Mutanen Mambila

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Mambila/Mambilla
Jimlar yawan jama'a
129,000 (1993)
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Mambilla Plateau
Nigeria 99,000[1]
Cameroon 30,000[2]
Harsuna
Mambila
Addini
Traditional African religions, Islam, Christianity

Mambilla ko Mambila na Najeriya suna zaune a tsaunin Mambilla (a cikin ƙaramar hukumar 'Sardauna' ta jihar Taraba a Najeriya ). Wasu ƴan tsirarun ƴan ci rani daga Mambilla sun tashi daga Mambilla Plateau zuwa Ndom Plain (wanda kuma aka sani da Tikar Plain) a gefen Kamaru na iyakar ƙasa da kasa da kuma a wasu kananan kauyyuka, kamar New Namba, gaba arewa zuwa garuruwan na Gashaka da Banyo. Sunan da aka fi so ana rubuta shi da Mambila akasar Kamaru da Mambilla a Najeriya. Ana amfani da "Norr" (kalmar mutum a cikin yarukan Najeriya na Mambilla) (Bami-Yuno, ms).

Ganowa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutanen Mambilla / Mambila na Najeriya da Kamaru suna ɗaukar kansu a matsayin ƙungiya mai ma'ana ɗaya. Su ne masu ƙyamar yankin Mambilla, kuma sun kasance a cikin ƙasarsu har zuwa shekaru 4,000 (Zeitlyn & Connell, 2003). A cikin yarukan Najeriya suna kiran kansu da suna 'Norr' (mutane) yayin da a cikin Kamaru akwai wani suna na 'Ba' wanda ake amfani da shi ta hanyar da ba ta dace ba don komawa zuwa Mambilla, kuma suna nufin Mambilla a Kamaru a kan Ndom ko arewacin Tikar a fili (duba ƙasa) sabanin Mambilla da ke makwabtaka da tsaunukan Mambilla wanda za a iya kiransa da "Bo ba bo". Jama'ar ƙauyukan Mambilla daban-daban suna magana da yarurruka daban-daban na Mambilla ko yarukan Mambiloid masu alaƙa da juna. Suna kuma raba jerin ayyukan aladun da ke da alaƙa da juna, musamman haɗin haɗin kai da rantsuwa da ake kira "suu", "shua", "sua" ko "shuaga". A cikin yaren Somie (Ndiba) wannan ana iya amfani da sautin magana a matsayin [ʃwaɣa]. Duba tattaunawa a cikin "Sua a cikin Somie" da aka kawo a ƙasa. Asalin rubutaccen tarihin Faransanci na gida don tarihin Somie shine Zeitlyn Mial & Mbe 2000.

Yaren Mambila ƙungiyoyi ne na yarurruka da yarruka masu alaƙa. Bayanai na SIL Ethnologue sun ba lambobi biyu MCU don yarukan Kamaru da MZK don yarukan Najeriya. Dubi aikin binciken Bruce Connell akan gidan yanar gizon VIMS da aka ambata a ƙasa, da labarin akan yaren Mambiloid . Yaren Mambilla ko Yaren Tungbo shine yaren Mambila da aka fi fahimta a Najeriya. Hakanan harshe ne na karatun Mambilla ga yawancin waɗanda ke zaune a yankin Mambilla Plateau. Sabon Alkawarin Mambila da aka fi sani da 'Li Fa' da rubuce-rubucen karatun Mambilla da yawa an rubuta su a yaren Mambilla na gama gari don Nijeriya. Ana samun sabon Alƙawari a Ju Ba don masu magana da yarukan Kamaru.

Wuri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yawancin Mambilla suna zaune ne a yankin Mambilla tare da babban birni na zamani a Bommi (Gembu a cikin "Sardauna" Local Government.).6°42′50″N 11°15′00″E / 6.713833°N 11.25002°E / 6.713833; 11.25002 a Jihar Taraba na Najeriya [Note cewa gargajiya da tarihi da sunan wannan ƙaramar ya kasance "Mambilla", da kuma cewa "Sardauna" misnomer ne mai zamani danniyan daga waje, ko ba 'yan asalin mutane, musamman, a haɗe tare da rusasshiyar Gwamnatin Jega ta 1984]. Wannan tsaunukan tsaunuka ne, ci gaban arewa na filayen Bamenda. Yankin da aka raba tuddai da rafuka da yawa (musamman Kogin Donga) yana barin haɗaɗɗen yanayin ƙasa na kwari da ke kan tsaunuka da ke kan tsaunuka (duk tsayi iri ɗaya). Gang Peak, wanda yake a kusurwar arewa maso gabas na yankin Mambilla Plateau, a yankin Mambilla-Gashaka-Kamaru mai iyaka uku, shi ne mafi girman yanki a Najeriya. Ana samun ƙauyuka duka a kan tsaunuka da kan kwari, kuma suna da kaɗan daga juna musamman lokacin damina lokacin da ketare kogi na iya zama da wahala (kuma ba zai yiwu ba don jigilar motoci). Aikin gona ya ta'allaka ne a gindin kwarin yayin da tsaunuka suke da yawa tun daga shekarun 1940, watau tun lokacin da ƙaura daga makiyaya masu kiwon shanu zuwa ƙarshen mulkin Birtaniyya (yana daga cikin Burtaniya Kamaru har zuwa lokacin raba gardama na 1959/61). An samu matsalar kiwo da zaizayar kasa ya haifar da matsaloli masu yawa daga ƙarshen shekarun 1970.

Za a samu wasu 'yan tsirarun Mambilla, baƙin haure daga Nyo ko Mvor a kudancin Mambilla Plateau da wasu kauyuka, a gefen filin Ndom (arewacin Tikar) da ke Kamaru a gindin rafin na Mambilla Plateau. Manyan ƙauyukan Kamaru sune Atta, Sonkolong da Somié . Wannan yanki ne wanda, farawa daga misalin AD 1790, su, a cikin salon cin abinci, an ci gaba da ci gaba daga Twumwu, ƙungiyar pre-Tikar da ke zaune a Ndom Plain (Zeitlyn & Connell, 2003). A wani tsawan da ya kai kimanin mita 700, waɗannan ƙauyukan na Ndom suna rayuwa ne a wani yankin daban na muhalli da na Filato: misali, ana samun dabinon mai da gandun dajin a ciki.

Art[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tudun Mambila yana arewacin arewacin ciyawar. Mazaunan sun haɓaka fasahohin fasaha na musamman waɗanda aka yi da yumɓu, terracotta, pith, da itace . Mazaje ne yake sassaka itace da farko, amma har yanzu babu wani takamaiman masani. Kayan aiki ƙirƙirar sassaƙa ne da kansu, ƙirƙirar kayan aiki kamar yadda ake buƙata. Abubuwa kamar chisels, wuƙaƙƙun wuƙaƙe, madaidaiciyar wuƙaƙe ana yin su ne ta hanyar mai ƙira. Amfani da waɗannan kayan aikin da aka yi da hannu ya bar sarari don kuskure kuma bai taɓa barin wurin ba gaba ɗaya. Zane-zane tare da fuskoki masu fasalin zuciya suna nuna farkon ayyukan fasaha, yayin da abin rufe fuska na yanzu ke nuna fasalin tsuntsaye, dabbobi, da mutane. Mafi yawan 'yan Mambila a cikin Mambila Plateau sun kasance masu cinikin zane-zane ne suka karɓe su a shekarun 1960 da 1970s, suka bar adadi da sassake kaɗan da za a rubuta. Mafi yawan adadi na al'adun Mambila sune Tadep da Kike.

Maza Tadep Guardian Hoto, Gidan Tarihi na Brooklyn

Tadep yana nuna nau'ikan ma'aurata maza da mata galibi waɗanda aka sassaka daga itace mai ƙarancin ƙarfi. Hakanan suna iya kwatanta adadi guda ɗaya na jinsi ɗaya. Kike siffofi ne da aka sassaƙa kuma aka yi su da pith of dabino raffia . kuma su ne adadi mafi girma na mutum-mutumi. Wadannan adadi za a sanya su sau da yawa a cikin ɗakunan ajiya, yayin da wasu gumakan kuma ana nuna su a waje kuma. Waɗannan abubuwa sun kasance sacra na ƙungiyoyi masu alaƙa da rashin lafiya da warkarwa. Tadep da Kike sun kasance ɓangare na ƙungiyar Sauga.

Akwai hanyoyi da yawa waɗanda suka sa fasaharsu ta bambanta da sauran al'adu. Hotunan Mambila da aka yi da pith mai taushi, da kuma manne wa wuraren bautar gumaka da katanga masu alfarma wani abu ne wanda aka yarda wasu jinsi ne kawai su gani. Ididdigar pith ɗin za su yi aiki ne kamar yadda ya dace da ziyartar ruhohin kakanninsu. Ruhohin kakanni suna kiyaye dukiyar iyali waɗanda ke cikin wuraren tsafi ta hanyar yin waɗannan gumakan. Wani bambanci shine aikace-aikacen shekara-shekara na tsarin launin su na ja, fari, da baƙi don abubuwa masu aiki. Adadin namiji yana da ƙaramar buɗewa a cikin ciki a matsayin wurin ajiyar abubuwan ɓarkewar abinci, yayin da mace kuma take da buɗaɗɗen buɗe ciki.

Bikin Tawong[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A yayin rawar rawa da ake yi a watannin Yuni ko Yuli da Nuwamba ko Disamba, an ba wa samari marasa aure na ƙauyuka 'yancin yin gwaji. Yawanci bayan raye-raye da haɗuwa daga marasa aure, suna bikin dasa shuki na amfanin gona tare da bikin da ke faruwa ga maza kawai. Maza suna tafiya daga ƙauye zuwa ƙauye don bukukuwan da suka haɗa da rawa, wasanni, da kulla abota da ke haɓaka dangantakar ɗan adam. Ana rufe masks a wannan lokacin kuma maza ne kawai ke iya gani. " Suah Bvur " abin rufe fuska ne na martaba ta farko, galibi kamar hular kwano da sawa a kai, tana hutawa a kan kafadun masu ɗaukar kaya. Koyaushe yana tare da wasu masks masu matsayi na biyu kamar " Suah Dua ", waɗanda ke kan saman kai. Kusan dukkanin masks da siffofin fasaha ana kiyaye su daga mata saboda ba'a ba su damar ganin su ba, ko kuma kasancewa wani ɓangare na su.

Rikici tsakanin Manomi Grazier[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A ƙarshen 2000, kuma daga baya, musamman a ranar 1 ga Janairun 2002 lokacin da sojojin haya na Fulanin Udawa daga Nijar da Chadi suka mamaye Mambilla Plateau, rikice-rikice a kan ƙasa sun sa an kori Fulani makiyaya da yawa daga Plateau Mambilla kuma sun zama 'yan gudun hijira a Kamaru. (Akwai tabbatattun jaridu da rahotanni na hukuma game da shigar sojojin hayan Fulani zuwa Mambilla. [3] Makamantan matsaloli sun faru a tsakiyar 2017.

Yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai lokacin rani daga ƙarshen Nuwamba har zuwa farkon Maris, damina (waɗanda suke da yawa da kuma na yau da kullun) suna haɓaka a watan Agusta. Ba kasafai ake fuskantar ruwan sama da ruwan sama kamar da baƙin kwarya tsakanin Disamba da Fabrairu A tsaunin Mambilla Filato ya isa maraice ya yi sanyi. Zafin rana da wuya ya wuce 25 °C (77.0 °F) sanya shi ya zama yanki mafi sanyi a Najeriya.

Bibiyar Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Bami-Yuno (2009): "Kisan kare dangi na yare a yankin Mambilla", Takarda, Babban Taron shekara Biyu, Nationalungiyar Studentsaliban Mambila ta Kasa, Bommi, Najeriya, 28-29 Disamba 2009
  • Bami-Yuno (2011): "Muhawarar Tattaunawa ta Bantu ta Gida"; Takarda, Taro na Bienni Na Biyu, Nationalungiyar Studentsaliban Mambilla ta Kasa, Bommi, Nijeriya, 28-29 Disamba 2011
  • Bami-Yuno (2012): "Yankin Mambilla a Tarihin Afirka"
  • Bami-Yuno (2012): "Jumboni - Tarihin Sarautar Mambilla"
  • Connell, Bruce ilimin harshe refs
  • Gausset, Q. (2005): 'Rikicin makiyaya da makiyaya a Tikar Plain (Kamaru)', a cikin Q. Gausset, M. Whyte da T. Birch-Thomsen (eds. ), Bayan yanki da ƙaranci: Binciken rikice-rikice game da sarrafa albarkatun ƙasa, 90-111. Uppsala: Cibiyar Nazarin Afirka ta Nordic.
  • Percival, DA (1938): "Sake Tsarukan Gudanarwa na Mambilla" (Rahoton Leken Asiri)

Zeitlyn, David, Nicodeme Mial, da Charles Mbe 2000. Trois études sur les mambila de Somié, Cameroun. Boston, Mass.: Cibiyar Nazarin Afirka ta Jami'ar Boston: Groupe de Recherches sur l'Afrique Francophone. Ana samun cikakken bayanin daga [1]

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named mzk
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named mcu
  3. See Gaussett's article, and reports/photos of the captured mercenaries in TheNews, 4 February 2002, pp. 29 –30, New Impression, 22 April 2002, p. 42; Daily Independent, 21–27 January 2002, pp. A1, A2; TELL, 28 January 2002, p. 23