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Sydney Brenner

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Sydney Brenner
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Germiston (en) Fassara, 13 ga Janairu, 1927
ƙasa Afirka ta kudu
Birtaniya
Mutuwa Singapore, 5 ga Afirilu, 2019
Karatu
Makaranta Exeter College (en) Fassara
King's College (en) Fassara
Jami'ar Witwatersrand
Jami'ar Oxford Doctor of Philosophy (en) Fassara
Matakin karatu doctorate (en) Fassara
Thesis director Cyril Norman Hinshelwood (en) Fassara
Dalibin daktanci Gerald M. Rubin (en) Fassara
John G. White (en) Fassara
Gerald Mayer Rubin (en) Fassara
Harsuna Turanci
Sana'a
Sana'a biotechnologist (en) Fassara, geneticist (en) Fassara, university teacher (en) Fassara da biologist (en) Fassara
Employers University of Cambridge (en) Fassara
University of California, Berkeley (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Frederick Sanger (en) Fassara
Mamba Royal Society (en) Fassara
German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (en) Fassara
French Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
National Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
American Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
European Molecular Biology Organization (en) Fassara
Academia Europaea (en) Fassara
American Philosophical Society (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini mulhidanci

Sydney Brenner CH FRS FMedSci MAE (13 Janairu 1927 - 5 Afrilu 2019) masanin ilimin halitta ne na Afirka ta Kudu . A cikin 2002, ya raba lambar yabo ta Nobel a fannin ilimin halittar jiki ko magani tare da H. Robert Horvitz da Sir John E. Sulston . Brenner ya ba da gudummawa mai mahimmanci don yin aiki a kan ka'idar kwayoyin halitta, da sauran sassan ilimin kwayoyin halitta yayin da yake aiki a Cibiyar Nazarin Harkokin Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology a Cambridge, Ingila. Ya kafa roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans a matsayin abin koyi don binciken ilimin halittu na ci gaba, kuma ya kafa Cibiyar Kimiyyar Kwayoyin Halitta a Berkeley, California, Amurka. 

Ilimi da farkon rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Brenner a garin Germiston a Transvaal a lokacin (yau a Gauteng ), Afirka ta Kudu, a ranar 13 ga Janairu 1927. Iyayensa, Leah (née Blecher) da Morris Brenner, baƙi ne na Yahudawa . Mahaifinsa, ma'aikacin cobbler, ya zo Afirka ta Kudu daga Lithuania a cikin 1910, da mahaifiyarsa daga Riga, Latvia, a 1922. Yana da 'yar'uwa ɗaya, Phyllis.

Ya yi karatu a makarantar sakandare ta Germiston da Jami'ar Witwatersrand . Bayan ya shiga jami’a yana dan shekara 15, an lura a shekararsa ta biyu cewa zai yi karancin shekaru da zai iya shiga aikin likitanci a karshen karatunsa na likitanci na tsawon shekaru shida, don haka aka ba shi damar kammala karatun digiri na biyu. Digiri na Kimiyya a cikin Anatomy da Physiology . A wannan lokacin Joel Mandelstam ne ya koyar da shi ilmin sinadarai na zahiri, da Alfred Oettle na microscopy da Neurology tare da Harold Daitz . Ya kuma sami gabatarwa ga ilimin halin ɗan adam da ilmin burbushin halittu tare da Raymond Dart da Robert Broom . Masanin tarihi Joseph Gillman da darektan bincike a Sashen Anatomy sun shawo kan Brenner ya ci gaba da samun digiri na girmamawa da kuma bayan MSc. Brenner ya yarda ko da yake wannan yana nufin ba zai kammala karatun likitanci ba kuma za a daina biyan kuɗin sa. Ya tallafa wa kansa a wannan lokacin ta hanyar yin aiki a matsayin ma'aikacin dakin gwaje-gwaje. A wannan lokacin ne, a cikin 1945, Brenner zai buga ayyukan kimiyya na farko. Babban karatunsa ya kasance a fannin cytogenetics da wallafe-wallafe a wannan lokacin a cikin filin Brenner daga baya zai kira Cell Physiology .

A cikin 1946 Wilfred Le Gros Clark ya gayyaci Brenner zuwa Sashensa na Anatomy a Oxford, yayin ziyarar da ya kai Afirka ta Kudu. An shawo kan Brenner ya kammala karatunsa na likitanci maimakon. Brenner ya koma makarantar likitanci inda ya kasa yin aikin likitanci, ya kusa gaza yin tiyata kuma ya samu digiri na farko a fannin mata masu juna biyu da mata. Bayan watanni shida Brenner ya gama maimaita magani da tiyata kuma a 1951 ya sami digiri na farko na likitanci, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBCh).

Brenner ya sami kyautar baje kolin 1851 daga Royal Commission for Exhibition of 1851 wanda ya ba shi damar kammala digiri na Doctor of Falsafa (DPhil) a Jami'ar Oxford a matsayin dalibi na gaba na Kwalejin Exeter, Oxford, wanda Cyril Hinshelwood ke kulawa. .

Sana'a da bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan DPhil nasa, Brenner ya yi binciken digiri na biyu a Jami'ar California, Berkeley . Ya shafe shekaru 20 masu zuwa a Laboratory of Molecular Biology a Cambridge. A can, a cikin shekarun 1960, ya ba da gudummawa ga ilimin kwayoyin halitta, sannan filin da ke tasowa. A 1976 ya shiga Cibiyar Salk a California .

Tare da Jack Dunitz, Dorothy Hodgkin, Leslie Orgel, da Beryl M. Oughton, yana ɗaya daga cikin mutanen farko a cikin Afrilu 1953 don ganin samfurin tsarin DNA, wanda Francis Crick da James Watson suka gina; a lokacin shi da sauran masana kimiyya suna aiki a Sashen Chemistry na Jami'ar Oxford . Duk sun gamsu da sabon samfurin DNA, musamman Brenner, wanda daga baya ya yi aiki tare da Crick a cikin dakin gwaje-gwaje na Cavendish a Jami'ar Cambridge da sabuwar Cibiyar Binciken Likitanci (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB). A cewar Beryl Oughton, daga baya Rimmer, duk sun yi tafiya tare a cikin motoci biyu sau ɗaya Dorothy Hodgkin ta sanar da su cewa sun tafi Cambridge don ganin samfurin tsarin DNA.

Brenner ya ba da gudummawa da yawa na seminal zuwa filin da ke tasowa na ilimin halitta a cikin 1960s (duba rukunin Phage ). Na farko shine tabbatar da cewa duk jeri-nauyen coding na kwayoyin halitta ba zai yiwu ba. Wannan hangen nesa ya raba aikin coding daga ƙayyadaddun tsari kamar yadda aka tsara a cikin lambar wayo ta George Gamow . Wannan ya sa Francis Crick ya ba da shawarar ra'ayi na kwayoyin halitta (daga baya an gano shi azaman canja wurin RNA ko tRNA) wanda ke canza bayanan kwayoyin halitta daga RNA zuwa sunadarai. Brenner ya ba da suna " adaftar hasashe " a cikin 1955. Rabuwar jiki tsakanin anticodon da amino acid akan tRNA shine tushen kwararar bayanai na unidirectional a cikin amintattun tsarin halittu. An fi sanin wannan a matsayin babban akidar ilmin kwayoyin halitta, watau bayanai suna gudana daga acid nucleic zuwa furotin kuma baya taba daga furotin zuwa acid nucleic. Bayan wannan fahimtar adaftan, Brenner ya fahimci manufar manzo RNA yayin tattaunawar Afrilu 1960 tare da Crick da François Yakubu, tare da Yakubu da Matiyu Meselson sun ci gaba da tabbatar da wanzuwarsa daga baya a lokacin bazara. [1] Sa'an nan kuma, tare da Crick, Leslie Barnett, da Richard J. Watts-Tobin, Brenner ya nuna jinsin nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in fassarar furotin ta hanyar Crick, Brenner, Barnett, Watts-Tobin et al. gwaji na 1961, [2] wanda ya gano maye gurbi na frameshift . Brenner tare da Sarabhai, Stretton da Bolle a cikin 1964, ta yin amfani da amber mutants da ke da lahani a cikin bacteriophage T4D babban furotin shugaban, ya nuna cewa jerin nucleotide na kwayar halitta yana haɗin kai tare da jerin amino acid na sarkar polypeptide. [3]

Tare da aikin yanke hukunci na Marshall Nirenerg da sauransu, gano nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan kwayoyin halitta na da mahimmanci don tantance lambar. Barnett ya taimaka wajen kafa dakin gwaje-gwaje na Sydney Brenner a Singapore, shekaru da yawa bayan haka.

Esther Lederberg, Gunther Stent, Sydney Brenner da Joshua Lederberg a cikin hoto a 1965

Brenner, tare da George Pieczenik, sun ƙirƙiri nazarin matrix na kwamfuta na farko na acid nucleic ta amfani da TRAC, wanda Brenner ya ci gaba da amfani da shi. Crick, Brenner, Klug da Pieczenik sun dawo kan aikinsu na farko kan tantance lambar kwayoyin halitta tare da takardar majagaba kan asalin hada sinadarin gina jiki, inda takura kan mRNA da tRNA suka samo asali suna ba da damar yin hulɗar tushe guda biyar tare da juzu'i na anticodon. madauki, kuma ta haka ƙirƙirar tsarin fassarar lambar sau uku ba tare da buƙatar ribosome ba. Wannan ƙirar tana buƙatar wani yanki mai haɗawa da lamba. [4] Takardar kimiyya da aka buga tana da wuyar gaske a cikin cewa masu haɗin gwiwarta sun haɗa da marubuta uku waɗanda suka zama masu cin lambar yabo ta Nobel da kansu. [5]

Daga nan sai Brenner ya mayar da hankali kan kafa wata cuta mai rai mai rai Caenorhabditis elegans a matsayin abin koyi don binciken ci gaban dabba ciki har da ci gaban jijiyoyi . Ya zaɓi wannan tsutsotsin ƙasa mai tsayin millimita 1 musamman saboda yana da sauƙi, yana da sauƙin girma a cikin yawan jama'a, kuma ya zama mai dacewa don nazarin kwayoyin halitta. Ɗaya daga cikin mahimman hanyoyin gano mahimman kwayoyin halittar aiki shine allon don roundworms waɗanda ke da wasu lahani na aiki, kamar rashin daidaituwa, wanda ke haifar da gano sababbin nau'o'in sunadaran, irin su saitin sunadaran UNC . Don wannan aikin, ya raba 2002 Nobel Prize a Physiology ko Medicine tare da H. Robert Horvitz da John Sulston . Taken laccar sa ta Nobel a watan Disamba na 2002, "Kyautar Halitta ga Kimiyya", girmamawa ce ga wannan nematode ; a ciki, ya yi la'akari da cewa zabar kwayoyin halitta mai kyau ya zama mahimmanci kamar magance matsalolin da suka dace don yin aiki a kai. A gaskiya ma, al'ummar C. elegans sun girma cikin sauri a cikin 'yan shekarun da suka gabata tare da masu bincike suna aiki a kan matsaloli masu yawa. [6]

Brenner ya kafa Cibiyar Kimiyyar Kwayoyin Halitta a Berkeley, California a cikin 1996. As of 2015 </link></link> yana da alaƙa da Cibiyar Salk, Cibiyar Nazarin Kwayoyin Halittu da Halittar Halitta, Majalisar Binciken Halittar Halitta ta Singapore, Cibiyar Binciken Farmakin Janelia, da Cibiyar Kiwon Lafiya ta Howard Hughes . A watan Agusta 2005, an nada Brenner shugaban Cibiyar Kimiyya da Fasaha ta Okinawa . Har ila yau, ya kasance a cikin Hukumar Gwamnonin Kimiyya a Cibiyar Nazarin Scripps, da kuma Farfesa na Genetics a can. Errol Friedberg ne ya rubuta tarihin kimiyya na Brenner a cikin Amurka, don bugawa ta Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press a 2010.

An san shi don fahimtar ilimin kimiyyar da ya shiga da kuma acerbic wit, Brenner, shekaru da yawa, ya rubuta wani shafi na yau da kullum ("Loose Ends") a cikin mujallar Halittar Halittu . Wannan shafi ya shahara sosai har "Loose ends from Current Biology", wani tarin, Current Biology Ltd ne ya buga shi. kuma ya zama abun masu tarawa. Brenner ya rubuta " Rayuwa a Kimiyya ", wani takarda da BioMed Central ya buga. Ana kuma lura da shi don karimcinsa tare da ra'ayoyi da yawan ɗalibai da abokan aiki ra'ayoyinsa sun motsa.

A cikin 2017, Brenner ya shirya jerin laccoci na seminal a Singapore wanda ke kwatanta ma'aunin logarithmic guda goma na lokaci daga Big Bang zuwa yanzu, wanda ya shafi bayyanar sifofin rayuwa masu yawa, juyin halittar ɗan adam, da bayyanar harshe, al'adu da fasaha. Mashahuran masana kimiyya da masu tunani, ciki har da W. Brian Arthur, Svante Pääbo, Helga Nowotny da Jack Szostak, sun yi magana a lokacin jerin lacca. A cikin 2018, an daidaita laccoci a cikin shahararren littafin kimiyya mai suna Sydney Brenner's 10-on-10: The Chronicles of Evolution, wanda Wildtype Books ya buga.

Brenner ya kuma bayar da laccoci guda hudu kan tarihin ilmin kwayoyin halitta, da tasirinsa a kan neuroscience da kuma manyan tambayoyin kimiyya da ke gaba. An daidaita laccoci a cikin littafin, A cikin Ruhun Kimiyya: Lectures na Sydney Brenner akan DNA, tsutsotsi da kwakwalwa .

Shirin Amurka da shirin Turai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sydney Brenner ne ya gabatar da "tsarin Amurka" da "tsarin Turai" a matsayin samfura masu gasa don yadda ƙwayoyin kwakwalwa ke tantance ayyukan jijiya. [7] [8] Bisa ga tsarin Turai (wani lokaci ana kiransa shirin Birtaniya), aikin kwayoyin halitta yana ƙaddara ta hanyar jinsin su. A cewar tsarin Amurka, aikin tantanin halitta yana ƙayyade ta aikin maƙwabtansa bayan hijirar tantanin halitta . Ci gaba da bincike ya nuna cewa yawancin jinsuna suna bin wasu haɗin waɗannan hanyoyin, ko da yake a cikin nau'i daban-daban, don canja wurin bayanai zuwa sababbin kwayoyin halitta.

Kyaututtuka da karramawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Brenner ya sami kyautuka da yawa da yawa, gami da:  

Rayuwa ta sirri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Brenner ya auri May Brenner ( née Covitz, daga baya Balkind) daga Disamba 1952 har zuwa mutuwarta a cikin Janairu 2010; [9] ya'yansu sun haɗa da Belinda, Carla, Stefan, da ɗan'uwansa Jonathan Balkind daga auren farko na matarsa da Marcus Balkind. Ya zauna a Ely, Cambridgeshire . Ya kasance wanda bai yarda da Allah ba.

Brenner ya mutu a ranar 5 ga Afrilu, 2019, a Singapore, yana da shekaru 92. [10]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Jerin sunayen Yahudawan da suka samu kyautar Nobel

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Empty citation (help)
  2. Empty citation (help)
  3. Sarabhai AS, Stretton AO, Brenner S, Bolle A. Co-linearity of the gene with the polypeptide chain. Nature. 1964 Jan 4;201:13-7. doi: 10.1038/201013a0. PMID 14085558
  4. Empty citation (help)
  5. Crick won a Nobel prize in 1962, Brenner in 2002, and Klug in 1982. However, this is not the only case. See Empty citation (help) Barton (1969), Prelog (1975) and Woodward (1965) all became Nobel winners.
  6. Empty citation (help)
  7. The Science Times Book of the Brain 1998. Edited by Nicholas Wade. The Lyons Press
  8. (Y. ed.). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named whoswho
  10. Empty citation (help)

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Soraya De Chadarevian ; Zane-zane Don Rayuwa: Kwayoyin Halitta Bayan Yaƙin Duniya na II, CUP 2002, 444 pp; 
  • Francis Crick ; Abin da Maɗaukaki Biyan: Ra'ayin Mutum na Binciken Kimiyya (Bugu na Buga Littattafai na asali, 1990) 
  • Georgina Ferry; 'Max Perutz da Sirrin Rayuwa', (Chatto & Windus 2007) 352pp,  . Don hoto mara rubutu.
  • Robert Olby ; Francis Crick: Mafarauci na Asirin Rayuwa, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, , wanda aka buga a ranar 25 ga Agusta 2009.
  • Max Perutz ; Wani Lokaci Ina Da: Zaɓaɓɓen Haruffa. , CSHL Latsa 2008, 506pp  . Don hoto mai taken.
  • Matt Ridley ; Francis Crick: Mai Gano Ka'idojin Halittar Halitta (Eminent Lives) da farko da aka buga a watan Yuni 2006 a Amurka sannan a Burtaniya Satumba 2006, ta HarperCollins Publishers; 192 shafi,  ; a cikin takarda, ta Atlas Books (tare da fihirisa),  .
  • Tarin Tarin Sydney Brenner Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Archives
  • Lewis Wolpert ; Yadda Muke Rayuwa da Me yasa Muka Mutu, Faber and Faber 2009, 240 pp; 

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:2002 Nobel Prize Winners