Safa

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Safa da aka saƙa da hannu
Argyle safa

Safa wani yanki ne na tufa da ake sawa a ƙafafu kuma galibi ana rufe idon sawu ko wani sashe na maraƙi. Wasu nau'ikan takalmi ko rufaffen takalmi yawanci ana sanya su akan safa. A zamanin da, ana yin safa da fata ko gashin dabba. A ƙarshen ƙarni na 16, an fara samar da safa masu saƙa da injin. Har zuwa shekarun 1800, ana ƙera safa na mutum da na inji, amma fasaha ta ƙarshe ta zama ruwan dare a ƙarni na 19.

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ɗaya daga cikin ayyukan safa shine shaƙar gumi. Kamar yadda ƙafar ke cikin mafi yawan masu samar da gumi a cikin jiki, tana iya samar da fiye da 0.25 US pints (0.12 l) gumi a kowace rana;[1] Safa na taimakawa wajen shanye wannan gumin da kuma jawo shi zuwa wuraren da iska ke kawar da gumi. A cikin yanayin sanyi, safa da aka yi daga auduga ko ulu na taimakawa wajen ɗumama ƙafafu masu sanyi wanda hakan ke taimakawa rage haɗarin kamuwa da sanyi . An fi sa safa masu bakin ciki a cikin watannin bazara don sanya ƙafafu su yi sanyi. Yawancin safa masu launin haske ana sawa da takalman wasanni da safa masu launin duhu tare da takalman riguna (sau da yawa baƙar fata ko safa na blue). Bugu da ƙari, safa masu launin duhu suna ɗaukar zafi wanda hakan zai taimaka wajen sa ƙafar ta zama ɗumi yayin da safa masu launin haske ke nuna zafi wanda hakan yana taimakawa ƙafafu su yi sanyi.

Etymology[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmar safa ta zamani ta Ingilishi ta samo asali ne daga tsohuwar kalmar Ingilishi socc, ma'ana "Slippa mai haske". Wannan ya fito ne daga kalmar soccus na Latin, kalmar don kwatanta "haske, takalma maras nauyi" wanda ƴan wasan kwaikwayo na Roman ke sawa,[2] kuma ya samo asali daga kalmar Helenanci sykchos.[3]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sanannen farkon safa biyu mai tsira, wanda aka ƙirƙira ta naalbinding . Dating daga 300-500, an tono waɗannan daga Oxyrhynchus akan Kogin Nilu a Masar. An tsara yatsan yatsa don amfani da takalma. Ana nunawa a cikin gidan kayan gargajiya na Victoria da Albert, 2085&A-1900.
File:Islamic sock.jpg
Safa na auduga na ƙarni na 12, wanda aka samo a Masar . Saƙa na wannan safa ya fara aiki a yatsan yatsa sannan ya yi aiki har zuwa ƙafa. An yi diddige a ƙarshe sannan kuma a haɗe zuwa madaukai da aka kafa yayin saka kafa. Wannan aikin ya ba da damar sauya diddige cikin sauƙi lokacin da ya ƙare.

Safa sun samo asali a cikin ƙarni daga farkon samfura, waɗanda aka yi daga fatun dabbobi da aka tattara kuma an ɗaure su a kusa da idon sawu. Saboda ƙera safa ya kasance yana ɗaukar lokaci a lokacin masana'antu kafin masana'antu, masu arziki ne kawai ke amfani da su. Talakawa sun sa rigar ƙafafu, tufafi masu sauƙi a nannaɗe a ƙafafu. Ana amfani da waɗannan a cikin sojojin Gabashin Turai har zuwa ƙarshen ƙarni na 20.

A cewar mawaƙin Hesiod na Girka, a cikin ƙarni na 8 BC, Helenawa na dā sun sa safa da ake kira "piloi", wanda aka yi daga gashin dabbar da aka yi.[4] Romawa kuma suna naɗe ƙafafunsu da fata ko saƙa. A kusan ƙarni na 2 AD, Romawa sun fara ɗinka yadudduka tare suna yin safa-safa da ake kira "udones". A ƙarni na 5 AD, safa da ake kira " putees " mutane masu tsarki a Turai suke sawa don nuna alamar tsarki.


A lokacin tsakiyar, an tsawaita tsawon wando kuma safa ya zama, zane mai launi wanda ya rufe ƙananan ƙafa. Tun da safa ba ta da bandeji na roba, an sanya garters a saman safa don hana su faɗuwa. Lokacin da breeches ya zama guntu, safa ya fara yin tsayi (kuma mafi tsada). A shekara ta 1000 AD, safa ya zama alamar wadata a tsakanin manyan mutane. Tun daga ƙarni na 16 zuwa gaba, an kira wani zane na ado a kan idon sawu ko gefen safa da agogo.[5][6][7]

Ƙirƙirar injin ɗin da aka yi a shekara ta 1589 yana nufin cewa ana iya saƙa safa da sauri sau shida fiye da hannu. Duk da haka, injunan saƙawa da masu saƙa hannu sun yi aiki tare da gefe har zuwa 1800.

Juyi na gaba a cikin samar da safa shine ƙaddamar da nailan a cikin 1938. Har zuwa lokacin ana yawan yin safa daga siliki, auduga da ulu . Naylon shine farkon haɗa yadudduka biyu ko fiye a cikin samar da safa, tsarin da ke ci gaba a yau.

Ƙera[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana iya ƙirƙirar safa daga nau'ikan kayan aiki iri-iri, irin su auduga, ulu, nailan, acrylic, polyester, olefins (irin su polypropylene ).[8] Don samun ƙarar matakin laushi sauran kayan da za a iya amfani da su yayin aikin na iya zama siliki, bamboo, lilin, cashmere, ko mohair . [9] Bambance-bambancen launi na zaɓin safa na iya zama kowane launi da masu zanen kaya suka yi niyya don yin safa akan halittar sa. Safa 'launi' na iya zuwa cikin launuka masu yawa. Wani lokaci kuma ana sanya zane-zane akan safa don ƙara kamannin su. Safa masu launi na iya zama maɓalli mai mahimmanci na riguna don wasanni, yana ba da damar ƙungiyoyin 'yan wasa su bambanta lokacin da ƙafafunsu kawai ke bayyane.

Ana ɗaukar Fort Payne, Alabama a matsayin "Babban birnin Sock na duniya" saboda kusan rabin safa da aka ƙera a farkon ƙarni na 21st aka yi a nan. Masana'antar sock ta Fort Payne ta ɗauki ma'aikata kusan 7000 aiki a ƙololuwarta a kusan 2000. Fort Payne, yayin da har yanzu ɗaya daga cikin manyan masu samar da safa kawai ke samar da kashi ɗaya cikin huɗu na safa, saboda ya rasa wannan take ga Datang.

Gundumar Datang da ke birnin Zhuji na lardin Zhejiang na Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin, ta zama birni mai suna Sock City . A halin yanzu garin yana samar da safa biliyan 8 a kowace shekara, kashi ɗaya bisa uku na samar da safa a duniya, yadda ya kamata ya samar da safa guda biyu ga kowane mutum a duniya a cikin 2011.

Salo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yatsan yatsa
Juyawa-flops safa

Ana ƙera safa da tsayi iri-iri. Babu nuni, ƙananan yanke, da safa na ƙafar ƙafa ko ƙasa kuma galibi ana sawa a hankali ko don amfanin motsa jiki. Babu nuni da / ko ƙananan safa da aka ƙera don ƙirƙirar kamannin ƙafar ƙafa lokacin da aka sawa da takalma (sock ba a gani). Wani lokaci ana danganta safa mai tsayin guiwa da riguna na yau da kullun ko kuma kasancewar wani ɓangare na uniform, kamar a wasanni (kamar ƙwallon ƙafa da ƙwallon baseball) ko kuma wani ɓangare na tsarin suturar makaranta ko rigar ƙungiyar matasa. Safa-safa ko safa da suka shimfiɗa sama (safa masu girman cinya) wani lokaci ana kiransu da tufafin mata a zamanin gama gari. Yara maza da mata ne suka fi sanya su a cikin ƙarshen ƙarni na 19 da farkon 20; ko da yake, shahararsa ya bambanta daga ƙasa zuwa ƙasa. Lokacin da manyan mata ke sawa, safa mai tsayin gwiwa ko cinya na iya zama abin sha'awa da sha'awar jima'i daga wasu mazan. [10] Safa na lilin safa ne waɗanda ake sawa ƙarƙashin wani safa da nufin hana ƙura.

Safa na yatsan yatsa ya ƙunshi kowane yatsan yatsa daban-daban kamar yadda yatsa yake a cikin safar hannu, yayin da sauran safa suna da ɗaki ɗaya don babban yatsan ƙafa kuma ɗaya don sauran, kamar mitten ; musamman abin da Jafananci ke kira tabi yayin da sauran sassan duniya ke kiranta da tabi .  Duk waɗannan biyun suna ba mutum damar saka flops tare da safa.

Ƙafafun ƙafa, waɗanda ba yawanci safa ba, za a iya maye gurbinsu da safa a cikin yanayin sanyi kuma suna kama da leggings saboda gaskiyar cewa yawanci kawai suna kiyaye ƙafafunku ɗumi a cikin yanayin sanyi amma ba duka ƙafar ƙafa ba.

Safa na kasuwanci ko safa na sutura kalma ce ta safa mai launin duhu (yawanci baƙi ko shuɗi na ruwa) don na yau da kullun da/ko takalma na yau da kullun. Sau da yawa ana kiransa safa da safa na aiki ko safa na yau da kullun don lokuta na yau da kullun, misali bukukuwan aure, jana'izar, bikin kammala digiri, prom, coci, ko aiki.

Safa na ma'aikata gajeru ne kuma masu kauri ko siraran safa na yau da kullum. Waɗannan safa galibi suna ribbed a saman idon sawu . [11] Ana iya amfani da su ta hanyar da za a ɗumi ƙafafu idan an ja su har zuwa sama. [12]  Farkon sananniyar al'adar ma'aikatan safa  ya kasance a cikin 1948.[ana buƙatar hujja] Safa na ma'aikata yawanci unisex ne.

Ƙananan safa wani nau'i ne na safa wanda ke kwatanta hanyar da za a yanke a ƙasa da idon sawun . Ana yin ƙananan safa da aka yanke don rufe kwandon ƙafafun mutum. Ko da yake ƙananan safa na unisex ne, amma mata da 'yan mata suna amfani da su. Ƙananan safa da aka yanke yawanci ana sawa da takalma irin su takalman jirgin ruwa, Oxfords, moccasins da loafers .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Salon safa na d ¯ a na Masar gaura ya ne tsakanin safa na yamma na zamani da tabi na Jafananci, dukansu ya riga ya wuce. Kamar tabi, safa na Masar suna da ɗaki ɗaya don babban yatsan ƙafa, ɗayan kuma ga sauran, suna ba da izinin amfani da takalma; kamar safa na yamma, suna dacewa da ƙafa sosai kuma basa amfani da fasteners kamar tabi.

Girman girma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Farin safa mai tsayin guiwa, galibi ana sawa azaman ɓangaren rigar makaranta ko don salo

Ko da yake gaba ɗaya yana riƙe da tsari na rarraba zuwa ƙananan-matsakaici-manyan girma, da dai sauransu, wane nau'in girman takalmin waɗannan girman safa yayi daidai da ɗauka a cikin kasuwanni daban-daban. Wasu ma'auni masu girma suna daidaitawa ta daidaitattun ƙungiyoyi amma wasu sun taso daga al'ada. Tsawon safa ya bambanta, daga ƙafar ƙafa zuwa matakin cinya.

Wasanni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin wasanni suna buƙatar wani irin safa, yawanci tsawon gwiwa ko safa na tsakiyar maraƙi don kare ƙafafu daga gogewa yayin shiga ayyukan wasanni. A cikin kwando, ana amfani da safa na bututu, kuma a cikin lacrosse, ana buƙatar safa na tsakiyar maraƙi.[ana buƙatar hujja] ƙafa, ana amfani da safa na gwiwa. Yawancin su ne don hana ciyawa ƙonewa. [13]

Sauran amfani da kalmar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Layer na fata ko wasu kayan da ke rufe kwandon takalma kuma ana kiransa safa. Lokacin da kawai wani ɓangare na insole ya rufe, yana barin gaban gaba, ana kiran wannan da rabin safa.

Rubutun ƙafa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rubutun kafa da Sojojin Finnish suka yi amfani da su har zuwa 1990s

Ƙafafun ƙafa, ɗigon tufafin da aka nannaɗe a cikin ƙafafu, an sa su da takalma kafin safa ya zama ko'ina. Sojojin sun kasance suna amfani da su a Gabashin Turai har zuwa farkon ƙarni na 21.

Thermal safa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Don amfani a cikin yanayin sanyi, safa masu zafi sun fi kauri. An saba amfani da su don wasan ski, skating, da sauran wasannin hunturu. Suna samar da ba kawai rufi ba, amma har ma mafi girma padding saboda kauri.

Safa masu ciwon sukari wani nau'in safa ne na zafi wanda aka yi daga acrylic, auduga, nailan, da na roba. Ana yin waɗannan don inganta ta'aziyya yayin da a lokaci guda kiyaye ƙafafun sanyi da bushewa. Duk da haka, babu wata kwakkwarar hujja da ke nuna cewa suna taimakawa.

Abubuwan hutu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakanan ana amfani da safa azaman abin hutu lokacin Kirsimeti . Yara suna rataye babban safa na bikin da ake kira safa na Kirsimeti da ƙusa ko ƙugiya a jajibirin Kirsimeti, sannan iyayensu suna cika shi da ƙananan kyaututtuka yayin da masu karɓa ke barci. Bisa ga al'ada, Santa Claus yana kawo waɗannan kyaututtuka ga yara masu kyau, yayin da yara masu lalata a maimakon haka suna karɓar gawayi.

Addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Musulmai, safa sun fara tattaunawa game da rikitattun alwala, wankin da ake yi kafin sallah. Wasu limaman musulmi, da suke lura da yuwuwar wahala a tsakanin musulmi a cikin yanayi mara kyau, sun fitar da hukunce-hukuncen musulmi da ke ba musulmi damar shafa ruwa a kan safa ko yayyafa wa safa. [14] Wannan zai ba da damar yin salla a inda babu wurin zama, ko kuma idan akwai layi. Wannan shi ne ra'ayi na musamman na Malikiyya Ahlus- Sunnah . [15]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Beoseon (safa na gargajiya na Koriya)
  • yakin basasa sock
  • Dumin kafa
  • Leggings
  • Bace safa
  • Puttee
  • Hannun jari
  • Tights
  • Yar tsana
  • Safa da sandal
  • Safa mai ƙamshi
  • Tabi

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. https://science.howstuffworks.com/question5.htm
  2. https://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Soccus.html
  3. https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=sock
  4. https://archive.org/details/isbn_9780756640903/page/292
  5. https://web.archive.org/web/20111116014230/http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/clock%5B3%5D
  6. https://www.blacksocks.com/en/historyofsocksen
  7. https://web.archive.org/web/20160929210600/https://www.lonelysock.com/SockHistory.html
  8. http://webarchive.loc.gov/all/20020917234421/http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5544.html
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named autogenerated1
  10. Boothby, Richard. Sex on the Couch: What Freud Still Has To Teach Us About Sex and Gender. Routledge. 2014. P. 225.
  11. [1] www.merriam-webster.com
  12. [2] www.thefreedictionary.com
  13. Baseball and socks appeal
  14. Personal Security: A Guide for International Travelers – Page 25, Tanya Spencer – 2013
  15. Al-Muwatta Of Iman Malik Ibn Ana – Page 14, 2013 Anas