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Paswan

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Paswan
Classification
  • Paswan

Paswan, wanda aka fi sani da Dusadh, ƙabilar Dalit ce daga gabashin Indiya . Ana kuma samun su galibi a cikin jihohin Bihar,[1] Uttar Pradesh da Jharkhand . Kalmar Urdu Paswan na nufin mai tsaron gida ko "wanda ya kare"[2]. Asalin kalmar, bisa abin da al'umma ta yi imani da shi, ya ta'allaka ne da shiga yakin da aka yi da Siraj-ud-daulah, Nawab na Bengal bisa umarnin kamfanin British East India, bayan haka an ba su lada da mukamin Chowkidars kuma mai karɓar haraji mai amfani ga Zamindars. Suna bin wasu al'adu kamar tafiya akan wuta don tabbatar da ƙarfin su.[3]

Bayanin Lantarki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Paswans suna da'awar asalinsu daga yawancin mutane da almara don neman haɓaka a cikin zamantakewar su. Wasu Paswan sun yi imanin cewa sun samo asali ne daga Rahu, wanda ya fi kowa ɗa kuma ɗayan duniyoyi a cikin tatsuniyoyin Hindu, yayin da wasu ke da'awar asalinsu daga Dushasana, ɗaya daga cikin sarakunan Kaurava. Abubuwan da suka shafi asali daga "Gahlot Kshatriya" suma suna ci gaba tsakanin wasu daga cikin masu ba da umarnin, to amma wasu suna kallon irin waɗannan iƙirarin da ƙyama, saboda ba sa son a haɗa su da Rajputs .[4]

Har ila yau, wasu Bhumihars sun yi jayayya cewa su zuriyar auren mutuƙar ne tsakanin maza da mata na mutane biyu daban-daban. Koyaya, jama'ar Paswan sun ƙi waɗannan ka'idojin kuma suna jayayya cewa asalin sunan 'Dusadh' ya ta'allaka ne a Dusadh, wanda ke nufin "mai wahalar kayarwa"[5]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An dauke su a matsayin al'ummomin da ba'a iya taba su. A Bihar, da farko su marasa filaye ne, ma'aikata ne masu aikin gona kuma a tarihance sun kasance masu gadin ƙauye da manzanni.[6] Kafin 1900, suma sun kasance suna raya aladu musamman a Uttar Pradesh da Bihar. Passan sun kare aikin kiwon aladu ta hanyar bayyana shi a matsayin wata dabara ta adawa da Musulmai . Sun tabbatar da cewa, don kare kansu daga Musulmai, ‘yan matan Paswan sun kasance suna sanya layu da aka yi da kashin aladu kuma suna ajiye aladu a kofofinsu, saboda kiyayya da Musulmai da aladu. Tunda Rajputs na Rajasthan suma sun goyi baya har ma da aladun daji da ake farauta, wannan gaskiyar suna amfani da ita ne don kare wannan aikin wanda ya tabbatar da cewa bayan ƙarshen tsarin Zamindari, aikin gargajiya na yin aiki a matsayin masu gadi ba zai iya samar da abinci ba. su.[7]

Paswans sun kuma kasance suna da alaƙa ta tarihi tare da ayyukan yaƙi kuma da yawa sun yi yaƙi a madadin Kamfanin Gabashin Indiya a lokacin ƙarni na 18 a cikin Sojojin Bengal. Cididdigar Indiya ta 2011 don Uttar Pradesh ta nuna yawan Paswan, wanda aka lasafta shi azaman Jadawalin Jadawalin, kamar 230,593. Wannan ƙidayar ta nuna yawan mutane 4,945,165 a Bihar.

Jarumin mutanen Paswans shine Chauharmal . A cikin al'adun gargajiya na Paswan, labarin Chauharmal da Reshma sananne ne sosai. Reshma, diyar wani mai gidan Bhumihar mai iko, ta lallashi Chauharmal ya aure ta sabanin yadda mahaifinta ya so. Daga ƙarshe Chauharmal ya tunkari mahaifinsa ƙaunataccensa kuma ya kayar da shi, yana nuna nasarar da al'umma ta samu a kan azzaluman Bhumihar ɗinsu. Sauran labaran labarin sun ki amincewa da wannan sakon mai karfafa gwiwa ta hanyar da'awar Chauharmal a cikin dangin Brahmin a cikin haihuwar da ta gabata yayin da aka haifi Reshma a matsayin matar sa.

Baya ga Chauharmal Baba, wasu Dusadh suna bautar Gauriya Baba. Wannan gwarzo na jama'a kamar yadda al'adunsu na gargajiya suka yi zamani da mulkin Mughal a Indiya. Dangane da almara na gargajiya ya kasance yana hawa doki kuma yana kare ba masu jifan sa kawai ba har ma da sauran Hindu da suka hada da Rajputs daga farmakin sojojin Mughal da kuma tilasta musulunta . Baba ya kasance yana binne kan alade a gaban gidansa wanda ke gefen gabar gari. Tunda aladu sun kasance la'anane ga musulmai, hakan ya kare ƙauyen daga shigowar sojojin Mughal wadanda galibinsu musulmai ne.

Siyasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 1900, ƙungiyar caste ta zama babbar hanyar da za a tsara don haƙƙin zamantakewar jama'a da siyasa. Saboda haka, an kafa wasu ƙungiyoyi masu yawa waɗanda aka sani game da siyasa a halin yanzu. Kamar Koeri, Kurmi da Yadav, Paswans suma sun kafa nasu Paswan Sabha a cikin 1911 don yin da'awar matsayin Kshatriya. Su ne na farko a tsakanin Dalisi don cimma wannan nasarar.

Paswans sun zama ƙarfi na siyasa a Bihar, da farko bayan farfaɗowar shugaban gurguzu Ram Vilas Paswan . Paswan ya mamaye Jam'iyyar Lok Janshakti, wacce ta zama abokiyar kawancen Lalu Prasad Yadav mai dauke da Rashtriya Janata Dal . Tun da farko, Dalit din da suka hada da al'ummar Paswan sun zabi Majalisa amma a yayin kawancen RJD-LJP sun zama masu goyon bayan wata kungiya wacce ta hada da Majalisar da suka fi so a baya da kuma sabon zabi na LJP . Yana da wahala a iya hasashen ainihin bayanan game da yawan kungiyoyin kungiyoyi daban-daban amma a cewar masu sharhi kan siyasa, wannan sabuwar kungiyar ta RJD-Congress wacce LJP ta taimaka ta ba da babban goyon baya daga Yadav, Musulmai da kuma al'ummar Paswan. Wannan tsarin zamantakewar ya ci nasara don daidaita ƙawancen JDU-BJP a 2004 Lok Sabha zaɓen Bihar.

Tun da farko, yunƙurin jawo hankalin Paswans don sonsa shi ma shugaban RJD ne Laloo Yadav ( Babban Ministan Bihar na wancan lokacin), wanda ya nuna Chauharmal a matsayin babban mutum kuma ya yi ƙoƙari ya sasanta su da siyasarsa ta adalci tsakanin jama'a. Ya kuma shirya Chauharmal Mela a 1995. Ram Vilas Paswan shi ma ya kasance a cikin wannan fadan, wanda ya yi nufin duka biyun don yin nasarar kansa a matsayin ainihin fuskar wannan al'umma tare da tattara goyon baya ga sabuwar ƙungiyarsa, Dalit Sena.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Tewary, Amarnath (27 March 2019). "Hemraj Paswan: A 'centenarian' voter shows political acuity". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  2. Mendelsohn, Oliver; Vicziany, Marika (1998). The Untouchables: Subordination, Poverty and the State in Modern India. Cambridge University Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-52155-671-2
  3. "Who are the Paswans? 'Upwardly mobile, powerful' Dalit group at centre of Bihar polls buzz". The Print. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  4. Narayan, Badri (2013), "Documenting Dissent", in Channa, Subhadra Mitra; Mencher, Joan P. (eds.), Life as a Dalit: Views from the Bottom on Caste in India, SAGE Publications India, p. 322,323, ISBN 978-8-13211-777-3
  5. Narayan, Badri (2013), "Documenting Dissent", in Channa, Subhadra Mitra; Mencher, Joan P. (eds.), Life as a Dalit: Views from the Bottom on Caste in India, SAGE Publications India, p. 322,323, ISBN 978-8-13211-777-3
  6. Hewitt, J. F. (1893). "The Tribes and Castes of Bengal, by H. H. Risley. Vols. I. and II. Ethnographic Glossary, Vols. I. and II. Anthropometric Data". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 237–300
  7. Case Studies on Strengthening Co-ordination Between Non-governmental Organizations and Government Agencies in Promoting Social Development. United Nations (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific). 1989. p. 72,73. Retrieved 22 January 2021.