatu
Makaranta Lincoln University (en) Fassara
University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education (en) Fassara
London School of Economics and Political Science (en) Fassara
Achimota School (en) Fassara
Harsuna Akan (en) Fassara
Nzema (en) Fassara
Fante (en) Fassara
Turanci
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa, marubuci, Mai wanzar da zaman lafiya da malamin jami'a
Kyaututtuka
Digiri field marshal (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Catholicism (en) Fassara
Jam'iyar siyasa Convention People's Party (en) Fassara
United Gold Coast Convention (en) Fassara

Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 Satumba 1909-27 Afrilu 1972) ɗan siyasan Ghana ne kuma mai son kawo sauyi. Shi ne Firayim Minista na farko kuma shugaban kasar Ghana, bayan ya jagoranci Gold Coast zuwa samun 'yanci daga Turawan mulkin mallaka a shekarar 1957. Nkrumah ya kasance babban dan gwagwarmaya na nuna wariyar launin fata a Afirka, Nkrumah ya kasance memba ne na kungiyar Hadin Kan Afirka kuma ya samu lambar yabo ta Lenin daga Tarayyar Soviet a shekarar 1962.

Bayan shekaru goma sha biyu a kasashen waje yana neman ilimi, bunkasa falsafar siyasarsa da shiryawa tare da wasu masu fada aji a Afirka, Nkrumah ya koma Gold Coast don fara aikinsa na siyasa a matsayin mai neman 'yanci na kasa. Ya kafa Jam'iyyar Mutane ta Yarjejeniyar, wacce ta sami nasarar cikin sauri ta hanyar kiran ta da ba a taba yin ta ba ga masu jefa kuri'a gama gari. Ya zama Firayim Minista a 1952 kuma ya ci gaba da rike matsayin lokacin da Ghana ta ayyana yancin kai daga Birtaniyya a 1957. A shekarar 1960, mutanen Gana suka amince da sabon kundin tsarin mulki suka kuma zabi Nkrumah Shugaba.

Gwamnatin sa ta kasance mai ra'ayin gurguzu da kishin ƙasa . Tana tallafawa ayyukan masana'antu da makamashi na ƙasa, ta haɓaka ingantaccen tsarin ilimin ƙasa da haɓaka al'adun gargajiya na Afirka. A karkashin Nkrumah, Ghana ta taka rawar gani a dangantakar ƙasashen Afirka a lokacin mulkin mallaka.

A shekarar 1964, kwaskwarimar tsarin mulki ta sanya Ghana ta zama kasa mai jam'iyya daya, tare da Nkrumah a matsayin shugaban rayuwar dukkan al'ummar kasar da kuma jam'iyyarta. Nkrumah ya sauke shi a cikin 1966 ta Hukumar 'Yanci ta Kasa wacce a karkashin kulawar cibiyoyin hada-hadar kudi na duniya suka mayar da yawancin kamfanonin kasar. Nkrumah ya rayu tsawon rayuwarsa a Guinea, inda aka sanya masa sunan mataimakin shugaban kasa mai martaba.

Farkon rayuwa da ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kogin Zinariya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kwame Nkrumah an haife shi ne a ranar 21 ga Satumba 1909 a Nkroful, Gold Coast (yanzu a Ghana) ga dangin talauci da rashin karatu. Nkroful wani ƙaramin ƙauye ne a yankin Nzema, a can kudu maso yamma na Gold Coast, kusa da iyaka tare da mulkin mallakar Faransa na Ivory Coast . Mahaifinsa bai zauna tare da dangin ba, amma ya yi aiki a Half Assini inda ya ke bin kasuwancin maƙerin sa na zinariya har zuwa rasuwarsa. Kwame Nkrumah ya tashi daga mahaifiyarsa da danginsa, wadanda suka rayu tare cikin al'adun gargaji, tare da dangin da ke nesa suna yawan ziyarta..Ya yi rayuwar yara ba tare da kulawa ba, ya yi rayuwa a ƙauye, a cikin daji, da kuma kusa da teku. Ta hanyar sunan kwastomomin sunayen mutanen Akan, aka sanya masa suna Kwame, sunan da aka ba wa mazan da aka haifa a ranar Asabar. A shekarun da ya yi yana dalibi a Amurka, duk da haka, an san shi da sunan Francis Nwia Kofi Nkrumah, Kofi sunan da aka ba wa maza da aka haifa a ranar Juma'a. Daga baya ya sauya suna zuwa Kwame Nkrumah a shekarar 1945 a Burtaniya, ya fifita sunan "Kwame". A cewar Ebenezer Obiri Addo a cikin bincikensa na shugaban kasa na gaba, sunan "Nkrumah", sunan da aka saba bayarwa ga ɗa na tara, ya nuna cewa mai yiwuwa Kwame ya riƙe wannan wurin a gidan mahaifinsa, wanda ke da mata da yawa.

Mahaifinsa, Opanyin Kofi Nwiana Ngolomah, ya fito ne daga Nkroful, na ɗan asalin kabilar Akan ne. Bayanai sun nuna cewa Ngolomah ya tsaya a Tarkwa-Nsuaem kuma ya yi kasuwanci a harkar gwal.Bugu da kari, wadanda suka nemi shawararsa kan al'adun gargajiya da lamuran cikin gida sun girmama Ngolomah saboda nasihar sa. Ya mutu a 1927.

Kwame shine kadai ɗa ga mahaifiyarsa. Mahaifiyar Nkrumah ta tura shi makarantar firamare ta wata bishara ta mabiya darikar Katolika da ke Half Assini, inda ya tabbatar da cewa dalibi ne mai kwazo. Wani malamin Katolika na Roman Katolika mai suna George Fischer an ce ya yi tasiri sosai kan ilimin makarantar firamare. Duk da cewa mahaifiyarsa, mai suna Elizabeth Nyanibah (1876 / 77–1979), daga baya ya bayyana shekarar haihuwarsa 1912, Nkrumah ya rubuta cewa an haife shi ne 21 ga Satumba 1909. Nyanibah, wacce ta fito daga Nsuaem da na dangin Agona ne, ya kasance dan kasuwa ne mai fatauci yayin da ta auri mahaifinsa. Bayan kwana takwas da haifuwarsa, mahaifinsa ya sanya masa suna Francis Nwia-Kofi bayan dangi amma daga baya iyayensa suka sanya masa suna Francis Kwame Ngolomah. Ya ci gaba ta hanyar karatun shekaru goma a cikin shekaru takwas. A kusan 1925 ya kasance malamin dalibi a makarantar, kuma an yi masa baftisma cikin imanin Katolika. Yayin da yake makarantar, Reverend Alec Garden Fraser, shugaban Kwalejin Horar da Gwamnati (ba da daɗewa ba zai zama Makarantar Achimota) a babban birnin Gold Coast, Accra . Fraser ya shirya Nkrumah ya sami horo a matsayin malami a makarantarsa. A nan, Kolumbia mai ilimi mataimakin kyaun gaske Kwegyir Aggrey fallasa shi ga ideas na Marcus Garvey da W.E.B. Du Bois. Aggrey, Fraser, da sauran su a Achimota sun koyar da cewa ya kamata a samu hadin kai sosai tsakanin jinsi a cikin mulkin Gold Coast, amma Nkrumah, da yake amsa kira ga Garvey, ba da daɗewa ba ya yi imani da cewa sai lokacin da launin fatar ya yi mulkin kansa ne kawai za a sami jituwa tsakanin jinsi.

Bayan samun takardar shaidar malamin daga Kwalejin Yariman Wales a Achimota a cikin 1930, An ba Nkrumah mukamin koyarwa a makarantar firamaren Roman Katolika da ke Elmina a 1931, kuma bayan shekara guda a wurin, aka yi shugaban makarantar a Axim. A cikin Axim, ya fara shiga harkokin siyasa kuma ya kafa kungiyar adabi ta Nzima. A cikin 1933, an nada shi malami a makarantar hauza ta Katolika a Amissano. Kodayake rayuwar can ta kasance mai tsauri, ya so shi, kuma yayi la'akari da zama Jesuit. Nkrumah ya ji dan jarida kuma shugaban Najeriya na gaba Nnamdi Azikiwe yana magana yayin da yake dalibi a Achimota; mutanen biyu sun hadu kuma tasirin Azikiwe ya karawa Nkrumah sha'awar kishin kasa. Matashin malamin ya yanke shawarar ci gaba da karatunsa. Azikiwe ya halarci jami'ar Lincoln, wata kwaleji mai baƙar fata ta tarihi a Chester County, Pennsylvania, yamma da Philadelphia, kuma ya shawarci Nkrumah da ya shiga can. Nkrumah, wanda ya fadi jarabawar shiga Jami’ar London, ya sami kuɗin tafiyar da karatunsa daga danginsa. Ya yi tafiya ta hanyar Birtaniyya, inda ya koya, don fushinsa game da mamayar da Italia ta yi wa Habasha, ɗayan tsirarun ƙasashen Afirka masu cin gashin kansu. Ya isa Amurka, a watan Oktoba 1935.

Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cewar masanin tarihi John Henrik Clarke a cikin labarinsa game da zaman Amruka na Nkrumah, "tasirin shekaru goma da ya kwashe a Amurka zai yi tasiri cikin sauran rayuwarsa." Nkrumah ya nemi shiga jami'ar Lincoln na wani lokaci kafin ya fara karatu a can. A ranar 1 ga Maris 1935, ya aika wa makaranta da wasika cewa abin da yake nema ya wuce sama da shekara guda. Lokacin da ya isa New York a watan Oktoba 1935, ya yi tafiya zuwa Pennsylvania, inda ya yi rajista duk da rashin kuɗaɗen karatun. Ba da daɗewa ba ya sami digiri wanda ya ba shi karatunsa a Lincoln. Ya kasance yana da karancin kuɗi har zuwa lokacinsa a Amurka. Don samun abin biyan bukatunsa, yayi aiki a cikin ayyuka marasa ƙima, gami da aikin wanki. A ranar Lahadi, ya ziyarci majami'un Presbyterian bakar fata a Philadelphia da New York.

Nkrumah ya kammala digirin sa na farko a fannin ilmin tattalin arziki da zamantakewar al'umma a shekarar 1939. Daga nan Lincoln ya nada shi mataimakin malami a falsafa, kuma ya fara karbar gayyata don zama bako mai wa’azi a majami’un Presbyteria a Philadelphia da New York. A cikin 1939, Nkrumah ya shiga makarantar sakandaren Lincoln da kuma Ivy League University of Pennsylvania a Philadelphia kuma a 1942, an fara shi a cikin Mu babin 'yan uwantaka na Phi Beta Sigma a Jami'ar Lincoln. Nkrumah ya sami digiri na farko na ilimin tiyoloji daga Lincoln a 1942, babban dalibi a cikin karatun. Ya sami aiki daga Penn a shekara mai zuwa Jagora na Arts a fannin falsafa da kuma Masanin Kimiyya a fannin ilimi. Yayin da yake a Penn, Nkrumah ya yi aiki tare da William Everett Welmers masanin ilimin harshe, yana ba da kayan magana wanda ya zama asalin harshe na farko na fassarar yaren Fante na asali na harshen Akan.

Nkrumah ya yi rani a lokacin bazara a Harlem, cibiyar baƙar fata, tunani da al'ada. Ya sami gida da aiki a cikin New York City da wahala kuma ya shiga cikin al'umma. Ya kasance yana yin maraice da yawa yana saurara da jayayya tare da masu magana a kan titi, kuma a cewar Clarke, Kwame Nkrumah a shekarun da ya yi a Amurka ya ce;

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Nkrumah dalibi ne mai gwagwarmaya, ya shirya kungiyar daliban Afirka da ke kasashen waje a Pennsylvania kuma ya gina ta cikin kungiyar Daliban Afirka na Amurka da Kanada, ya zama shugabanta. Wasu mambobin suna ganin cewa yakamata kungiyar ta nemi kowace masarauta ta sami yanci da kanta; Nkrumah ya bukaci dabarun Afirka. Nkrumah ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a taron Pan-Afirka da aka gudanar a New York a 1944, wanda ya bukaci Amurka, a karshen yakin duniya na biyu, da ta taimaka wajen tabbatar da Afirka ta ci gaba da 'yanci.

Tsohon malamin sa Aggrey ya mutu a 1929 a Amurka, kuma a 1942 Nkrumah ya jagoranci addu'o'in gargajiya ga Aggrey a makabartar. Wannan ya haifar da hutu tsakaninsa da Lincoln, kodayake bayan ya zama mai girma a cikin Gold Coast, ya dawo a 1951 don karɓar digirin girmamawa. Duk da haka, karatun digiri na biyu na Nkrumah bai kasance ba. Ya sami sunan laƙabi da sunan Francis yayin makarantar hauhawa ta Amissano; a shekarar 1945 ya dauki sunan Kwame Nkrumah. Template:Quote box Nkrumah ya karanta littattafai game da siyasa da allahntaka, kuma ya koyar da ɗalibai ilimin falsafa. A cikin 1943 Nkrumah ya sadu da Markisist Trinidiyan C. L. R. James, Ba'amurke Raya Dunayevskaya, da Ba'amurke Ba'amurke Grace Lee Boggs, dukkansu membobin kungiyar Marxist ne da ke zaune a Amurka. Daga baya Nkrumah ya yaba wa James da koya masa "yadda harkar karkashin kasa ta yi aiki". Fayil na Ofishin Bincike na Tarayya a kan Nkrumah, wanda aka ajiye daga Janairu zuwa Mayu 1945, ya nuna shi mai yuwuwar kwaminisanci. Nkrumah ya kuduri niyyar zuwa Landan, yana son ci gaba da karatunsa a can yanzu da yakin duniya na biyu ya kare. James, a cikin wasikar 1945 da yake gabatar da Nkrumah ga haifaffen Trinidad George Padmore a Landan, ya rubuta: "Wannan saurayin yana zuwa wurinku. Ba shi da haske sosai, amma duk da haka ku yi masa abin da za ku iya saboda ya kuduri aniyar fitar da Turawa daga Afirka."

60 Burghley Road, Kentish Town, London, inda Nkrumah ya zauna lokacin da yake Landan tsakanin 1945 da 1947

Nkrumah ya koma Landan ne a watan Mayu na shekarar 1945 kuma ya yi karatu a Makarantar Tattalin Arziki ta London a matsayin dan takarar PhD a fannin ilimin halittar dan adam. Ya janye bayan wa'adi ɗaya kuma shekara mai zuwa ya shiga Kwalejin Jami'a, da niyyar rubuta takaddar falsafa a kan "Ilimi da Ingantaccen Hankali". Mai kulawa da shi, A. J. Ayer, ya ki amincewa da Nkrumah a matsayin "mai falsafa ta farko", yana mai cewa, "Ina son shi kuma na ji daɗin magana da shi amma bai ga ni da tunani mai nazari ba. Yana son amsoshi da sauri. Ina tsammanin wani ɓangare na matsalar na iya kasancewa bai mai da hankali sosai kan rubutun nasa ba. Hanya ce ta sanya alamar lokaci har sai dama ta samu a gare shi na komawa Ghana." Nkrumah ya shiga cikin, amma bai kammala ba, karatun shari'a a Gray's Inn.

Nkrumah ya yi amfani da lokacinsa wajen shirya siyasa. Shi da Padmore suna cikin manyan masu shiryawa, da masu ba da kuɗi, na Biyar na Pan-Afirka Congress a Manchester (15-19 Oktoba 1945). Majalisar ta ba da cikakken bayani kan dabarun maye gurbin mulkin mallaka tare da gurguzu. Sun amince da bin Tarayyar Amurka ta Afirka, tare da cuwa-cuwa da kungiyoyin yanki, masu mulki ta hanyar jihohi daban daban na iyakance ikon mallaka. Sun shirya bin sabon al'adun Afirka ba tare da kabilanci ba, dimokiradiyya a cikin tsarin gurguzu ko tsarin kwaminisanci, hada al'adun gargajiya tare da tunanin zamani, kuma don cimma wannan ta hanyoyin da ba na nuna bambanci ba idan zai yiwu. Daga cikin wadanda suka halarci taron har da mai girma W. E. B. Dubois tare da wasu wadanda daga baya suka jagoranci jagoranci wajen jagorantar kasashensu zuwa samun 'yanci, ciki har da Hastings Banda na Nyasaland (wanda ya zama Malawi), Jomo Kenyatta na Kenya da Obafemi Awolowo na Najeriya.

Majalisar ta nemi kafa kungiyar gwagwarmayar Afirka a Burtaniya tare da hadin gwiwar Sakatariyar Kasashen Afirka ta Yamma (WANS) don aiki zuwa mulkin mallaka na Afirka.