Zaghawa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Zaghawa
'Yan asalin magana
274,000 (2006)
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 zag
Glottolog zagh1240[1]

Mutanen Zaghawa, ana kuma kiran su Beri ko Zakhawa, ƙabilun Musulmin Sahelian ne waɗanda ke zaune a Kudancin Libya, gabashin Chadi, da yammacin Sudan, ciki har da Darfur .

Zaghawa suna magana da yaren Zaghawa, wanda shine yankin Saharar gabas. [2] Makiyaya ne, kuma irin garken tumakin da suke kiwata larabawa ke kira Zaghawa. Su makiyaya ne kuma suna samun yawancin abincinsu ta hanyar kiwon shanu, raƙuma da tumaki da kuma girbin hatsin daji. An kiyasta cewa akwai tsakanin 4,000,000 zuwa 4,512,000 Zaghawa. [3]

Sunaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihin masarautar Kanemite, Girgam, yana nufin mutanen Zaghawa a matsayin Duguwa . A yau, Zaghawa suna kiran kansu Beri, yayin da larabawa da adabi ke kiransu da "Zaghawa". A cikin wallafe-wallafen da ke da alaƙa da ƙabilun Afirka, kalmar Beri (wani lokacin Kegi) ta haɗa da mutanen Zaghawa, Bideyat da Bertis, kowannensu ya haɗu a sassa daban-daban na Chadi, Sudan da Libya.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An ambaci Zaghawa a cikin rubutun harshen larabci na gargajiya. Balaraben karni na 9 al-Ya'qubi, ya rubuta game da su a matsayin "Zaghawa waɗanda ke zaune a wani wuri da ake kira Kanem," kuma ya ci gaba da jera jerin wasu masarautu a ƙarƙashin mulkin Zaghawa. A tarihance, mutanen Zaghawa suna da kyautuka a kan mafi yawan ƙananan al'ummomin da suka faɗaɗa yankin Sahel tsakanin Tafkin Chadi zuwa masarautar kwarin Nil na Nubia, Makuria da Alwa .

Rarraba mutanen Zaghawa a Chadi da Sudan.

Mutanen Zaghawa suna kasuwanci tare da yankin Nilu da yankin Maghreb a cikin karni na 1 miladiyya. Abubuwan da aka ambata tun farko a cikin rubutun na karni na 8 an yi su ne tare da mutanen Toubou na arewacin Chadi da kudancin Libya, kuma masana sun yi imanin cewa biyun sun kasance ƙabilun da ke da alaƙa. Rubutun ƙarni na 11 sun ambaci cewa sarakunan masarautar Zaghawa sun karɓi Musulunci, kuma aƙalla suna a matsayin waɗanda ba Musulmi ba.

Binciken farko na larabci ya bayyana Zaghawa a matsayin "baƙauran makiyaya". Masanin binciken kasa na karni na 12 Al-Idrisi da Yaqut na karni na 13 sun bayyana tasirin Zaghawa a kusa da wani yanki mai nisa, kuma sun ambaci garuruwan Kanem, Manan da Anjimi.

Ibnu Sa'id, duk da haka, a rubuce a 1270 ya bayyana cewa Manan babban birni ne na masarautar Kanem har zuwa lokacin da sarakunan daular Sayfawa suka musulunta, suka ci yankin, sannan babban birnin ya koma Njimi . Zaghawa sun ci gaba da rayuwa a cikin Manan, in ji Ibn Said. Koyaya, bayanan Kanem basu ambaci Zaghawa ba, kuma wataƙila sun ƙaura ne sannan suka ƙaura zuwa yankin da suke yanzu. Ana kiran wannan yankin Dar Zaghawa, ko "ƙasar Zaghawa".

Kodayake karyewar garin Zaghawa ya karye ne sakamakon hauhawar Kanem a yankin Tafkin Chadi, amma Zaghawa ya ci gaba da iko da wasu yankuna na gabashin Kanem, kuma a karshen karni na 14 ne kawai aka ambaci yankin Darfur a matsayin kasa mai cin gashin kanta Masar tarihi da kuma masanin ilimi na ƙasa Maqrizi . Bayan tashin Darfur da Kanem, da alama Zaghawa sun mallaki yankunan hamada kawai kuma sun daina zama babbar ikon yanki.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Jama'a da al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Al’adun gargajiyar Zaghawa sun gudanar da rayuwa mafi yawanci ta makiyaya, wadanda suka hada da dangin makiyaya da doki, jakuna, awaki da garken tumaki da ke mai da hankali. A lokacin da suke da karfi sosai kafin sarakunan daular Sayfawa suka fatattakarsu suka wargaza su, an san su da fatake da 'yan kasuwa masu rakuma da dawakai, suna sarrafa wasu hanyoyin safarar Saharar Sahara.

Suna bin mazhabar Malikiyya ta Sunni ta Musulunci, amma sun ci gaba da wasu ibadunsu na jahiliyya irin su karama - hadaya ta dabbobi don kawar da miyagun ruhohi. Thearnin da suka musulunta ya kasance batun muhawara da ƙaramin yarda, tare da kimantawa daga 13 zuwa farkon karni na 17. A zamanin yau, suna rayuwa mara kyau, suna girma da kayan masarufi kamar gero da dawa, da sauran abinci kamar suƙo, kankana, kabewa, gyaɗa da okra.

Tsarin zaman jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zungiyar Zaghawa ta kasance tsintsiya maɗaurinki ɗaya kuma ta haɗa da kyan gani. Sashin babba ya kasance na sarakuna da mayaƙa, ƙasa da su akwai 'yan kasuwa da' yan kasuwa, waɗanda a ƙasan akwai ƙwararrun masu fasaha waɗanda ake kira Hadaheed (ko Hadahid ). [4] [5] Waɗannan castan wasan sun yi rawar gani, kuma sana'o'in da suka gada sun haɗa da aikin baƙin ƙarfe, mafarauta, tukwane, aikin fata da kuma mawaƙa kamar su ganga. A al'adance ana kallon aikin kere-kere a cikin al'ummar Zaghawa a matsayin datti da kuma matsayin mara kima, kasancewar mutane daga asalin arna da yahudawa wadanda suka shigo cikin musulinci sannu a hankali. [6] Wasu daga cikin rubutun Larabawa na farko suna magana ne da tsarin Zaghawa da "sarakunan maƙeri mai girman kai da ba za a iya tsammani ba".

Kalmar "maƙeri" ya kasance kalma ce ta wulakanci a al'adun Zaghawa, in ji Anne Haour - farfesa a Nazarin Afirka da Masana Tarihi na Zamani, kuma "idan aka haife maƙeri ɗaya zai kasance maƙeri". -Ungiyoyin maƙasudin maƙarƙashiya na Zaghawa ba ci ko haɗuwa da maƙerin maƙeri. Thean ƙasa mafi ƙasƙanci ya kasance bayi. Matsayi na zamantakewar al'umma da kuma manyan mutane kamar na masu sana'ar fata a cikin mutanen Zaghawa yayi kama da waɗanda ake samu a cikin jama'ar Fur .

Tasirin zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duk da yake basu da ƙarfi sosai a Sudan, amma sun mamaye Chadi a siyasance. Tsohon shugaban ƙasar, Idriss Déby da tsaffin firaministocin Chadi da dama su ne Zaghawa, da sauran mambobin gwamnati da yawa. Don haka Chadian Zaghawa sun kasance mutane masu tasiri a cikin siyasar yankin. A cikin yaƙe-yaƙe na zamani a Chadi, Libya da Sudan, ƙabilar Zaghawa ta tsunduma ciki sosai, musamman ta hanyar ƙawancen dabarun yaƙi da wasu ƙabilu kamar su Fur .

Koyaya, a Sudan, 'yan Zaghawa sun tsunduma cikin rikicin Darfur, kuma sun yi asara mai yawa daga matsalolin can. Zaghawa na Sudan na daga cikin al'ummomin da ke zaune a sansanonin 'yan gudun hijira a Darfur da gabashin Chadi inda ɗaukar yara sojoji cikin kungiyoyin' yan tawaye matsala ce da ke ci gaba.

'Yan ƙabilar Zaghawa suna daga cikin kabilun da ke Darfur wadanda ake kira "Afirka" kamar yadda ake kiran wasu kabilun da suka yi fada da su "Balarabe".

Sakamakon mishan mishan na Tijani Musulmai daga Afirka ta Yamma waɗanda suke tafiya a cikin yankinsu don yin aikin hajji a Makka, shugabanin ya musulunta . A cikin 1940s, da Zaghawa fara kunna zuwa ga Musulunci daga Animism en sun mayar. A Darfur, 'yan Zaghawa sanannu ne saboda tsoron Allah. Sakamakon faɗan da ake yi a Darfur, inda 'yan tawayen larabawa na cikin gida ke kai hare-hare saboda asalinsu na kabilanci, 100,000 sun zama' yan gudun hijira a kan iyakar Chadi. [7] Wani ɗan ƙabilar Zaghawa mai suna Daoud Hari ya rubuta wani abin tarihi game da Darfur da ake kira The Translator sannan wata mata ‘yar kabilar Zaghawa mai suna Dr. Halima Bashir ta hada hannu tare da Damien Lewis mai suna‘ Hawaye na Hamada ’, waɗanda dukkansu suka yada ilimi game da ta’asar da aka yi a Darfur.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Zaghawa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Zaghawa, Ethnologue
  3. Zaghawa survey, SIL Chad. 2004.
  4. F. D. Klingender (1942), Gericault as Seen in 1848, The Burlington Magazine, Vol. 81, No. 475 (Oct., 1942), pages 254-256
  5. Samer Abdelnour (2011), Forging Through Adversity: The Blacksmiths of North Darfur and Practical Action, United Nations Development Programme, pages 1-2, Quote: "Although the blacksmiths refer to themselves as ‘Zaghawa’ – a dominant group in Darfur – the blacksmiths are from a traditionally neglected and marginalized group associated with Darfur’s lower castes. They form a sub-group of the Zaghawa known as ‘Hadaheed’ (plural of ‘Hadadi’, which means ‘blacksmith’, and derived from ‘Hadeed’ which means ‘iron’).3 Within the Hadaheed, men practice traditional forms of iron work and women pottery. They have done so as long as their history recalls, inheriting their knowledge and skills from generation to generation. Centuries ago, this group is thought to have been thralled by the Zaghawa, who had entered and settled into their territory. As slaves they were dispersed among Zaghawa families to perform primarily their iron and pottery work."
  6. James H Vaughan (1970), Caste systems in the Western Sudan, in Social stratification in Africa, Editors: A Tunde and L Plotnicov, New Africa Press, pages 59-92
  7. Survivances préislamiques parmi les zaghawa by Marie-José Tubiana