Yancin Tunani

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Wikidata.svgYancin Tunani
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"Ba tare da 'yanci na tunani ba babu yadda za a yi hikima ko wani abu kamar' yancin jama'a ba tare da 'yancin fadin albarkacin baki ba", Benjamin Franklin,a shekara ta 1722

'Yancin tunani (wanda kuma ake kira ' yancin lamiri ko ra'ayoyi ) 'yanci ne na mutum ya rike ko kuma ya yi la’akari da wata hujja, ko ra’ayi, ko tunani, ba tare da ra’ayin wasu ba.

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kowane mutum yana ƙoƙari ya mallaki karfin ikon tunani ta hanyar haɓaka ilimi, ra'ayoyi da kimanta su a cikin yanayin da aka bayar. Wannan ƙwarewar tunani tana ba da gamsuwa da maye gurbin jin rashin taimako. Baya ga kawo sauki ga son zuciyar mutum, sabon ilimi da ra'ayoyi suna kawo fata na nan gabada sauran su.

wani mutumi na tunani

'Yancin tunani shi ne gabatacce magidanci don kulla alaƙa ta kusa da — sauran' yanci, da abubuwn kara yanci gami da 'yancin addini ,' yancin faɗar albarkacin baki, da 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki. Kodayake 'yanci na tunani yana da mahimmanci ga sauran' yanci da yawa, amma ba a buƙatar su don yin aiki da wanzuwa. Tsinkayan 'yanci ko hakki baya bada garantin kasancewar shi, halalcin sa, ko kariya ta hanyar tsarin falsafa. Wannan ra'ayi ne mai matukar mahimmanci a cikin Yammacin duniya kuma kusan duk kundin tsarin mulkin dimokiradiyya yana kiyaye wadannan 'yanci da ake da su.

Misali, Dokar 'Yanci ta kunshi sanannen tabbataccen a cikin Kwaskwarimar Farko cewa ba za a yi dokokin da za su tsoma baki cikin addini ba "ko kuma hana aiwatar da shi kyauta". Alkalin Kotun Koli na Amurka, Benjamin Cardozo ya ba da hujja a cikin Palko v. Connecticut (1937):

Irin waɗannan ra'ayoyin mamihimmin bangare ne na dokar haƙƙin ɗan adam ta duniya . A cikin Yarjejeniyar Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam ta Duniya (UDHR), wacce ke kan doka a kan kasashen mambobi na Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Dan Adam da Siyasa (ICCPR), "' yancin tunani" an jera shi a karkashin Mataki na goma Sha takwas 18:

Kwamitin Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya ce wannan, "ya banbanta da 'yancin tunani, lamiri, addini ko imani daga' yancin bayyana addini ko imani. Ba ta ba da izinin kowane iya kancewa ba game da 'yancin tunani da lamiri ko' yancin samun ko karɓar addini ko imanin zaɓin mutum. Wadannan 'yanci ana kiyaye su ba tare da wani sharadi ba ”. Hakazalika, Mataki na 19 na dokar ta UDHR ta ba da tabbacin cewa "Kowa na da 'yancin fadin albarkacin bakinsa da kuma fadin albarkacin bakinsa; wannan hakkin ya hada da' yancin gudanar da ra'ayi ba tare da tsangwama ba ko muzgunawa da cin zarafin wani ba".

Tarihin ci gaba da danniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ba zai yiwuwa a san tabbatacce abin da wani yake tunani, yana sa danniya da wuya. An inganta manufar a cikin littafin baibul mafi cikakke a rubuce-rubucen Paul na Tarsus (misali, "Don me zai sa a hukunta 'yanci na [eleutheria ] ta lamirin wani [ suneideseos ]?" 1 Korantiyawa 10:29). [1]

Tagar mutum-mutumin Giordano Bruno a Rome

Kodayake masana Falsafa na Girka Plato da Socrates sun tattauna yancin Tunani kaɗan, amma umarnin Sarki Ashoka (ƙarni na 3 kafin haihuwar Yesu) an kira shi doka ta farko game da 'Yancin Lamiri. A cikin al'adun Turai, baya ga dokar haƙuri da addini da Constantine I ya yi a Milan a 313, masana falsafa Themistius, Michel de Montaigne, Baruch Spinoza, John Locke, Voltaire, Alexandre Vinet, da John Stuart Mill da masu ilimin tauhidi Roger Williams da Samuel Rutherford an dauke su manyan masu yarda da ra'ayin 'Yancin Lamiri (ko' 'yanci rai' a cikin kalmomin Roger Williams). [2]

Sarauniya Elizabeth I ta soke dokar takunkumin tunani a karshen karni na sha shida, saboda, a cewar Sir Francis Bacon, ba ta "son [yin] tagogi a cikin rayukan maza da tunanin sirrinsu". A lokacin mulkinta, masanin ilmin lissafi, masanin lissafi, masanin taurari, kuma masanin taurari Giordano Bruno ya nemi mafaka a Ingila daga binciken Italiya, inda ya buga wasu littattafansa game da sararin samaniya mara iyaka da kuma batutuwan da Cocin Katolika ta hana. Bayan barin amincin Ingilishi, daga ƙarshe an ƙona Bruno a matsayin ɗan bidi'a a Roma saboda ƙin sakewa da ra'ayinsa. A dalilin haka ne wasu suke ganin shi shahidi ne don 'yancin tunani da albarkacin bakinsa.

Ignaz von Döllinger ne ya bayyana Oliver Cromwell a matsayin "na farko a cikin manyan mutanen duniya da suka kafa wata ka'ida ta musamman ta addini, da kuma aiwatar da ita har zuwa lokacin da yake cikin sa:. . . Ka'idar 'yanci ta lamiri da watsi da tilastawa addini " [3]

Koyaya, ana iya iyakance 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki ta hanyar takunkumi, kamawa, ƙona littafi, ko farfaganda, kuma wannan yana haifar da kashe' yancin tunani. Misali kamfen masu tasiri kan 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki sune kungiyoyin masana Soviet game da binciken kwayar halitta don yarda da ka'idar da aka sani da Lysenkoism, kamfen ɗin ƙona littattafai na Nazi Jamus, tsattsauran ra'ayi na adawa da ilimi wanda aka aiwatar a Cambodia ƙarƙashin Pol Pot, tsananin tsauraran matakai akan' yanci bayyana ra'ayi da gwamnatocin Kwaminisanci na Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin da Cuba suka yi ko kuma ta hanyar kama-karya irin ta Augusto Pinochet a Chile da Francisco Franco a Spain .

Hasashen Sapir – Whorf, wanda ke nuna cewa tunani asaline cikin yare, zai tallafawa da'awar cewa yunƙurin takaita amfani da kalmomin harshe hakika wani nau'i ne na taƙaita damar yancin tunani.[ana buƙatar hujja] An bincika wannan a cikin littafin George Orwell na 1984, tare da ra'ayin Newspeak, wani nau'I na yaren Ingilishi wanda ake tuhumarsa da rashin ƙarfin misaltawa da iyakance maganganun asali.

Sannan Kuma kwanan nan, cigaban neuroimaging fasahar sun nuna damuwarsu, game da abokai kasancewa iya karanta da baya kashe tunani. Kodayake batun yana da rikitarwa ta hanyar larurar hankali, waɗannan damuwar suna haifar da filin da ke haifar da ƙarancin jijiyoyin jiki da ƙwarewar su.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • DV Coornhert, Synod akan 'Yancin Lamiri: Nazari Mai Kyau yayin Taruwar da Aka Gudanar a shekara ta 1582 a cikin fassarar Ingilishi a cikin Garin Freetown
  • Richard Joseph Cooke, 'Yancin tunani a koyarwar addini (1913)
  • Lucas Swaine, "'Yancin Tunani A Matsayin' Yanci Na Asali," Ka'idar Siyasa, 46: 3 (2018): 405-25. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0090591716676293
  • Eugene J. Cooper, "Tushen 'Yancin Mutum da' Yancin Lamiri a cikin Baibul : Tunani akan 1 Korantiyawa 8-10 ", Tauhidin tauhidin Irish Quarterly Dec 1975
  • George Botterill da Peter Carruthers, 'Falsafar Ilimin halin dan Adam', Jami'ar Jami'ar Cambridge (1999), p. 3
  • Hon. Sir John Laws, 'Iyakancin' Yancin Dan Adam ', [1998] PL Bazara, Mai Dadi & Maxwell da Masu Ba da Gudummawa, p. 260
  •  
  • Roger Williams, loudarancin Tsanantawa na Musamman don Dalilin Lamiri (1644; 1867 sake bugawa )
  • Samuel Rutherford, Lex, Rex ( 1644 )

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Eugene J. Cooper, "Man's Basic Freedom and Freedom of Conscience in the Bible : Reflections on 1 Corinthians 8–10", Irish Theological Quarterly Dec 1975
  2. Luzzatti, p. 91.
  3. A.D. Lindsay: The Essentials of Democracy (2 ed.), 1948.