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Tamara Awerbuch-Friedlander

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Tamara Eugenia Awerbuch-Friedlander ƙwararren masanin ilimin halittu ne kuma masanin kimiyar lafiyar jama'a wanda ya yi aiki a Makarantar Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a ta Harvard(HSPH)a Boston, Massachusetts. Binciken ta na farko da wallafe-wallafen sun mayar da hankali kan hulɗar zamantakewar rayuwa wanda ke haifar da ko taimakawa ga cututtuka.An kuma yi imanin cewa ita ce mace ta farko da ta kasance mamba na jami'ar Harvard da ta fuskanci shari'ar juri don karar da aka shigar a kan Jami'ar Harvard don nuna bambancin jima'i.[1]

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Tamara Awerbuch a Uruguay,ta rayu har zuwa shekaru 12 a Buenos Aires, Argentina,sannan ta koma Isra'ila tare da iyayenta,inda kakaninta da iyayenta suka zauna bayan sun tsere daga Nazi Jamus kafin a fara Holocaust.Ta yi karatun digiri biyu a Jami'ar Hebrew da ke Urushalima. Ta karanci ilmin sinadarai kuma ta karanci a fannin kimiyyar halittu sannan ta kammala digirin BSc a shekarar 1965.A cikin 1967,ta kammala Master of Science (MSc)a fannin ilimin halittar jiki da kuma Jagoran Ilimi(MED)daga Jami'ar Ibrananci.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link> shedar koyar da maki K-12 a Isra'ila,inda ta ke gabatar da jawabai da kuma bayyana a kan bangarori da kuma a taron bita,kamar yadda ta yi a Amurka da sauran wurare. Ta kuma yi aikin soja na Isra’ila na tsawon shekara biyu.

A cikin Oktoba 1973,yayin da ta ziyarci abokai a Amurka,an ba ta aiki a MIT a Cambridge,Massachusetts,don yin nazarin sinadarai na carcinogens a cikin al'adun nama,sa'an nan kuma fasaha ta zamani.A wannan lokacin,ta yi aiki a cikin dakin gwaje-gwaje tana nazarin cututtukan cututtukan ƙwayar cuta a cikin al'adun nama,ta yi karatun kwas ɗaya kowane semester,kuma ta yi rayuwa cikin wahala,ta raba gida tare da ƙaramar Faculty of MIT da ɗaliban da suka kammala digiri.A matsayinta na ɗaya daga cikin kwasa-kwasan da aka ba ta a kowane semester,a cikin bazarar 1974 ta fara karatun lissafi,tana ɗaukar lissafi da ƙididdiga.A lokacin rani 1975,ta yi karatun digiri a matsayin ɗalibi na cikakken lokaci a MIT, inda a cikin 1979 ta kammala digiri na uku a fannin Abinci da Abinci.Ta zama 'yar Amurka[yaushe?]</link> kuma ya zauna a Amurka tun lokacin. An ɗauke ta a cikin 1983 zuwa Sashen Biostatistics na Makarantar Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a ta Harvard TH Chan ta Shugaban Sashen Marvin Zelen.Ta kasance masanin Fulbright a cikin 1988.A cikin 1993,ta fara doguwar aiki a Sashen Kiwon Lafiyar Duniya da Jama'a a Makarantar Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a ta Harvard TH Chan.

'Ya'yanta biyu,Danny da Ari,an haife su a cikin 1980s kuma sun girma a Brookline, Massachusetts.Tana jin Turanci, Ibrananci,da Sipaniya sosai kuma tana fahimta kuma tana karanta Jamusanci.

Ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Karatun digiri na farko a Jami'ar Hebrew a Isra'ila.
    • BSc a cikin Chemistry (ƙananan a Biochemistry)- 1965
    • MSc a cikin ilimin halittar jiki- 1967
    • MED-Ilimi (wanda aka tabbatar don koyar da K-12)-1967
  • PhD,MIT,Sashen Gina Jiki da Kimiyyar Abinci,Manyan a Metabolism,1979
    • Rubuce-rubuce:"Bioassay na watsawa don ƙididdige ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun mutagenicity na ƙwayoyin cuta na sinadarai"(binciken ka'idar don tantance amintattun ƙididdiga na abubuwan ƙari na abinci:carcinogenesis)
  • Postdoc,MIT,a cikin Somatic Cell Genetics 1979-1981

Sana'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tun daga farkon 2000s, ta shirya da gudanar da bincike kan yanayin da ke haifar da bullowa, kiyayewa, da yaduwar annoba . Binciken ta ya ƙunshi cututtukan da ake ɗauka ta hanyar jima'i (STDs) irin su HIV/AIDS, da cututtukan da ke haifar da ƙwayoyin cuta, irin su cutar Lyme, dengue, da cutar Zika da zazzabin Zika . Awerbuch-Friedlander kwanan nan yayi bincike akan yadawa da sarrafa rabies dangane da nazarin tarihin muhalli. Ayyukanta na tsaka-tsaki ne, kuma wasu daga cikin wallafe-wallafenta an haɗa su tare da masana kimiyya na duniya da membobin sassa daban-daban na HSPH da Cibiyar Fasaha ta Massachusetts .

Wasu nau'ikan ƙididdiga na lissafinta sun haifar da ainihin binciken cututtukan cututtuka, alal misali, cewa oscillations wani abu ne na zahiri na haɓakar kaska . Ta gabatar da aikinta a yawancin tarurrukan kasa da kasa da kuma Cibiyar Kimiyyar Lissafi ta Isaac Newton a Cambridge, Ingila, inda aka gayyace ta don shiga cikin Shirin a kan Model na annoba.

Awerbuch-Friedlander memba ne wanda ya kafa Sabbin kuma Resurgent Cututtuka Masu Aiki. [2] A cikin wannan mahallin, ta shiga cikin shirya wani taro a Woods Hole, Massachusetts, game da bullowar cututtuka da sake dawowa, inda ta jagoranci taron bita akan Modelin Lissafi. Bugu da ƙari, ta kafa haɗin gwiwar kasa da kasa, kamar tare da masana kimiyya na Isra'ila game da cututtuka masu tasowa a Gabas ta Tsakiya, tare da masanan Cuban game da cututtuka na tsire-tsire da ci gaba da hanyoyin gabaɗaya, tare da masana kimiyya na Brazil kan haɓaka ra'ayoyi don jagorantar ingantaccen sa ido. . A cikin ƙarshen 1990s, Awerbuch-Friedlander ya kasance mai bincike a cikin wani aiki, "Me yasa Sabbin Cututtuka da Tashe-tashen hankula suka kama Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a da Mamaki da Dabarun Hana Wannan" (Gidauniyar Robert Wood Johnson ta goyi bayan). A Harvard TH Chan Makarantar Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a, Awerbuch-Friedlander ne ya jagoranci kwamitin kan Lissafi da Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a. Wasu daga cikin takardun bincikenta sun kasance sakamakon haɗin gwiwa tare da ɗalibai ta hanyar karatun Mathematical Models a Biology, wanda ke da kaso mai yawa da aka sadaukar don cututtuka masu yaduwa. Haƙiƙa tana sha'awar ilimin kiwon lafiyar jama'a kuma ta ƙirƙira software na ilimi ga matasa 'yan makarantar sakandare bisa ƙira don tantance haɗarin cewa mutumin da ke da wasu halayen jima'i masu haɗari a zahiri zai kamu da cutar kanjamau. Waɗannan samfuran sun taimaka wa matasa masu haɗarin haɗari, iyaye, malamai, shugabannin kiwon lafiya na al'umma, da masu binciken lafiyar jama'a don bincika yadda canje-canjen halayen jima'i ke tasiri yuwuwar kamuwa da cutar HIV.

Gaskiya ita ce Gaba ɗaya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tamara Awerbuch-Friedlander, 2016

Awerbuch-Friedlander kuma ya jagoranci kwamitin tsarawa don bikin ranar haihuwar 85th na Richard Levins,wanda ya kafa shirin Human Ecology a cikin Ma'aikatar Lafiya ta Duniya da Yawan Jama'a na Makarantar Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a ta Harvard,taron kwana uku tare da taken Hegelian."Gaskiya ita ce duka"da aka gudanar a tsakiyar 2015 a Makarantar Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a ta Harvard,tana mai da hankali kan gudummawar da yawa a cikin samfuran ka'idar rikitarwa da cikakken bincike daga masanin ilimin lissafi Levins da abokan aikinsa,ɗalibai,da almajirai,waɗanda ke da sha'awar sosai.a cikin hadadden tsarin ilmin halitta.Littafin watan Satumba na 2018,Gaskiya Ita Ce Duka: Rubuce-rubucen Girmamawa na Richard Levins (ISBN 0998889105/9780998889108),wanda ta kasance editan hadin gwiwa tare da Maynard Clark da Dr.Peter Taylor,ya hada da sassan shari'ar daga masu ba da gudummawa sama da 20 daga cewa Harvard symposium.

Cin zarafin jima'i a kan Harvard[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ko da yake Theda Skocpol ta yi zargin nuna bambanci tsakanin jinsi a cikin ƙin yin aiki tun a farkon 1980,Awerbuch-Friedlander an yi imanin ita ce mace ta farko ta Jami'ar Harvard da ta shigar da kara a kan Jami'ar Harvard don nuna bambancin jima'i. [3]An shigar da karar tare da Kotun Koli ta Middlesex County a watan Yuni 1997.[4] Magoya bayanta,Richard Levins da Marvin Zelen, sun kwadaitar da Awerbuch-Friedlander "kusan dala miliyan 1 a cikin asarar albashi da fa'idodi,da kuma ci gaba a HSPH"kuma ta yi jayayya"cewa Fineberg ya ki ya inganta ta zuwa matsayi.waƙa saboda ita mace ce,duk da kyakkyawan shawarar da kwamitin zaɓe na HSPH na nadi da sake nadawa (SCARP)ya bayar."[5]Tsawon lokaci daga 1998 zuwa 2007,Harvard Crimson(kafofin watsa labarai na harabar),The Boston Globe(kafofin watsa labarai na gida),da mujallar Kimiyya(kafofin watsa labaru na kwararru da na kimiyya)sun rufe shari'ar nuna wariyar jinsi.Kimiyya ta tattara abubuwan ci gaban shari'ar nuna wariya ta jima'i a cikin"Labaran Makon:Mata a Kimiyya" sashe.[6]kuma a cikin KIMIYYAR KIMIYYA bayan wata biyu.[7]Shari'arta ta nuna wariya ta jima'i ta dogara ne kan hanawar da Harvard ta yi mata,duk da manyan nasarorin da ta samu a fannonin ƙwararrunta,ilimin halittu,ilimin cututtuka, ilimin halittu da lafiyar jama'a.Jami’ar ta yi zargin cewa,ba a bude wuraren wa’adi na wa’adi ba a sabon sashen nata,bayan an canza mata aiki daga wannan sashen zuwa wancan.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>

Fitattun ɗalibai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Christl Donnelly and Wendy Leisenring.Worked on the comparison of transmission rates of HIV1 and HIV2 in a cohort of prostitutes in Senegal 1990–1991. Publication:Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 55:731-743,1993.
  • Sandro Galea-Variability and vulnerability at the ecological level: Implications for understanding the social determinants of health. Spring 2000.Appeared in American Journal of Public Health,92:1768-1772,2002.

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]