Yankin Mulkin Mallaka na Arewacin Najeriya

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See also: Northern Region, Nigeria
Globe icon.svgYankin Mulkin Mallaka na Arewacin Najeriya
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Arewacin Nigeria ( Hausa : Arewacin Najeriya ) ta kasance wani yanki na Biritaniya wanda ya wanzu daga 1900 har zuwa 1914 kuma ta mamaye yankin arewacin kasar da yanzu ake kira Najeriya .

Yankin yana da fadin 255,000 square miles (660,000 km2) kuma ya hada da masarautun Daular Sokoto da wasu sassa na tsohuwar daular Bornu, wadda aka ci a shekarar 1902. Babban Kwamishina na farko na yankin shi ne Frederick Lugard, wanda ya kori cinikayyar bayi da hare-hare na kabilanci kuma ya kawo tsarin gudanarwa da aka kafa ta da hukumomin gargajiya na yankin.

An kawo karshen yankin na mulkin mallakan turawa a ranar 1 ga watan Janairun 1914, lokacin da aka hade yankin da Kudancin Najeriya da kuma Legas, ta zamo lardin Arewa na Mulkin Mallakan na Najeriya.

Asali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

1914 taswirar Northern & Southern Nigeria Protectorates, na John Bartholomew & Co.

Taron Berlin na 1884 da 1885 ya samar da yankin da zai zama karkashin Kariyar Burtaniya ta Arewacin Najeriya. An kafa kamfanin Royal Niger Company a 1886 tare da George Taubman Goldie a matsayin mataimakin gwamna. Kamfanin ya koma cikin ƙasa kuma ya yi shawarwarin yarjejeniyoyin kasuwanci da yarjejeniyoyin siyasa, wani lokacin tilastawa, tare da sarakunan cikin gida da yawa. A cikin 1897, Frederick Lugard shi ne aka nada shi shugaban rundunar sojojin Afirka ta Yamma wanda aka dora wa alhakin dakile tsayin daka da fulani da yuwuwar kutsawa Faransawa a yankin arewa maso yamma.[1]

A ranar 1 ga Janairun 1900, an soke hayar kamfanin Royal Niger Company kuma gwamnatin Burtaniya ta karbe iko, a wani bikin da Lugard ya karanta sanarwar.[1][2] An biya Kamfanin Royal Niger Fam 865,000 kuma an ba shi haƙƙin rabin duk kuɗin da ake samu na hakar ma'adinai a wani yanki mai yawa na yankunan tsawon shekaru 99 don musayar yankin ga gwamnatin Burtaniya. An nada Lugard a matsayin Babban Kwamishinan Hukumar Kare Arewacin Najeriya da aka kirkiro. Lokoja ita ce babban birni daga 1900, amma Zungeru ya zama hedkwatar tsaro a 1902 saboda ita ce ke arewacin birnin wacce za'a iya shiga ta rafi.[1]

Siyasan soji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ayyukan soji sun fara ne a shekara ta 1902 kuma sun ci gaba har na tsawon shekaru biyar ana gwabza kazamin fada. An ci ragowar Daular Bornu a 1902 da Daular Sokoto aka ci nasara a yakin Kano . An ci gaba da gwabza fada a shekarar 1904 a Bassa . A cikin 1906, tawayen Mahdist ya barke a wajen birnin Sakkwato a kauyen Satiru. An aike da wasu gungun Sojojin Gabar Yammacin Afirka don murkushe tawayen; Da jin labarin abin da ya faru, sai Muhammadu Attahiru II ya aike da gaurayawan runduna guda 300 na sojan doki na Sokoto da na kasa karkashin jagorancin Malam Isa. Rundunar hadin guiwa ta yi nasarar murkushe ‘yan tawayen, wanda ya zama misali na karshe na juriya da makami ga mulkin Birtaniya a yankin.[3] Bayan 1907 an sami raguwar tawaye da amfani da karfin soja daga Burtaniya kuma babban kwamishinan ya karkata ga haraji da gudanarwa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Gudanarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gwamnatin Burtaniya ta fara da Frederick Lugard a matsayin Babban Kwamishinan Farko. A cikin 1907, Lugard ya bar Najeriya zuwa Hong Kong kuma Percy Girouard ya zama sabon Babban Kwamishina. Girouard yana da dogon tarihin kera titin jirgi a Canada da Afirka kuma an ba shi aikin gina layin dogo mai yawa a cikin Kariya. A cikin 1909, Henry Hesketh Bell, gwamnan Uganda Protectorate an nada babban kwamishina. A cikin 1912, an kiyasta cewa yankin Arewacin Najeriya ya kai kusan 255,000 square miles (660,000 km2) kuma yana da kusan mutane miliyan 10. Charles Lindsay Temple ya zama babban kwamishinan riko a 1911 da 1912 kuma ya fara sa ido, tare da hadin gwiwa ta kut-da-kut da Lugard, samar da Mallaka da Kare Najeriya.

Daya daga cikin muhimman mulkin gudanarwa na yankin shine sanya hakimai da sarakai a matsayin masu hanu da shuni na gargajiya a cikin tsarin mulkin Burtaniya.[4]

Wadannan kalubalen kudi da na gudanarwa sun haifar da tattaunawa karkashin jagorancin Lugard don hadewar yankin mulkin mallaka na Legas Colony, Kudancin kuma yankin Arewacin Najeriya. Ya kamata a gyara banbance-banbancen da ke tsakanin hukumomin tsaro ta hanyar samar da gwamnati ta tsakiya a Legas, inda kudaden shigar da kwastam daga kudu ke biyan ayyukan da ake yi a arewa. Hadaddiyar Mallaka da Mallaka ta Najeriya ta fara ne a shekara ta 1914 kuma tana da hakimai biyu da daya ke kula da yankin lardin kudu daya kuma ke kula da lardin arewa. Gwamnati a arewa ta kasance daban kuma ta haɗa da zurfafa amfani da hukumomin ƙasa. An gano cewa wadannan rarrabuwa sun dawwama ta fuskoki da dama har zuwa yau.[5]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Birtaniya Yammacin Afirka
  • Jaridar Arewacin Najeriya
  • Scramble don Afirka
  • Sunan mahaifi Richmond Palmer

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Temple, Charles Lindsay (1912). "Northern Nigeria". The Geographical Journal. 40 (2): 149–163. doi:10.2307/1778461. JSTOR 1778461.
  2. "The Transfer of Nigeria to the Crown". The Times. No. 36060. London. 8 February 1900. p. 7.
  3. "Falola, Toyin (2009). Historical Dictionary of Nigeria. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press. p. 46.
  4. Newbury, Colin (2004). "Accounting for Power in Northern Nigeria". The Journal of African History. 45 (2): 257–277. doi:10.1017/s0021853704009466.
  5. "Barkan, Barkan. "State and local governance in Nigeria". World Bank. Retrieved 3 November2016.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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