Yaƙe -yaƙe Ridda

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Infotaula d'esdevenimentYaƙe -yaƙe Ridda
حروب الردة.svg
Iri yaƙi
Bangare na Nasarar Musulunci
Kwanan watan kalanda 632 –  633
Wuri Yankin Larabawa
Participant (en) Fassara

Yaƙe -yaƙe na Ridda (Larabci: حُرُوب ٱلرِّدَّة), ko Yaƙe -yaƙe Ridda, jerin yaƙe -yaƙe ne da Khalifa Abubakar ya ƙaddamar a kan kabilun Larabawa masu tawaye a lokacin 632 da 633, bayan rasuwar Annabi Muhammad.[1] 'Yan tawaye da yawa sun bi ko dai Musaylimah, Tulayha, Sajjah ko Aswad Ansi, dukkansu sun yi da'awar annabawa ne. Wasu 'yan tawayen sun ce sun mika wuya ga Muhammadu a matsayin annabin Allah, amma ba su da wani abu ga Abubakar. An ci nasara da kabilun 'yan tawaye kuma an tilasta musu komawa cikin ikon halifanci. Cikakken sake gina abubuwan da ke faruwa yana da rikitarwa ta hanyar rikice -rikice da rikice -rikicen da ake samu a tushen asali.[2]

Gabatarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A tsakiyar watan Mayu na 632, Muhammad, wanda yanzu ba shi da lafiya, ya ba da umarnin babban shiri don yaƙi da Daular Byzantine domin ɗaukar fansar shahidai na Yakin Mu'tah. Musulmai 3000 ne zasu shiga cikin ta. Usama bn Zaid, saurayi kuma ɗan Zaidu bn Harithah wanda aka kashe a yaƙi a Mu'utah, an naɗa shi kwamandan wannan runduna don ya rama mutuwar mahaifinsa.[3][4][5] Koyaya, Muhammadu ya mutu a watan Yuni 632 kuma Abubakar ya zama Khalifa ta wasu tsirarun mutane da masu mahawara a Saqifah.

A ranar farko ta halifancinsa, Abubakar ya umarci rundunar Usama da su shirya tafiya. Abu Bakr ya kasance cikin matsanancin matsin lamba game da wannan balaguron saboda tashin tawaye da ridda a duk ƙasar Arabiya, amma ya ƙuduri aniya.[6] Kafin tafiyarsa, Usama ya aika Umar zuwa ga Abubakar kuma an ce ya fada:

Ku tafi wurin Halifa, ku roƙe shi ya ba da izinin sojojin su ci gaba da zama a Madina. Duk shugabannin al'umma suna tare da ni. Idan muka tafi, ba wanda zai rage don hana kafirai yaga Madina.[7]

Sai dai Abubakar ya ki. An motsa shi zuwa wannan shawarar aƙalla wani ɓangare ta muradinsa na aiwatar da shirin soja na Muhammadu da bai cika ba.

A ranar 26 ga Yuni, 632, sojojin Usama suka yi sansani suka tashi. Bayan barin Madina, Usama ya yi tattaki zuwa Tabuk. Yawancin kabilun da ke wannan yankin sun yi tsayayya da shi ƙwarai, amma ya ci su. Usama ya kai farmaki nesa ba kusa ba a yankin Arewacin Larabawa, ya fara da Quza'a, sannan ya nufi Dawmatu l-Jandal (Al Jawf na zamani, Saudi Arabia).

Sakamakon sakamakon ayyukansa kai tsaye, kabilun 'yan tawaye da yawa sun sake mika mulkin Mediniya kuma sun yi iƙirarin cewa sun sake karɓar Musulunci. Quza'a ta ci gaba da tawaye kuma ba ta tuba, amma daga baya Amr bn al-As ya kai musu farmaki tare da tilasta musu sake mika wuya.[1]

Usama ya yi tattaki zuwa Mu'utah, inda ya kai hari kan Larabawan Kiristoci na kabilun Banu Kalb da Ghassanids a wani karamin yaki. Sannan ya koma Madina, tare da shi da yawan fursunoni da dukiya mai yawa, wanda daga cikinsu ya ƙunshi ganimar yaƙi da sashin haraji na kabilun da suka sake cin nasara. Sojojin Musulunci sun ci gaba da zama a Madina tsawon kwanaki 40.

Tsaro na Madina[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawan 'yan tawayen da ke kusa da Madina yana cikin yankuna biyu: Abraq, mil 72 zuwa arewa maso gabas, da Dhu Qissa, mil 24 zuwa gabas.[8] Waɗannan abubuwan sun ƙunshi kabilun Banu Ghatafan, Hawazin, da Tayy. Abubakar ya aike da wakilai zuwa ga dukkan kabilun abokan gaba, inda ya yi kira gare su da su kasance masu biyayya ga Musulunci da ci gaba da bayar da Zakka.

Mako daya ko biyu bayan tafiyar sojojin Usama, kabilun ‘yan tawaye sun kewaye Madina, da sanin cewa akwai rundunonin fada a cikin garin. A halin yanzu, Tulayha, mai kiran kansa annabi, ya ƙarfafa 'yan tawayen a Dhu Qissa. A cikin sati na uku na watan Yulin 632, sojojin ridda sun tashi daga Dhu Qissa zuwa Dhu Hussa, daga inda suka shirya kai farmaki kan Madina.[9] Abubakar ya sami bayanan motsin 'yan tawaye, kuma nan da nan ya shirya don kare Madina. Ibn Kathir ya rubuta cewa nan da nan Abubakar ya kafa sabuwar ƙungiyar tsaro ta al-Ḥaras wa al-Shurṭa don kare Madina.[10] An nada tsofaffin sahabbai kamar Ali ibn Abi Talib, Talha ibn Ubaidullah da Zubair ibn al-Awam a matsayin kwamandojin wadannan raka'a. Dakarun Haras wa l Shurta sun hau raƙumansu zuwa kan tudun Madina da daddare, inda suka tare dakarun farmakin kawancen ridda, har sai abokan gaba suka koma Dhu Qisha.[9][11]

Yakin Zhu Hissa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kashegari, Abu Bakr ya yi tattaki tare da babban runduna daga Madina ya nufi Dhu Hussa.[1] Da yake raƙuman sojan da ke hawa duk suna tare da rundunar Usama, zai iya tattara rakumi kawai a matsayin hawa. Waɗannan rakuman rakuman, waɗanda ba a horar da su don yaƙi ba, sun kulle lokacin da Hibal, kwamandan ridda a Zhu Hussa, ya kai hari ba zato ba tsammani daga tsaunuka; a sakamakon haka, Musulmai ba za su iya sarrafa Rakuman da ba su da horo ba kuma sun yanke shawarar komawa Madina, kuma 'yan ridda sun sake kwato wuraren da suka rasa' yan kwanaki da suka gabata. A Madina, Abubakar ya sake shirya rundunar don yaƙi kuma ya kai hari ga masu ridda a cikin dare, ya ba su mamaki. 'Yan ridda sun ja da baya daga Dhu Hussa zuwa Dhu Qissa. Kabilun da suka yi ridda sun koma Abraq, inda aka tara ƙarin dangin Ghatfan, Hawazin, da Tayy. Abubakar ya bar ragowar runduna karkashin jagorancin An-Numan ibn Muqarrin a Dhu Qissa sannan ya dawo tare da babban rundunarsa zuwa Madina.[9]

Yakin Abraq[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 4 ga Agustan 632, rundunar Usama ta koma Madina. Abubakar ya umarci Usama da ya huta ya sake tura mutanensa wurin don gudanar da ayyuka nan gaba. A halin yanzu, a sati na biyu na watan Agustan 632, Abubakar ya tura rundunarsa zuwa Zhu Qissa. Haɗin ragowar rundunonin An-Numan ibn Muqarrin da nasa, sai Abubakar ya koma Abraq, inda 'yan tawayen da suka ja da baya suka taru. Washegari da safe, Abubakar ya jagoranci rundunarsa zuwa Dhu Qissa, tare da shi kansa Abubakar ya jagoranci cibiyar, yayin da Al-Nu'uman ibn Muqrin ke hawa a gefen dama, Abdullah ibn Muqrin a gefen hagu, da Suwaid ibn Muqrin matsayi a baya. Dakarun Madina sun yi nasarar fatattakar kabilun 'yan tawaye, inda suka kame Dhu Qissa a ranar 1 ga watan Agustan 632. Sauran' yan tawayen sun koma Buzakha, inda Tulayha ya tashi tare da sojojinsa daga Samira.[9]

Dabarun Abubakar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin mako na huɗu na watan Agustan 632, Abubakar ya koma Zhu Qissa tare da duk rundunonin yaƙi. A can ya tsara dabarar sa, a cikin abin da daga baya za a kira Yaƙin Ridda, don magance maƙiya daban -daban waɗanda suka mamaye sauran Arabia.[8] Yaƙe -yaƙen da ya yi kwanan nan kan munanan ridda a Zhu Qissa da Abraq sun kasance a cikin yanayin ayyukan kariya don kare Madina da kuma hana ƙarin farmakin abokan gaba. Waɗannan ayyukan sun ba Abubakar damar samun tushe daga inda zai iya yaƙar babban yaƙin da ke gaba, don haka ya sami lokaci don shiri da ƙaddamar da manyan rundunoninsa.

Dole ne Abubakar ya yi yaƙi ba ɗaya ba amma abokan gaba da yawa: Tulayha a Buzakha, Malik bin Nuwaira a Butah, da Musaylima a Yamamah. Dole ne ya magance ridda mai yawa a gabas da kudancin Larabawa: a Bahrain, a Oman, a Mahra, a Hadhramaut da Yemen. An yi ridda a yankin kudu da gabashin Makka da Quza'a a arewacin Arabiya.

Abubakar ya kafa runduna zuwa rukunoni da dama, wanda Khalid ibn Walid ya ba da umarni mafi karfi kuma aka ba shi aikin yakar mafi karfin sojojin 'yan tawaye. An ba wa wasu gungun wuraren muhimman wurare na biyu waɗanda za su mamaye ƙananan kabilun ridda masu ƙarancin haɗari, kuma an tura su bayan Khalid, sakamakon sakamakon ayyukansa. Shirin Abu Bakr shi ne ya fara share yankin yammacin Arabiya (yankin da ke kusa da Madina), sannan ya tunkari Malik bin Nuwaira, daga karshe ya mai da hankali kan maƙiyi mafi haɗari da ƙarfi: annabin Musaylima mai kiran kansa.

Ƙungiyar soja[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Halifa ya rarraba karfin da ake da shi a tsakanin manyan runduna 11, kowanne a karkashin kwamandansa, kuma yana dauke da mizaninsa. An rarraba ikon da ake samu tsakanin waɗannan rukunin, kuma yayin da aka ba wasu kwamandojin ayyukan gaggawa, wasu kuma an ba su ayyukan da za a ƙaddamar daga baya. Kwamandojin da manufofin da aka ba su sune:

  • Khalid Ibn Walid: Ya yi gaba da Tulaiha bin Khuwailad Al-Asdee (طُلیحہ بن خویلد الاسدی) daga Qabilar Asad (بنو اسد) a Buzaakhah (بزاخہ), sannan Banu Sulaim.
  • Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl: Ganawa da Musaylima a Yamamah amma ba don shiga ba har sai an sami ƙarin runduna.
  • Amr ibn al-As: Kabilun ridda na Quza'a da Wadi'a a yankin Tabuk da Daumat-ul-Jandal.
  • Shurahbil ibn Hasana: Ku bi Ikrimah ku jira umarnin Halifa.
  • Khalid bin Saeed: Wasu kabilun da suka yi ridda a kan iyakar Sham.
  • Turaifa bin Hajiz: Kabilun Hawazin da Bani Sulaim da suka yi ridda a yankin gabashin Madina da Makka.
  • Ala bin Al Hadhrami: Masu ridda a Bahrain.
  • Huzaifa bin Mihsan: Masu ridda a Oman.
  • Arfaja bin Harthama .: Masu ridda a Mahra.
  • Muhajir bin Abi Umayyah: Masu ridda a Yemen,[12][13] sai Kinda a Hadhramaut.
  • Suwaid bin Muqaran: Masu ridda a yankin gabar teku a arewacin Yemen.

Da zaran an kammala aikin yi wa kasa hidima, Khalid ya fita, don Ikrimah da Amr bn al-As su biyo baya kadan. Halifan ya hana sauran gungun kuma ya tura makonni da ma watanni bayan haka, bisa ga ci gaban ayyukan Khalid a kan babban maƙiyan adawa.[1]

Kafin gawarwaki daban -daban su bar Zhu Qissa, duk da haka, Abubakar ya aike da wakilai zuwa ga dukkan kabilun da suka yi ridda a yunƙurin ƙarshe na jawo su su miƙa wuya.

Gangamin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsakiyar Arabia[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Musaylima, mai kiran kansa annabi, ya jagoranci ridda da tawaye a tsakiyar Arabia a yankin Yamamah mai haihuwa. Mafi rinjaye ya goyi bayan ƙabilar Banu Hanifa mai ƙarfi. A Buzakha da ke tsakiyar tsakiyar Larabawa, wani mai kiran kansa annabi, Tulayha, sarkin kabilar Banu Asad, shi ne ya jagoranci tawayen Madina da taimakon kabilun Banu Ghatafan, Hawazin, da Tayy.[14]

Buzakha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan samun bayanan shirye -shiryen Musulmi, Tulayha shi ma ya shirya yaƙi, kuma ƙungiyoyin kabilun da ke ƙawance sun ƙara ƙarfafa shi.

Kafin ya tura Khalid a kan Tulayha, Abubakar ya nemi ya rage ƙarfin na ƙarshen. Babu abin da za a iya yi game da kabilun Bani Assad da Banu Ghatafan, waɗanda suka tsaya kyam a bayan Tulayha, amma Tayy ba su da tsayin daka wajen goyon bayan Tulayha, kuma babbansu, Adi ibn Hatim, Musulmi ne mai ibada.

Abu Bakr ne ya nada Adi don tattaunawa da dattawan kabilun don janye tawagarsu daga rundunar Tulayha. Tattaunawar ta yi nasara, Adi ya zo da mahayan dawakai 500 na kabilarsa don ƙarfafa sojojin Khalid.

Daga baya Khalid ya yi yaƙi da wata kabila mai ridda, Jadila. Anan kuma Adi ibn Hatim ya miƙa hidimominsa don shawo kan ƙabilar su miƙa kai ba tare da zubar da jini ba. Bani Jadila yayi sallama, sannan jarumansu 1000 suka shiga rundunar Khalid.

Khalid, yanzu ya fi ƙarfin lokacin da ya bar Zhu Qissa, ya nufi Buzakha. A can, a tsakiyar watan Satumba na 632 AZ, ya ci Tulayha a Yaƙin Buzakha. Ragowar sojojin Tulayha sun koma Ghamra, mil 20 daga Buzakha, kuma an ci su a Yakin Ghamra a sati na uku na Satumba.

Kabilu da dama sun mika wuya ga Halifa bayan nasarorin da Khalid ya samu. Da yake tafiya kudu daga Buzakha, Khalid ya isa Naqra a watan Oktoba, da runduna yanzu 6000 mai karfi, kuma ya ci nasara akan kabilar Banu Saleem masu tawaye a yakin Naqra. A cikin sati na uku na watan Oktoba, Khalid ya ci nasara a kan wata yar sarauniya, Salma, a yakin Zafar. Bayan haka ya koma Najd a kan kabilar Banu Tamim masu tawaye da Sheikh Malik ibn Nuwayrah.

Najd[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Najd, da samun labarin manyan nasarorin da Khalid ya samu a kan masu ridda a Buzakha, yawancin dangin Banu Tamim sun yi gaggawar ziyartar Khalid, amma Bani Yarbu ', reshen Bani Tamim, a ƙarƙashin babbansu, Malik ibn Nuwayrah, ya tsaya. Malik ya kasance shugaban wasu banbanci: jarumi, wanda aka san shi da karamci, kuma shahararren mawaƙi. Jaruntaka, karimci, da waƙoƙi sune halaye uku da aka fi jin daɗinsu a tsakanin Larabawa.

Taswira mai cikakken bayani kan hanyar da Khalid ibn Walid ya ci Arabia.

A lokacin Muhammadu, an naɗa shi a matsayin mai karɓar haraji ga ƙabilar Banu Tamim. Da zaran Malik ya ji labarin rasuwar Muhammadu, sai ya mayar wa mutanen kabilunsa dukkan harajin, ya ce, "Yanzu kai ne mai dukiyarka."[15] Yawancin malamai sun yarda cewa yana bin ƙa'idodin Larabawa na zamaninsa wanda za su iya daina yin mubaya'a ga wata ƙabila bayan mutuwar Sheikhinta.

Sojojin Khalid ne suka tare mahayan nasa a garin Buttah. Khalid ya tambaye su game da yarjejeniyar da suka rattabawa hannu tare da mai kiran kanta annabiya Sajjah; sun amsa cewa don ramuwar gayya ne kawai a kan abokan gabansu.[16]

Lokacin da Khalid ya isa Najd bai sami sojoji masu adawa ba. Ya aika da mahayan dawakansa zuwa ƙauyukan da ke kusa kuma ya umarce su da su kira Azaan (kiran sallah) ga kowane ɓangaren da suka haɗu. Zirrar bin Azwar, jagoran tawagar, ya cafke iyalan Malik, yana mai cewa ba su amsa kiran sallah ba. Malik ya guji hulɗa kai tsaye da sojojin Khalid kuma ya umarci mabiyansa da su watse, kuma da alama shi da danginsa sun ƙaura zuwa hamada.[17] Ya ki bayar da zakka, ya banbanta tsakanin sallah da zakka.

Koyaya, an zargi Malik da tawaye ga jihar Madina. Hakanan za a tuhume shi saboda shiga kawance da Sajjah a kan Khalifanci.[18] An kama Malik tare da na danginsa.[19]

Khalid ya tambayi Malik game da laifukan da ya aikata, ya amsa, "maigidanku ya faɗi haka, maigidanku ya faɗi haka", yana nufin Muhammad. Khalid ya ayyana Malik dan tawaye ne kuma ya ba da umarnin kashe shi.[20]

Yamamah[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl, daya daga cikin kwamandojin masu yi wa kasa hidima, an umurce shi da ya tuntubi Musaylima a Yamamah, amma kada ya shiga har sai Khalid ya shiga tare da shi. Manufar Abu Bakr na bai wa Ikrimah wannan aikin shi ne ya daure Musaylima a Yamamah, ta yadda ya 'yantar da Khalid don ya yi hulɗa da kabilun ridda na arewa ta tsakiya Arabiya ba tare da tsangwama ba.

A halin da ake ciki, Abubakar ya aika da gawar Shurhabil don ƙarfafa Ikrimah a Yamamah. Ikrimah, duk da haka, a farkon watan Satumba na 632, ya kai hari kan sojojin Musaylima kafin ƙarfafawa ta iso, kuma aka ci su. Ya ba da rahoton abin da ya aikata ga Abubakar, wanda duk ya ji haushi kuma ya fusata da saurin Ikrimah da rashin biyayyarsa, ya umarce shi da ya ci gaba da ƙarfinsa zuwa Oman don taimakawa Hudaifa; da zarar Hudaifa ya kammala aikinsa, zai yi tattaki zuwa Mahra don taimakawa Arfaja, daga baya ya tafi Yemen don taimakawa Muhajir.[21]

A halin da ake ciki, Abubakar ya aika da umarni ga Khalid don yin yaƙi da Musaylima. Gawar Shurhabil, wadda aka jibge a Yamamah, ita ce za ta karfafa gawar Khalid. Baya ga wannan Abu Bakr ya tara sabbin rundunonin Ansar da Muhajireen a Madina wadanda suka shiga gawar Khalid a Butah kafin rundunar hadin gwiwa ta tashi zuwa Yamamah.

Kodayake Abu Bakr ya umarci Shurhabil da kada ya shiga rundunar Musaylima har zuwa lokacin Khalid, Shurhabil ya shiga rundunar Musaylima ta wata hanya kuma an ci shi ma. Khalid ya haɗu da ragowar gawar Shurhabil a farkon watan Disamba na 632.

Hadin gwiwar Musulmai, wanda yanzu 13,000 suke da karfi, a karshe sun ci sojojin Musaylima a yakin Yamama, wanda aka yi a mako na uku na Disamba. Garin Yamamah mai garu ya mika kansa cikin lumana a cikin wancan makon.[21]

Khalid ya kafa hedkwatarsa ​​a Yamamah, daga inda ya aika ginshiƙai a ko'ina cikin filin Aqraba don mamaye yankin kusa da Yamamah. Bayan haka, duk tsakiyar Arabiya sun miƙa wuya ga Madina.

Abin da ya rage na ridda a yankunan Arabia da ba su da mahimmanci na Musulmai sun kawar da su a cikin jerin shirye-shiryen da aka tsara cikin watanni biyar.

Oman[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A tsakiyar watan Satumba na 632, Abu Bakr ya aike da gawar Hudaifa bin Mihsan don magance ridda a Oman, inda babbar kabilar Azd ta yi tawaye a karkashin babbansu Laqeet bin Malik, wanda aka fi sani da "Dhu'l-Taj" ("Mai Girma Daya"). A cewar wasu rahotanni, ya kuma yi da'awar Annabci.[22]

Hudaifa ya shiga Oman, amma ba shi da isasshen ƙarfi don yaƙar Dhu'l-Taj, ya nemi ƙarfafawa daga Halifa, wanda ya aiko Ikrimah daga Yamamah don taimaka masa a ƙarshen Satumba. Sojojin haɗin gwiwar sun ci Dhu'l-Taj a yaƙin da aka yi a Dibba, ɗaya daga cikin garuruwan Dhu'l-Taj, a watan Nuwamba. Shi kansa Dhu'l-Taj an kashe shi a yakin.[23]

An nada Hudaifa gwamnan Oman, kuma ya himmatu game da sake kafa doka da oda. Ikrimah, ba shi da wani alhakin gudanarwa na gida, ya yi amfani da gawarsa don mamaye yankin da ke kusa da Daba, kuma, a cikin wasu ƙananan ayyuka, ya yi nasarar karya juriya na waɗanda Azd waɗanda suka ci gaba da bijirewa ikon Madina.[1]

Arewancin Arabiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani lokaci a watan Oktoba na 632, an tura gawar Amr zuwa iyakar Siriya don cin nasara ga kabilun da suka yi ridda-mafi mahimmanci, Quza'a da Wadi'a (wani ɓangare na Bani Kalb)-a yankin kusa da Tabuk da Daumat- ul-Jandal (Al-Jawf). Amr bai sami damar doke kabilun cikin biyayya ba har sai Shurhabil ya haɗu da shi a cikin Janairu bayan Yaƙin Yamamah.

Yemen[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yaman ita ce lardin farko da ta yi tawaye ga ikon Musulunci lokacin da kabilar Ans suka tashi da makamai karkashin jagorancin shugabansu kuma mai kiran kansa annabi Al-Aswad Al-Ansi, Black One. Al-Abna 'ne ke iko da Yemen a lokacin, wata ƙungiya ta fito daga sansanin Farisa na Sanaa. Lokacin da Badhan ya mutu, ɗansa Shahr ya zama gwamnan Yemen amma Al-Aswad ya kashe shi. Fayruz al-Daylami, wanda shi ma memba ne na abna ', wanda Muhammad ya aiko shi, daga baya Fairoz ya zama gwamnan Yaman a San'a daga baya ya kashe Al-Aswad.[8][24]

Tawaye na biyu na Yemen[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani lokacin a lokacin mulkin Umar mutanen Yemen sun sake yin tawaye. wannan karon karkashin jagorancin wani mutum mai suna Ghayth ibn Abd Yaghuth. Manufar masu ridda ita ce fitar da Musulmai daga Yaman ta hanyar kashe Fairoz da wasu manyan shugabannin Musulmai. Ko ta yaya Fairoz ya tsere ya nemi mafaka a cikin tsaunuka a watan Yuni ko Yuli na 632. Tsawon watanni shida masu zuwa Fairoz ya ci gaba da kasancewa a cikin mafakarsa, lokacin da dubunnan Musulman Yemen suka haɗa shi.[20]

Lokacin da ya ji ƙarfinsa, Fairoz ya yi tattaki zuwa San'a ya ci Qais, wanda ya ja da baya tare da ragowar mutanen arewa maso gabas zuwa Abyan, inda dukkansu suka mika wuya sannan daga baya halifa ya yi musu afuwa.[8]

A gefe guda kuma, Sayyiduna Uthman bn Abi al-As ya aika da runduna daga Ta'if akan 'yan tawayen daga kabilun Azd da Bajila a Yemen. Daga baya kuma ya ba da gudummawar runduna ashirin daga birnin a ƙarƙashin jagorancin ɗan'uwansa don taimakawa ayyukan yaƙin Madina a Yemen. Abubakar ya ajiye Uthman a matsayinsa kamar yadda halifansa halifa Umar ya yi.[13]

Mahra[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daga Oman, bisa umarnin Abubakar, Ikrimah ya nufi Mahra don shiga Arfaja bin Harthama. Da yake Arfaja bai iso ba tukuna, Ikrimah maimakon ta jira shi, sai ya tunkari 'yan tawayen yankin da kansa.

A Jairut, Ikrimah ya sadu da rundunonin 'yan tawaye guda biyu suna shirin yaƙi. Anan ya lallashe masu rauni su rungumi addinin musulunci sannan ya haɗa kai da su don kayar da abokan adawar su. Da ya sake kafa Musulunci a Mahra, Ikrimah ya tafi da gawarsa zuwa Abyan, inda ya huta da mutanensa yana jiran ci gaba.

Bahrain[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan yakin Yamamah, Abubakar ya aika da gawar Ala bin Al Hadhrami akan 'yan tawayen Bahrain. Ala ya isa Bahrain don nemo sojojin ridda da suka taru a Hajr sun shiga cikin karfi. Ala ya kai hari na bazata wata dare kuma ya ƙwace birnin. 'Yan tawayen sun koma yankunan da ke gabar teku, inda suka kara tsayawa amma aka ci su da karfi. Yawancin su sun mika wuya kuma sun koma addinin Musulunci. An kammala wannan aikin a kusan ƙarshen Janairu 633.

Hadhramaut[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙarshen babban tawayen ridda shine na ƙabila mai ƙarfi ta Kindah, wacce ke zaune a yankin Najran, Hadhramaut, da gabashin Yemen. Ba su shiga cikin tawaye ba har zuwa Janairu 633.[20]

Ziyad bin Lubaid, gwamnan Hadhramaut Musulmi, ya yi musu farmaki kuma ya kai wa Riyaz hari, bayan nan gaba dayan Kinda suka shiga tawaye karkashin al-Ash'ath ibn Qays kuma suka shirya yaki. Koyaya, ƙarfin rundunonin biyu, watau ridda da Musulmi, ya kasance daidai gwargwado ta yadda babu wani ɓangaren da ya ji zai iya fara tashin hankali mai tsanani. Ziyad ya jira karfafawa kafin ya kai hari kan 'yan tawayen.

Ƙarfafawa suna kan hanya. al-Muhajir ibn Abi Umayya, na karshe daga cikin kwamandojin bautar da Abubakar ya aika, ya ci nasara kan wasu kabilun 'yan tawaye a Najran, kudu maso gabashin Arabiya, kuma Abubakar ya umarce shi da ya yi tattaki zuwa Hadhramaut ya shiga Ziyad a kan Kindah. Halifa ya kuma umarci Ikrimah, wanda ke Abyan, da ya shiga rundunar Ziyad da Muhajir.[12][13]

A karshen watan Janairun 633 sojojin Muhajir da Ziyad sun hadu a Zafar, babban birnin Hadhramaut, a karkashin umurnin tsohon, kuma sun ci al-Ash'ath, wanda ya koma garin Nujair mai garu.

Kawai bayan wannan yaƙin kuma gawar Ikrimah ta iso. Ƙungiyoyin Musulmai guda uku, a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Muhajir, sun ci gaba zuwa Nujair kuma sun kewaye birnin mai garu.

An kama Nujair wani lokaci a tsakiyar watan Fabrairu na shekara ta 633. Tare da shan kashi na Kindah a Nujair na karshe daga cikin manyan kungiyoyin yan ridda sun rushe. Arabiya ta kasance lafiya ga Musulunci.

An yi yaƙin neman zaɓe kuma an kammala shi a shekara ta 11 bayan Hijira. Shekara ta 12 Hijiriyya ta wayi gari a ranar 18 ga Maris, 633, inda Larabawa suka hade a karkashin ikon Halifa a Madina. Wannan yakin shine babban nasarar Abubakar da siyasa da soji, kuma ya kasance cikakkiyar nasara.

Bayan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Da rushewar tawayen, yanzu Abubakar ya yanke shawarar fadada daular. Ba a sani ba ko aniyarsa ta daɗa faɗaɗa faɗaɗa faɗaɗa, ko farmakin riga-kafi don tabbatar da yankin tsaro tsakanin daular Islama da masarautar Sassanid mai ƙarfi da daular Byzantine. Wannan shi ne ya kafa mataki na mamayar da Farisa ta yi wa Musulunci.[20] An aika Khalid zuwa Farisa da runduna mai kunshe da masu aikin sa kai 18,000, kuma ya ci lardin Farisa mafi arziki: Iraki. Bayan haka, Abu Bakr ya aika da rundunarsa don su mamaye ƙasar Siriya ta Rum, muhimmin lardin daular Byzantine.[25]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Fred McGraw Donner: The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton University Press, 1986.ISBN 0691053278
  • Meir J. Kister: The struggle against Musaylima and the conquest of Yamama. In: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 27 (2002)
  • Ella Landau-Tasseron: The Participation of Tayyi in the Ridda. In: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 5 (1984)
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Laura V. Vaglieri in The Cambridge History of Islam, p.58
  2. M. Lecker (2012). "Al-Ridda". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_8870.
  3. Ibn Sad: p. 707
  4. Ella Landau-Tasseron (January 1998). The History of al-Tabari Vol. 39: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors: al-Tabari's Supplement to His History. SUNY Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-7914-2819-1.
  5. Idris El Hareir; Ravane Mbaye (2011). The Spread of Islam Throughout the World. UNESCO. p. 187. ISBN 978-92-3-104153-2.
  6. Tabari: Vol. 2, p. 461.
  7. Tabari: Vol. 2, p. 462.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Frank Griffel (2000). Apostasie und Toleranz im Islam: die Entwicklung zu al-Ġazālīs Urteil gegen die Philosophie und die Reaktionen der Philosophen (in German). BRILL. p. 61. ISBN 978-90-04-11566-8.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Ibn Jarir at-Tabari, Muhammad (June 15, 2015). The History of Al-Tabari Vol. 10 The Conquest of Arabia: The Riddah Wars A.D. 632-633/A.H. 11 (Fred Donner Translation ed.). State University of New York Press. p. 46. ISBN 9781438401409. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  10. Perlman 2015, p. 323.
  11. Khorasani Parizi, Ebrahim. "Ansar's Role in the Suppression of Apostates in the Era of Caliphate of Abu Bakr; Tabari history.Vol.3, p.246, 247" (PDF). textroad publication. Department of History, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Baft Branch, Islamic Azad University, Baft, Iran. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Lecker, Michael (November 1994). "Kinda on the Eve of Islam and during the "Ridda"". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 4 (3): 333–356. doi:10.1017/S1356186300005964. JSTOR 25182938.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Donner, Fred M. (1981). The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05327-8.
  14. Ibrahim Abed; Peter Hellyer (2001). United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective. Trident Press. pp. 81–84. ISBN 978-1-900724-47-0.
  15. al-Balazuri: book no: 1, page no:107.
  16. Tabari: Vol 9 p. 501-2.
  17. Al-Tabari 915, pp. 501–502
  18. Al-Tabari 915, p. 496
  19. Al-Tabari 915, p. 502
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Tabari: Vol. 2, p. 5
  21. 21.0 21.1 John Bagot Glubb (1963). The Great Arab Conquest. Hodder and Stoughton. p. 112.
  22. Abed, Ibrahim; Hellyer, Peter (2001). The United Arab Emirates, A New Perspective. London: Trident Press Ltd. pp. 60–86. ISBN 978-1-900724-47-0.
  23. Muhammad Rajih Jad'an, Abu Bakr As-Siddiq. Retrieved August 26, 2006.
  24. "ABNĀʾ – Encyclopaedia Iranica".
  25. A.I. Akram (1 January 2009). "Chapter 18". Sword of Allah: Khalid Bin Al-Waleed His Life & Campaigns. Adam Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 978-81-7435-521-8.