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Theravada

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Theravada
Classification

Theravāda (/ˌtɛrəˈvɑːdə/) (Sinhala, Burmese, Thai, Khme, Lao, Pali , lit.' Makarantar Dattawa' ita ce sunan da aka fi yarda da ita na tsohuwar makarantar addinin Buddha. Mabiyan makarantar, waɗanda ake kira Theravādins, sun adana nau'in koyarwar Gautama Buddha ko Buddha Dhamma a cikin Canon na Pāli fiye da shekaru dubu biyu.

Canon na Pāli shine cikakken littafin addinin Buddha da ya tsira a cikin yaren Indiya na gargajiya, Pāli, wanda ke aiki a matsayin yare mai tsarki na makarantar da harshen yare. [1] Ya bambanta da Mahāyāna da Vajrayāna, Theravāda ya kasance mai ra'ayin mazan jiya a cikin al'amuran rukunan (pariyatti) da kuma horo na monastic (vinaya). [2] Ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan wannan ra'ayin mazan jiya shine gaskiyar cewa Theravāda ya ƙi sahihancin Mahayana sutras (wanda ya bayyana daga karni na 1 KZ zuwa gaba). [3] [4]

Theravāda na zamani ya samo asali ne daga tsarin Mahāvihāra, reshe na Sri Lanka na al'adar Vibhajjavāda, wanda shine, bi da bi, ƙungiyar Sthavira Nikaya ta Indiya. Wannan al'adar ta fara kafa kanta a Sri Lanka tun daga karni na 3 KZ. A Sri Lanka ne aka rubuta Pāli Canon kuma aka haɓaka littattafan sharhin makarantar. Daga Sri Lanka, al'adar Theravāda Mahāvihāra daga baya ta bazu zuwa sauran kudu maso gabashin Asiya. Addini ne na hukuma na Sri Lanka, Myanmar da Cambodia, kuma mafi rinjayen addini a Laos da Tailandia kuma wasu tsiraru ne ke yi a Indiya, Bangladesh, China, Nepal, Koriya ta Arewa da Vietnam. Kasashen waje na duka wadannan kungiyoyi, da wadanda suka tuba a duniya, su ma sun rungumi addinin Buddah na Theravada.

A lokacin modern era, sababbin abubuwan da suka faru sun haɗa da addinin Buddha na zamani, motsi na Vipassana wanda ya ƙarfafa aikin tunani na Theravāda, haɓakar al'adun gandun daji na Thai wanda ya sake jaddada monasticism na gandun daji da yaduwar Theravāda zuwa yamma zuwa wurare irin su Indiya da Nepal. tare da 'yan gudun hijira na addinin Buddah da tuba a cikin Tarayyar Turai da Amurka.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Pre-Modern[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Thuparamaya Stupa, farkon stupa bayan Theravada Buddha ya zama addini na hukuma a Sri Lanka, tun daga zamanin Sarki Devanampiya Tissa (247-207 KZ).
Ruwaniwelisaya stupa, wanda Sarkin Sri Lankan Dutugemunu ya gina (a shekara ta 140 K.Z.) ).

Makarantar Theravāda ta fito ne daga Vibhajjavāda, wani yanki a cikin Stāvira nikāya, ɗaya daga cikin manyan umarni guda biyu da suka taso bayan schism na farko a cikin al'ummar Buddhist Indiya. [5] [6] Majiyoyin Theravāda sun bibiyi al'adarsu zuwa majalisa ta Buddhist ta uku lokacin da aka ce dattijo Moggaliputta-Tissa ya tattara Kathavatthu, wani muhimmin aiki da ke shimfida matsayin koyarwar Vibhajjavāda. [7]

Taimakon sarakunan Mauryan kamar Ashoka, wannan makaranta ta bazu ko'ina cikin Indiya kuma ta isa Sri Lanka ta hanyar ƙoƙarin sufaye na mishan kamar Mahinda. A Sri Lanka, an san shi da Tambapaṇṇiya (kuma daga baya a matsayin Mahāvihāravāsins) wanda ya kasance a Babban Vihara (Mahavihara) a Anuradhapura (tsohon babban birnin Sri Lanka). [8] A cewar majiyoyin Theravāda, an kuma aika wani ɗaya daga cikin ayyukan Ashokan zuwa <i id="mwjg">Suvaṇṇabhūmi</i> ("The golden land"), wanda ke iya nufin kudu maso gabashin Asiya. [9]

A ƙarni na farko KZ, addinin Buddha Theravāda ya kafu sosai a cikin manyan ƙauyuka na Masarautar Anuradhapura. [10] Pali Canon, wanda ya ƙunshi manyan nassosi na Theravada, an ƙaddamar da shi don yin rubutu a ƙarni na farko KZ. [11] A cikin tarihin zamanin da da na Sri Lanka, Theravāda shine babban addini na mutanen Sinhalese kuma haikalinsa da gidajen ibada sun kasance masu kula da sarakunan Sri Lanka, waɗanda suka dauki kansu a matsayin masu kare addini. [12]


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Farantin Zinare da ke ɗauke da gutsuttsura na Pali Tipitaka (ƙarni na 5) da aka samu a Maunggan (ƙauye kusa da birnin Sriksetra ).
Bagan, babban birnin masarautar Bagan. Tsakanin ƙarni na 11 zuwa na 13, an gina haikali sama da 10,000, pagodas da gidajen ibada a cikin filayen Bagan.
  1. Crosby, Kate (2013), Theravada Buddhism: Continuity, Diversity, and Identity, p. 2.
  2. Gombrich, Richard (2006), Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo, Routledge; 2nd edition, p. 37.
  3. Hay, Jeff (2009). "World Religions" p. 189. Greenhaven Publishing LLC.
  4. Buswell, Robert E (2004). Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (2004), p. 293.
  5. Skilton, Andrew (2004). A Concise History of Buddhism. pp. 49, 64.
  6. Cousins, Lance (2001). "On the Vibhajjavādins" Error in Webarchive template: Empty url., Buddhist Studies Review 18 (2), 131–182.
  7. Berkwitz, Stephen C. (2012). South Asian Buddhism: A Survey, Routledge, pp. 44-45.
  8. Tambiah, Stanley Jeyaraja, The Buddhist Saints of the Forest and the Cult of Amulets (Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology), 1984, pp. 53, 58.
  9. Mahavamsa: The great chronicle of Ceylon tr. Wilhelm Geiger. Pali Text Society, 1912, pp. 82, 86.
  10. De Silva, K. M. (2005), pp. 9-12.
  11. Gombrich, Richard (2006), Theravada Buddhism, a social history from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo, p. 152. Routledge.
  12. Bandaranayake, S.D. Sinhalese Monastic Architecture: The Viháras of Anurádhapura, p. 25.