Renaissance

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Renaissance
art movement (en) Fassara da cultural movement (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Karatun ta Renaissance studies (en) Fassara
Mabiyi Gothic art (en) Fassara, Middle Ages (en) Fassara da late Middle Ages (en) Fassara
Ta biyo baya Baroque da early modern period (en) Fassara
Lokacin farawa 14 century
Lokacin gamawa 17 century
Wuri
Map
 48°41′27″N 9°08′26″E / 48.690959°N 9.14062°E / 48.690959; 9.14062

Renaissance (UK:/rɪˈneɪsəns/rin-AYUSsənss, US:/ˈrənəsɑːns/ USREN-ə-sahnss) [1] [lower-alpha 1] wani lokaci ne a cikin tarihin Turai wanda ke nuna alamar sauyi daga Middle age zuwa modernity da kuma ƙarni na 15 da 16, wanda ke da alaƙa da ƙoƙarin rayar da ra'ayoyi da nasarorin da aka samu. na gargajiya. Ya faru ne bayan Crisis of the late middle ages kuma yana da alaƙa da babban canjin zamantakewa. Baya ga ma'auni na lokaci-lokaci, masu goyon bayan "Long Renaissance" na iya sanya farkonsa a cikin karni na 14 da ƙarshensa a cikin karni na 17.

Ra'ayin al'ada ya fi mayar da hankali kan al'amuran zamani na farko na Renaissance kuma suna jayayya cewa hutu ne daga baya, amma yawancin masana tarihi a yau sun fi mayar da hankali kan al'amuran da suka gabata kuma suna jayayya cewa ya kasance tsawo na tsakiyar zamanai. Koyaya, farkon lokacin-farkon Renaissance na karni na 15 da Proto-Renaissance na Italiya daga kusan 1250 ko 1300 sun mamaye sosai tare da Late Middle Ages , wanda aka saba da shi zuwa c. 1250–1500, da kuma tsakiyar zamanai su kansu dogon lokaci ne cike da sauye-sauye a hankali, kamar zamani na zamani; kuma a matsayin lokacin tsaka-tsaki tsakanin su biyun, Renaissance yana da kusancin kamanceceniya da duka biyun, musamman ma ƙarshen zamani da farkon farkon ko wannensu. [lower-alpha 2]

Tushen hankali na Renaissance shine nau'in ɗan adam, wanda aka samo daga ra'ayi na ɗan adam na Roman da sake gano falsafar Girkanci na gargajiya, kamar na Protagoras, wanda ya ce "mutum shine ma'aunin kowane abu". Wannan sabon tunani ya bayyana a fasaha, gine-gine, siyasa, kimiyya da adabi. Misalai na farko sune haɓaka hangen nesa a Oil painting da kuma farfado da ilimin yadda ake yin kankare. Ko da yake ƙirƙirar nau'in nau'in motsi na ƙarfe ya haɓaka yada ra'ayoyin daga karni na 15 na baya, sauye-sauye na Renaissance ba su kasance daidai ba a fadin Turai: alamun farko sun bayyana a Italiya a farkon karni na 13, musamman tare da rubuce-rubucen Dante. da kuma zane-zane na Giotto.

Renaissance

A matsayin motsi na al'adu, Renaissance ya ƙunshi sababbin furanni na Latin da wallafe-wallafen harshe, farawa da farfadowa na 14th na karni na 14 bisa ga tushen al'ada, wanda masu zamani suka ba wa Petrarch; haɓaka hangen nesa na layi da sauran fasahohi na ba da ƙarin gaskiyar halitta a cikin zanen; da kuma gyara a hankali amma tartsatsin ilimi. A cikin siyasa, Renaissance ya ba da gudummawa ga ci gaban al'adu da tarurruka na diflomasiyya, kuma a cikin kimiyya don ƙarin dogara ga lura da tunani mai zurfi. Ko da yake Renaissance ya ga juyin juya hali a yawancin ilimin kimiyya da ilimin zamantakewa, da kuma gabatar da tsarin banki na zamani da kuma fannin lissafin kuɗi, watakila an fi sani da shi don ci gaban fasaha da kuma gudunmawar irin wannan polymaths kamar Leonardo da Vinci,Michelangelo, wanda ya yi wahayi zuwa kalmar "Mutumin Farko". [3] [4]

Renaissance ya fara a Jamhuriyar Florence, daya daga cikin yawancin jihohin Italiya. [5] An gabatar da ra'ayoyi daban-daban don yin la'akari da asalinsa da halayensa, suna mai da hankali kan abubuwa daban-daban ciki har da yanayin zamantakewa da zamantakewa na Florence a lokacin: tsarin siyasarta, goyon bayan danginsa masu rinjaye, Medici, [6] da hijirar malaman Girka da nassosinsu zuwa Italiya bayan faduwar Konstantinoful zuwa Turkawa Ottoman. [7] Sauran manyan cibiyoyin sune jihohin arewacin Italiya kamar Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, Rome a lokacin Renaissance Papacy da Naples. Daga Italiya, Renaissance ya bazu ko'ina cikin Turai a Flanders, Faransa, Burtaniya, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Jamus, Poland, Hungary (tare da Beatrice na Naples) da sauran wurare.

Renaissance yana da tarihin tarihi mai tsawo da, kuma, a cikin layi tare da gaba ɗaya shakku game da lokaci mai mahimmanci, an yi muhawara da yawa a tsakanin masana tarihi da ke mayar da martani ga ɗaukaka na karni na 19 na "Renaissance" da kuma daidaikun jaruman al'adu a matsayin "maza masu farfadowa", suna tambaya. da amfani na Renaissance a matsayin lokaci da kuma a matsayin tarihin delineation. Wasu masu lura sun yi tambaya ko Renaissance ya kasance "ci gaba" al'adu daga tsakiyar zamanai, maimakon ganin shi a matsayin lokaci na rashin tausayi da rashin tausayi ga tsohuwar tarihi, [8] yayin da masana tarihin zamantakewa da tattalin arziki, musamman na longue durée, suna da maimakon mayar da hankali kan ci gaba tsakanin zamanin biyu, [9] waɗanda ke da alaƙa, kamar yadda Panofsky ya lura, "ta hanyar thousand ties". [10]

Renaissance

Kalmar rinascita ('sake haifuwa') ya fara bayyana a cikin Giorgio Vasari 's Lives of the Artists (c. 1550), an fassara shi azaman Renaissance a cikin shekarar 1830s. [11] Hakanan an fadada kalmar zuwa wasu ƙungiyoyin tarihi da al'adu, kamar Renaissance na Carolingian (ƙarni na 8 da 9), Renaissance na Ottonia (ƙarni na 10 da 11), da Renaissance na ƙarni na 12.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Wells, John (April 3, 2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.Empty citation (help)
  2. "Online Etymology Dictionary: "Renaissance"". Etymonline.com. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
  3. BBC Science and Nature, Leonardo da Vinci Retrieved May 12, 2007
  4. BBC History, Michelangelo Retrieved May 12, 2007
  5. Burke, P., The European Renaissance: Centre and Peripheries 1998
  6. Strathern, Paul The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance (2003)
  7. Encyclopædia Britannica, "Renaissance", 2008, O.Ed.
  8. Huizanga, Johan, The Waning of the Middle Ages (1919, trans. 1924)
  9. Empty citation (help)
  10. Panofsky 1969:6.
  11. The Oxford English Dictionary cites W Dyce and C H Wilson’s Letter to Lord Meadowbank (1837): "A style possessing many points of rude resemblance with the more elegant and refined character of the art of the renaissance in Italy." And the following year in Civil Engineer & Architect's Journal: "Not that we consider the style of the Renaissance to be either pure or good per se." See: Oxford English Dictionary, "Renaissance"


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