Nasarar Musulunci

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Infotaula d'esdevenimentNasarar Musulunci
Map of expansion of Caliphate.svg
Iri conquest (en) Fassara
Wuri Levant (en) Fassara
Arewacin Afirka

A farko Nasarar Larabawa (632-732), ( Larabci: فتح‎ , Fatah , buɗewa a zahiri,) wanda kuma ake danganta shi kamar yaƙoƙin Musulunci ko cin nasarar larabawa, [1] ya fara ne bayan wafatin annabin musulunci Muhammad . Ya kafa wani sabon haɗaɗen siyasa harkar shugabanci a Yankin Larabawa sashin wanda a ƙarƙashin waɗannan Rashidun da kuma Halifofin Umayyawa ga wani ƙarni na faɗaɗa Arab ikon da mai girma fiye da Larabawa a cikin wani nau'i na sararin Musulmi Dauloli na Larabawa da wani yanki na tasiri cewa miƙa daga arewa maso yammacin Indiya, a faɗin Asiya ta Tsakiya, Gabas ta Tsakiya, Arewacin Afirka, kudancin Italiya, da Yankin Iberian, zuwa Pyrenees .

Yaƙe-yaƙen Larabawa ya haifar da rushewar Masarautar Sassanid da babbar asara ga Daular Byzantine . Kodayake abin ban mamaki ne, nasarorin larabawa ba su da saurin fahimta a hankali. Masarautun Sassanid Persian da Byzantine sun gaji da karfin soja daga shekarun da suka shafe suna fada da juna. Wannan ya hana su ma'amala yadda ya kamata tare da maharan Larabawa masu motsi da ke aiki daga hamada . Haka kuma, yawancin mutanen da ke rayuwa a karkashin mulkin wadannan masarautu, misali yahudawa da kiristocin Farisa da Monophysites a Siriya, ba su da aminci kuma wani lokacin ma suna maraba da mamayar Larabawa, galibi saboda rikicin addini a daulolin biyu. [2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An ambaci wasu daga cikin cin nasarar mutane anan:

Yaƙe-yaƙe na Byzantine-Arab: 634-750[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shekarun Halifofi 

The Byzantine-Arab Wars sun tsakanin Byzantine Empire, kuma a farko da Rashidun sa'an nan da Umayyawa caliphates .

A ƙarƙashin Rashidun akwai yaƙe-yaƙe na Siriya (637), Armenia (639), Misira (639) da Arewacin Afirka (652). A karkayshin Umayyah da ci gaba da mamaye na Arewacin Afirka (665), na biyu Arab kewaye da Konstantinoful (717-718) da kuma ci da Tbilisi (736). A cikin 827 can aka mamaye mamayar kudancin Italiya (827).

Nasara a Asiya: 633 - 712[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sarki na ƙarshe na Daular Sassanid a Farisa ya sha kashi a hannun Rashidun a shekara ta 633 da 636, amma nasara ta ƙarshe da sojoji suka yi bai zo ba sai a shekara ta 642 lokacin da aka lalata sojojin Farisa.

A ƙarni na bakwai Umayyawa sun yi yaƙi da Rajput na farko a arewacin Indiya da Asiya ta Tsakiya .

A cikin 711, balaguron musulmai ya kayar da Raja Dahir a inda ake kira Hyderabad yanzu a Sindh kuma ya kafa mulkin Umayyad da 712. Bani Umayyawa sun mallaki dukkan abin da ke Pakistan na zamani, daga Karachi zuwa Kashmir kuma sun isa kan iyakokin Kashmir a cikin shekaru uku. Amma maimakon haka ba da daɗewa ba kasashen Larabawa masu cin gashin kansu suka ci gaba.

Nasara na Hispania: 711-718[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Musulmai (yankin kore) mamayar duniyar Rum a shekara ta 800 AD.

Mamayar yankin Iberiya ta fara ne lokacin da Moors (galibi Berber tare da wasu Larabawa ) suka mamaye Visigothic Christian Iberia ( Spain ta zamani, Portugal, Gibraltar, Andorra ) a shekara ta 711. [3] Sun sauka a Gibraltar a ranar 30 ga Afrilu kuma sun yi hanyar arewa. [4] Wannan yankin, karkashin sunan larabawa Al-Andalus, ya zama na farko Emirate sannan kuma ya zama Khalifancin Umayyad mai cin gashin kansa bayan hamɓarar da daula a Dimashƙ ta hannun Abbasiyawa . A shekara ta 1031 masarautun kirista suka fara Sake kamun kai har zuwa 1492, lokacin da Granada, masarautar Al-Ándalus ta ƙarshe ta faɗi a ƙarƙashin Sarakunan Spain.

Sauran ci gaba: 1200-1800[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Saharar Afirka, masarautar Sahelian ta faɗaɗa yankuna Musulmi nesa da bakin teku. 'Yan kasuwa Musulmi sun yada addinin Musulunci.

Zamanin zamani ya ga yadda daulolin Musulmi uku masu karfi suka taso: Daular Usmaniyya ta Gabas ta Tsakiya da Turai, da Daular Safawiya ta Farisa da Asiya ta Tsakiya, da daular Mughal ta Indiya; tare da fafatawarsu kuma suka faɗi ga haɓakar ikon mulkin mallaka na Turai .

Ragewa da rushewa: 1800-1924[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masarautar Mughal ta ƙi a shekara ta 1707 bayan mutuwar Aurangzeb kuma Turawan Ingila sun soke ta a hukumance bayan Tawayen Indiya a 1857.

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Martin Sicker (2000), The Islamic World in Ascendancy: From the Arab Conquests to the Siege of Vienna, Praeger.
  2. Barbara H. Rosenwein, A Short History of the Middle Ages, (Ontario, 2004), p. 71-72.
  3. Medieval Sourcebook: Ibn Abd-el-Hakem: The Islamic Conquest of Spain
  4. Spain The conquest, Encyclopædia Britannica

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]