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Painting

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Painting
method (en) Fassara, type of arts (en) Fassara da genre (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na aiki da Zane-zane na gani
Product or material produced or service provided (en) Fassara painting (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan painter (en) Fassara
Mona Lisa (1503-1517) na Leonardo da Vinci na ɗaya daga cikin zane-zanen da aka fi sani a duniya.
An yi hoton zane-zane na rukunin karkanda a cikin kogon Chauvet shekaru 30,000 zuwa 32,000 da suka wuce.

Yin zane shine al'adar yin amfani da fenti, pigment, launi ko wani matsakaici zuwa wani solid surface (wanda ake kira "matrix" ko "support").[1] Ana amfani da matsakaicin matsakaici zuwa tushe tare da burosh, amma ana iya amfani da wasu kayan aiki, irin su wuƙaƙe, soso, da buroshin.

A cikin fasaha, kalmar zanen ta kwatanta dukka aikin da sakamakon aikin (aiki na ƙarshe da ake kira "zanen"). Taimako don zane-zane ya haɗa da irin wannan saman kamar bango, takarda, zane, itace, gilashi, lacquer, tukwane, leaf, jan karfe da kankare, kuma zanen na iya haɗawa da wasu kayan da yawa, ciki har da yashi, yumbu, takarda, filasta, leaf zinariya, da kuma har ma da dukkan abubuwa.

Zane wani nau'i ne mai mahimmanci a cikin zane-zane na gani, yana kawo abubuwa kamar zane, abun da ke ciki, motsi (kamar yadda a cikin zanen gestural), labari (kamar yadda a cikin zane), da kuma abstraction (kamar yadda a cikin zane).[2] Zane na iya zama na halitta da kumawakilci (zane mai rai da zanen wuri), hoto, labari, alama (kamar yadda yake a cikin zane-zanen na Symbolist), (kamar yadda yake cikin Expressionism) ko siyasa a cikin yanayi (kamar yadda a cikin Artivism)

Wani yanki na tarihin zanen a dukka fasahar Gabas da Yamma ya mamaye fasahar addini. Misalai na irin wannan zane-zane sun fito ne daga zane-zanen da ke nuna ƙididdiga na tatsuniyoyi a kan tukwane, zuwa wuraren da Littafi Mai-Tsarki ke kan rufin Sistine Chapel, zuwa al'amuran daga rayuwar Buddha (ko wasu hotuna na tushen addinin Gabas).

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Zanen kogon da ya gabata na aurochs ( French: Bos primigenius primigenius ), Lascaux, Faransa
Zane mafi dadewa da aka sani shine hoton bijimin da aka gano a kogon Lubang Jeriji Saléh a Indonesia . An fentin shi shekaru 40,000 - 52,000 da suka wuce ko kafin haka.

Fitattun zane-zanen da aka fi sani da su sun kai kimanin shekaru 40,000, ana samun su a cikin yankin Franco-Cantabrian a yammacin Turai, da kuma cikin kogo a gundumar Maros (Sulawesi, Indonesia). A cikin watan Nuwamba 2018, duk da haka, masana kimiyya sun ba da rahoton gano wani zanen zanen hoto mafi tsufa a lokacin, wanda ya wuce 40,000 (watakila yana da shekaru 52,000), na dabbar da ba a sani ba, a cikin kogon Lubang Jeriji Saléh a tsibirin Borneo na Indonesiya. (Kalimantan).[3] A cikin watan Disamba 2019, zane-zanen kogo na alama da ke nuna farautar alade a cikin Karst Maros-Pangkep a Sulawesi an kiyasta sun fi girma, aƙalla shekaru 43,900. An lura cewa binciken shine "mafi tsufa rikodin tarihin ba da labari da kuma farkon zane-zane na alama a duniya". Kwanan nan, a cikin shekarar 2021, an ba da rahoton fasahar kogon alade da aka samu a tsibirin Indonesiya, wanda aka yi kwanan watan sama da shekaru 45,500.[4] Koyaya, an gano farkon shaidar aikin zanen a cikin matsugunan dutse guda biyu a Arnhem Land, a arewacin Ostiraliya. A cikin mafi ƙanƙancin kayan abu a waɗannan rukunin yanar gizon, ana amfani da guntun ocher da aka kiyasta sun kai shekaru 60,000. Har ila yau, masu binciken kayan tarihi sun gano wani guntun zanen dutse da aka adana a cikin wani matsuguni na dutse a cikin yankin Kimberley na Arewa maso Yammacin Ostiraliya, wanda ke da shekaru 40,000. Akwai misalan zane-zanen kogo a duk faɗin duniya-a Indonesia, Faransa, Spain, Portugal, Italiya, China, Indiya, Australia, Mexico, da sauransu. A cikin al'adun Yammacin Turai, zanen mai da zanen launi na ruwa suna da al'adu masu sauki da sarƙaƙƙiya a cikin salo da batun. A Gabas, tawada da tawada mai launi a tarihi sun mamaye zaɓin kafofin watsa labarai, tare da wadatattun al'adu iri ɗaya.

Ƙirƙirar daukar hoto ya yi tasiri sosai a kan zane. A cikin shekaru da yawa bayan da aka samar da hoton farko a cikin shekarar 1829, hanyoyin daukar hoto sun inganta kuma sun zama mafi yawan aiki, suna hana zanen yawancin manufar tarihi don samar da ingantaccen rikodin na duniya da ake gani. Jerin ƙungiyoyin fasaha a ƙarshen 19th da farkon ƙarni na 20 musamman Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism, da Dadaism-sun ƙalubalanci ra'ayin Renaissance na duniya. Zanen Gabas da Afirka, duk da haka, ya ci gaba da dogon tarihi na salo kuma bai sami canji daidai ba a lokaci guda.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Fasahar zamani da ta zamani ta ƙaura daga ƙima na tarihi na fasaha da takaddun shaida don neman ra'ayi. Wannan bai hana yawancin masu zane-zanen rayuwa su ci gaba da yin zanen gaba ɗaya ko wani ɓangare na aikinsu ba. Ƙarfafawa da haɓakar zane-zane a cikin ƙarni na 21st sun ƙi "bayanai" da suka gabata na mutuwarsa. A cikin zamanin da ke da ra'ayin jam'i, babu yarjejeniya game da salon wakilci na zamani. Masu zane-zane suna ci gaba da yin muhimman ayyukan fasaha a cikin salo iri-iri da kyawawan halaye ana barin cancantarsu ga jama'a da kuma kasuwa don yin hukunci.

Ƙungiyar fasaha ta mata ta fara ne a cikin shekarar 1960s a lokacin tashin mata na biyu. Ƙungiyar ta nemi samun daidaitattun haƙƙi da dama daidai ga mata masu fasaha a duniya.[5]


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Paint – Definition". Merriam-webster.com. 2012. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  2. Perry, Lincoln (Summer 2014). "The Music of Painting". The American Scholar. 83 (3): 85.
  3. Zimmer, Carl (7 November 2018). "In Cave in Borneo Jungle, Scientists Find Oldest Figurative Painting in the World - A cave drawing in Borneo is at least 40,000 years old, raising intriguing questions about creativity in ancient societies". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  4. Ferreira, Becky (13 January 2021). "Pig Painting May Be World's Oldest Cave Art Yet, Archaeologists Say - The depiction of the animal on an Indonesian island is at least 45,500 years old, the researchers say". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 June 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  5. "A Guide to the Feminist Art Movement's History & Contemporary Impact". Rise Art.Empty citation (help): CS1 maint: url-status (link)