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Omdurman

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Omdurman
أم درمان (ar)


Wuri
Map
 15°41′01″N 32°27′46″E / 15.683517°N 32.462887°E / 15.683517; 32.462887
JamhuriyaSudan
State of Sudan (en) FassaraKhartoum (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 2,805,396 (2012)
• Yawan mutane 4,562.36 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 614.9 km²
Altitude (en) Fassara 178 m
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
UTC+03:00 (en) Fassara

Omdurmán (Larabci: أم درمان‎, romanized: Umm Durmān ) babban birni ne a ƙasar Sudan. Shi ne birni na biyu mafi yawan jama'a a cikin ƙasar, birnin yana a Jihar Khartoum. Omdurman yana gefen yammacin kogin Nilu, kishiya da arewa maso yammacin babban birnin ƙasar Khartoum . Yana kan kogin Nilu kuma yana aiki a matsayin muhimmiyar cibiyar hanya, tare da kogin Nilu yana habɓaka sufuri har ma da ƙari.

Asalin suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunan Omdurman (Umm Durman) a zahiri yana fassara da "Mahaifiyar Durman", amma ba a san ko wacece ita ba.[1]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yaƙin Omdurman a 1898
Taswirar Omdurman tare da Khartoum da Bahri . Farin Nilu da ke kwararowa daga kudu yana hade da kogin Blue Nile da ke kwarara daga gabas.
Gadar da ke saman kogin Nilu wanda ya hada birnin da Khartoum

Bayan da aka kewaye birnin Khartoum, sai kuma ginin kabarin Mahadi bayan mutuwarsa daga cutar typhus, birnin ya girma cikin sauri. Duk da haka, a yakin Omdurman a shekarar 1898 (wanda a zahiri ya faru a ƙauyen Kerreri na kusa), Lord Kitchener ya ci nasara a kan sojojin Mahdist . A shekara mai zuwa ne sojojin Birtaniya suka fatattaki Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, Khalifa a matsayin yakin Ummu Diwaykarat ; tabbatar da ikon Birtaniya a kan Sudan.[2]

A cikin watan Satumba na shekarar 1898, sojojin Birtaniya na mutane dubu ashirin da suka hako rijiyoyi sanye da sabbin makamai, bindigogi Maxim da bindigogi na Martini-Henry karkashin jagorancin Janar Horatio Herbert Kitchener suka mamaye Sudan . A yakin Omdurman, Sojojin Birtaniyya sun fuskanci 'yan kare Sudan da suka kunshi 'yan kabilar sahara sama da 52,000 wadanda ba su da makami; cikin sa'o'i biyar aka kawo karshen yakin. Masu tsaron Sudan sun samu raunuka da dama, inda aka kashe akalla 10,000. Akasin haka, an sami asarar rayuka fiye da ɗari huɗu a ɓangaren Biritaniya inda sojojin Birtaniyya arba'in da takwas suka rasa rayukansu. Daga nan sai Janar Kitchener ya ci gaba da ba da umarnin a tozarta kabarin Mahdi kuma a cikin kalaman Winston Churchill, "an dauke kan Mahdi a cikin gwangwanin kananzir a matsayin ganima".

Kitchener ya mayar da Khartoum a matsayin babban birnin ƙasar, kuma daga shekarar 1899 zuwa 1956 Sudan ta kasance karkashin mulkin Birtaniya da Masar tare. Ko da yake akasarin garin ya ruguje a yakin, an gyara kabarin Mahdi tare da gyarawa.

A ranar 10 ga watan Mayun shekara ta 2008, kungiyar 'yan tawayen Darfur ta Justice and Equality Movement ta shiga cikin birnin inda suka yi kazamin fada da sojojin gwamnatin Sudan. Manufarsu ita ce hambarar da gwamnatin Omar Hassan al-Bashir.[3][4][5]

A lokacin rikicin Sudan na 2023 yakin Omdurman ya barke.[6]

Taswira[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Unguwannin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Ombada

Yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Omdurman yana da yanayi mai zafi mai zafi, tare da watannin bazara kawai ana ganin hazo. Matsakaicin birnin yana da ɗan sama da 155 millimetres (6.1 in) na hazo a kowace shekara. Dangane da yanayin zafi na shekara-shekara, birnin yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan biranen duniya mafi zafi. Yanayin zafi akai-akai ya wuce 40 °C (104 °F) a tsakiyar lokacin rani.

Matsakaicin zafinsa na shekara-shekara shine 37.1 °C (99 °F), tare da watanni shida na shekara ana ganin matsakaicin yanayin zafi na kowane wata na akalla 38 °C (100 °F) . Bugu da ƙari, a duk tsawon shekara, babu wani matsakaicin yanayin zafi da ya faɗi ƙasa 30 °C (86 °F) . A cikin watannin Janairu da Fabrairu, yayin da yanayin zafin rana gaba ɗaya yana da zafi sosai, dare yana da ɗan sanyi sosai, tare da matsakaicin ƙarancin zafi sama da 15 °C (59 °F) .

Climate data for {{{location}}}
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
[Ana bukatan hujja]

Alkaluma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Omdurman yana yammacin kogin Nilu, daura da Khartoum.
Sufi dervishes in Omdurman
Shekara Yawan jama'a
1909 (Kidayar jama'a) [7] 42,779
1941 116,196
1956 113,600
1973 299,399
1983 526,284
1993 1,271,403
2007 Kiyasin 2,127,802
2008 2,395,159[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>
2010 2,577,780[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>

Ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jami'o'in jama'a sune: a

  • Jami'ar Karari
  • Omdurman Islamic University
  • Jami'ar Al-Qur'ani Mai Girma da Kimiyyar Musulunci

Jami'o'i masu zaman kansu sune:[8]

  • Ahfad University for Women
  • Omdurman Ahlia University
  • Jami'ar Kimiyya da Fasaha - Omdurman

Filin jirgin sama[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gadar Halfaya akan kogin Nilu da ke hade Omdurman da Khartoum ta Arewa

Filin jirgin saman Khartoum yana hidimar Omdurman.

Sabon Filin Jirgin Sama na Khartoum[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cewar jami'an Sudan, a shekara ta 2005 an samar da wani sabon filin jirgin sama mai nisan 30 miles (50 km) kudu da Omdurman. Ana iya cewa yana cikin iyakokin Omdurman da ba a bayyana ba, an kiyasta cewa za a kammala aikin nan da shekara ta 2012 tare da kiyasin kasafin dala miliyan 530.[9] An fara ginin a cikin shekarar 2019 amma har zuwa shekarar 2021 an dakatar da shi.[10]

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Robert S. Kramer; Richard A. Lobban Jr.; Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban (2013). Historical Dictionary of the Sudan. Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-8108-7940-9.
  2. Ferguson, Niall (2003). EMPIRE, How Britain Made the Modern World. London England: Penguin Books. pp. 267–272. ISBN 978-0-141-00754-0.
  3. Curfew in capital as Sudanese army clash near Khartoum with Darfur rebels Archived 4 Nuwamba, 2019 at the Wayback Machine - Sudan Tribune 2008-05-10
  4. Sudanese rebels 'reach Khartoum' Archived 18 ga Afirilu, 2019 at the Wayback Machine - BBC News 2008-05-10
  5. PHOTOS: Sudan capital after today's attack from Darfur JEM Archived 16 ga Afirilu, 2016 at the Wayback Machine - Sudan Tribune 2008-05-10
  6. "Further clashes between military factions in Khartoum" (in Turanci). 2023-06-05. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. Chisholm 1911.
  8. "Universities of Sudan". Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
  9. "Sudan to Build New Airport". Arab Times. 2005-05-16. Archived from the original on 2005-06-11.
  10. "Why growing is a pain at Khartoum". Times Aerospace. 2021-03-31. Retrieved 2023-08-10.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Media related to Omdurman at Wikimedia Commons