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Thomas Aquinas

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Thomas Aquinas
Farfesa

Rayuwa
Haihuwa Roccasecca (en) Fassara, 1225 (Gregorian)
Mazauni Aquino (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Fossanova Abbey (en) Fassara, 7 ga Maris, 1274
Makwanci Church of the Jacobins (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Landulphe d'Aquino
Abokiyar zama Not married
Karatu
Makaranta University of Naples Federico II (en) Fassara
(1239 - 1245)
University of Paris (en) Fassara
(1245 - 1248)
Harsuna Medieval Latin (en) Fassara
Medieval Italian (en) Fassara
Harshen Latin
Malamai Albertus Magnus (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a Malamin akida, Farfesa, Latin Catholic priest (en) Fassara, mai falsafa, marubuci, Catholic theologian (en) Fassara da friar (en) Fassara
Employers University of Paris (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Summa Theologica (en) Fassara
Summa contra Gentiles (en) Fassara
De regimine principum (en) Fassara
Quinque viae (en) Fassara
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Boethius (en) Fassara, Moshe ben Maimon (en) Fassara, Cicero, Al-Kindi (en) Fassara, Johannes Scotus Eriugena (en) Fassara, Ibn Rushd, Anselm of Canterbury (en) Fassara, Albertus Magnus (en) Fassara, Ibn Sina, Augustine na Hippo, Plato, Aristotle, Bulus Manzo, Al-Ghazali da Gregory I (en) Fassara
Fafutuka Thomism (en) Fassara
just war theory (en) Fassara
scholasticism (en) Fassara
Feast
January 28 (en) Fassara, March 7 (en) Fassara da Katolika
Imani
Addini Katolika
Dokar addini Dominican Order (en) Fassara

Thomas Aquinas, OP (/ˈkwaɪnəs/; Italian: ' Thoma na Aquino' ; 1225- 7 Maris 1274) ɗan Italiya ne [1] [2] Dominican friar kuma firist wanda ya kasance babban masanin falsafa, masanin tauhidi da fikihu a cikin al'adar scholasticism; An san shi a cikin al'ada kamar Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Communis, da kuma Doctor Universalis. [lower-alpha 1] Sunan Aquinas yana gano asalin asalin kakanninsa a cikin gundumar Aquino a Lazio, Italiya ta yau. Daga cikin wasu abubuwa, ya kasance fitaccen mai goyon bayan tiyoloji na halitta kuma uban mazhabar tunani (wanda ya hada da tiyoloji da falsafa) wanda aka fi sani da Thomism. Ya yi gardama cewa Allah shine tushen dukkan hasken hankali na halitta da kuma hasken imani. An bayyana shi a matsayin "mafi tasiri mai tunani na lokacin tsakiyar zamanai" [3] da kuma "babban masanin falsafa na tsakiya-malaman tauhidi". [4] Tasirinsa a kan tunanin Yamma yana da yawa, kuma yawancin falsafancin zamani ya samo asali ne daga ra'ayoyinsa, musamman a fannin ɗabi'a, ka'idodin halitta, metaphysics, da ka'idar siyasa. Ba kamar yawancin igiyoyin ruwa a cikin Cocin Katolika na lokacin ba, Thomas ya rungumi ra'ayoyi da yawa da Aristotle ya gabatar dashi wanda ya kira "Mai Falsafa" kuma ya yi ƙoƙari ya haɗa falsafar Aristotelian tare da ka'idodin Kiristanci.

Ayyukansa mafi sanannun su ne Tambayoyi masu jayayya akan Gaskiya (1256-1259), Summa contra Gentiles (1259-1265), da kuma wanda ba a gama ba amma mai tasiri Summa Theologica, ko Summa Theologiae (1265-1274). Sharhinsa a kan Nassosi da kuma Aristotle su ma sun zama muhimmin sashe na jikinsa na aikinsa. Bugu da ƙari, Thomas ya bambanta don waƙoƙin eucharistic, waɗanda suka zama wani ɓangare na liturgy na coci. Cocin Katolika na girmama Thomas Aquinas a matsayin waliyyi kuma tana ɗauke da shi a matsayin malami abin koyi ga waɗanda ke karatun firist, kuma haƙiƙa mafi girman magana na dalilai na halitta da tauhidin hasashe. A zamanin yau, a ƙarƙashin umarnin Paparoma, an daɗe ana amfani da nazarin ayyukansa a matsayin jigon tsarin da ake bukata na nazari ga waɗanda suke neman naɗawa firistoci ko diakoni, da kuma waɗanda suke cikin tsarin addini da kuma ga sauran ɗalibai na tsarkakkiyar koyarwa. (falsafa, tiyolojin Katolika, tarihin coci, liturgy, da dokokin canon).

A matsayinsa na Likita na Cocin, Thomas Aquinas ana ɗaukarsa ɗaya daga cikin manyan malaman tauhidi da falsafa na cocin Katolika. Paparoma Benedict XV ya bayyana cewa: “Wannan (Domincan) Umarni ... samu sabon luster lokacin da Church ayyana koyarwar Thomas ya zama nata da kuma cewa Doctor, girmama tare da yabo musamman na, na Pontiffs, master da majiɓinci na Katolika makarantu."

Tarihin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙuruciya (1225-1244)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Thomas Aquinas a cikin katangar Roccasecca, kusa da Aquino, wanda masarautar Sicily ke sarrafata a wancan lokacin (a Lazio na yanzu, Italiya), c. 1225, A cewar wasu marubuta.  an haife shi a gidan mahaifinsa, Landulf na Aquino. An haife shi ga reshe mafi ƙarfi na iyali, kuma Landulf na Aquino mutum ne mai hali. A matsayin jarumi a hidimar Emperor Frederick II, Landulf na Aquino ya rike taken mil. [5] Mahaifiyar Thomas, Theodora, tana cikin reshen Rossi na dangin Neapolitan Caracciolo. [6] Ɗan'uwan Landulf Sinibald shi ne abbot na Monte Cassino, mafi tsufa gidan sufi na Benedictine. Yayin da sauran 'ya'yan gidan suka bi aikin soja, [7] iyalin sun yi nufin Thomas ya bi kawun nasa zuwa cikin abbacy; [8] Wannan zai kasance hanyar aiki ta al'ada ga ƙaramin ɗan kudancin Italiya.

Thomas yana da shekaru biyar ya fara karatunsa na farko a Monte Cassino, amma bayan rikicin soja tsakanin sarki Frederick II da Paparoma Gregory na IX ya zube a cikin abbey a farkon 1239, Landulf da Theodora sun sa Thomas ya shiga makarantar generale (jami'a) kwanan nan. Frederick ya kafa a Naples. [9] A can malaminsa a ilmin lissafi, lissafi, ilmin taurari, da kiɗa shine Petrus de Ibernia. [10] A nan ne wataƙila an gabatar da Thomas ga Aristotle, Averroes da Maimonides, waɗanda dukansu za su yi tasiri a falsafar tauhidinsa. [9] Har ila yau, a lokacin nazarinsa a Naples cewa Thomas ya zo ƙarƙashin rinjayar John na St. Julian, wani mai wa'azin Dominican a Naples, wanda ya kasance wani ɓangare na ƙoƙarin da Dominican Order ya yi don ɗaukar mabiyan addini. [7]

Castle na Monte San Giovanni Campano

Thomas yana ɗan shekara goma sha tara ya ƙudiri aniyar shiga tsarin Dominican, wanda aka kafa kusan shekaru 30 da suka shige. Canjin zuciyar Thomas bai yi wa iyalinsa dadi ba. [11] A yunƙurin hana kutsewar Theodora a zaɓin Thomas, Dominicans sun shirya ƙaura Thomas zuwa Roma, kuma daga Roma, zuwa Paris. [7] Duk da haka, yayin da yake tafiya zuwa Roma, bisa ga umarnin Theodora, 'yan'uwansa sun kama shi yayin da yake shan ruwa daga wani tafki kuma suka mayar da shi zuwa ga iyayensa a gidan Monte San Giovanni Campano. [7]

An tsare Thomas kusan shekara guda a gidan kaso na iyali a Monte San Giovanni da Roccasecca a yunƙurin hana shi ɗaukar ɗabi'ar Dominican da kuma tura shi ya daina sabon burinsa. [9] Damuwar siyasa ta hana Paparoma yin odar a saki Thomas, wanda ke da tasirin tsawaita tsare Thomas. [7] Thomas ya wuce wannan lokacin gwaji yana horar da 'yan uwansa mata da kuma sadarwa tare da membobin Dominican Order. [9]

Iyali sun yunƙura don su hana Thomas, wanda ya ƙudura niyyar shiga Dominicans. A wani lokaci, wasu ’yan’uwansa biyu suka ɗauki hayar karuwa don su lalata shi. Kamar yadda aka haɗa a cikin bayanan hukuma na canonization nasa, Thomas ya kore ta yana riƙe da itace mai kona-wanda ya rubuta gicciye a jikin bango da shi kuma ya faɗi cikin farin ciki na ban mamaki; Mala'iku biyu sun bayyana gare shi yana barci, suka ce, "Ga shi, mun ɗaure ka da umarnin Allah da abin ɗamara na tsafta, wanda daga yanzu ba zai taɓa lalacewa ba. Abin da ƙarfin ɗan adam ba zai iya samu ba, yanzu an ba ku kyauta ta sama”. Tun daga wannan lokacin, Christ ya ba Thomas alheri na cikakkiyar tsabta kuma ya sa ɗamara har zuwa ƙarshen rayuwarsa. An ba da abin ɗamara ga tsohon gidan sufi na Vercelli a Piedmont, kuma yanzu yana Chieri, kusa da Turin. [7]





Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Toma yana ɗaure da mala'iku da bel na sufanci na tsarki bayan tabbacinsa na tsafta. Zane ta Diego Velázquez.
  1. Conway 1911.
  2. Vaughan 1871.
  3. Wippel, John F. (1995) 2nd ed., "Aquinas, Saint Thomas," The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, Cambridge University Press. p. 36.
  4. Broadie, Alexander (1999). "Aquinas, St Thomas," The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press, p. 43.
  5. Norman Geisler, Thomas Aquinas: An Evangelical Appraisal, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2003, p. 26.
  6. Torrell 2005.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Hampden 1848.
  8. Stump 2003.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Davies 2004.
  10. Grabmann 1963.
  11. Collison, Diane, and Kathryn Plant. Fifty Major Philosophers. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2006.