Idriss Déby

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Idriss Déby
Idriss Déby at the White House in 2014.jpg
Chairperson of the African Union (en) Fassara

30 ga Janairu, 2016 - 30 ga Janairu, 2017
Robert Mugabe - Alpha Condé (en) Fassara
7. President of Chad (en) Fassara

2 Disamba 1990 - 20 ga Afirilu, 2021
Hissène Habré - Mahamat Déby Itno
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Berdoba (en) Fassara, 18 ga Yuni, 1952
ƙasa Cadi
Mazaunin Pink Palace (Chad) (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Larabci
Zaghawa
Mutuwa Tibesti Region (en) Fassara, 20 ga Afirilu, 2021
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Yan'uwa
Abokiyar zama Hinda Deby Itno (en) Fassara
Yara
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Makaranta Institut aéronautique et école de pilotage Amaury de la Grange (en) Fassara
Harsuna Faransanci
Larabci
Zaghawa
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa da hafsa
Kyaututtuka
Aikin soja
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Digiri field marshal (en) Fassara
Ya faɗaci Battle of N'Djamena in 2008 (en) Fassara
Yaƙin Basasar Chadi (2005–2010)
Northern Chad offensive (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Musulunci
Jam'iyar siyasa Patriotic Salvation Movement (en) Fassara

Marshal Idriss Deby Derby (Larabci: إدريس ديبيIdrīs Daybī Itnū; an haife shi a ranar 18 ga watan Yunin shekara ta 1952 -ya mutu a ranar 20 ga Afrilun shekara ta 2021) ɗan siyasan Chadi ne kuma hafsan soja wanda ya kasance Shugaban kasar Chadi daga shekara ta 1990 har zuwa karshen rayuwarsa a shekara ta 2021. Ya kuma kasance shugaban Jam’iyyar Ceto Patriotic Salvation Movement. Déby dan asalin Bidyat ne na ƙabilar Zaghawa. Ya karɓi mulki ta hanyar jagorantar tawaye ga Shugaba Hissène Habré a cikin watan Disamban shekara ta 1990 kuma ya tsira daga tawaye daban-daban da yunƙurin juyin mulki ga mulkin nasa.idriss Déby ya ci zabe a shekara ta 1996 da shekara ta 2001, kuma bayan an daina kayyade wa'adi sai ya sake cin nasara a shekara ta 2006, 2011, 2016, da kuma shekara ta 2021. Ya kara da "Itno" a cikin sunan mahaifinsa a cikin watan Janairu shekara ta 2006. Ya kammala karatun digiri na Cibiyar Juyin Juya Hali ta Muammar Gaddafi. Yawancin kafofin yada labarai na duniya sun bayyana mulkin idriss Déby na shekaru goma a matsayin mai iko. An kashe shi a cikin watan Afrilu shekara ta 2021 yayin da yake ba da umarni ga sojojinsa kan 'yan tawaye daga kungiyar Front for Change da Concord a Chadi (FACT).

Matasa da aikin soja[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi idriss Déby a ranar 18 ga watan Yunin shekara ta 1952, a ƙauyen Berdoba, kusan kilomita 190 daga Fada a arewacin Chadi. Mahaifinsa ya kasance makiyayi ne mara kyau, wanda ke cikin dangin Bidayat na garin Zaghawa. Bayan ya halarci Makarantar Alkur'ani a Tiné, Déby ya yi karatu a çcole Française da ke Fada da kuma makarantar Franco-Arab (Lycée Franco-Arabe) da ke Abéché. Ya kuma halarci Lycée Jacques Moudeina a Bongor kuma tana da digiri na farko a fannin kimiyya. Bayan ya gama makaranta, sai ya shiga makarantar Jami'ai a N'Djamena. Daga nan ne kuma aka tura shi Faransa don samun horo, inda ya koma Chadi a shekara ta 1976 tare da takardar shedar tukin jirgin sama ta kwararru. Ya kasance mai biyayya ga sojoji da Shugaba Félix Malloum har ma bayan da babbar hukumar Chadi ta ruguje a shekara ta 1979. Ya dawo daga Faransa a watan Fabrairun shekara ta 1979 kuma ya tarar da Chadi ta zama filin daga ga ƙungiyoyi masu ɗimbin makamai. Déby ya ɗaure arzikinsa ga na Hissène Habré, ɗayan manyan shugabannin yaƙi na Chadi. Shekara guda bayan Habré ya zama shugaban ƙasa a shekara ta 1982, Déby ya zama babban kwamandan askarawan soja. Ya bambanta kansa a cikin shekara ta 1984 ta hanyar lalata sojojin Libya a gabashin Chadi. A cikin shekara ta 1985, Habré ya aike shi zuwa Paris don bin kwas a atcole de Guerre; bayan dawowarsa a shekara ta 1986, ya zama babban mai ba shugaban kasa shawara kan harkokin soja. A cikin shekara ta 1987, ya tunkari sojojin Libya a filin, tare da taimakon Faransa a cikin abin da ake kira "Toyota War", yana bin dabarun da ke haifar da asara mai yawa ga sojojin abokan gaba. A lokacin yakin, ya kuma jagoranci wani samame a sansanin Maaten al-Sarra da ke Kufrah, a yankin Libya. Rikici ya ɓarke a ranar 1 ga Afrilu 1989 tsakanin Habré da Déby game da ƙaruwar ƙarfin Mai tsaron Shugaban ƙasa. A cewar Human Rights Watch, an sami Habré da alhakin "kashe-kashen siyasa da yawa, azabtarwa ta yau da kullun, da dubban kame-kame ba bisa ka'ida ba", da kuma tsabtace kabilanci lokacin da aka fahimci cewa shugabannin kungiyar na iya yin barazana ga mulkinsa, gami da yawancin kabilun Zaghawa na Déby da suka goyi bayan gwamnati. Da yawan rashin hankali, Habré ya zargi Déby, ministan cikin gida Mahamat Itno, kuma babban kwamandan sojojin Chadi Hassan Djamous da shirya juyin mulki . Déby ya fara tserewa zuwa Darfur, sannan zuwa Libya, inda Gaddafi ya tarbe shi a Tripoli. An kama Itno da Djamous an kashe su. Tunda duka mutanen uku sun kasance 'yan kabilar Zaghawa, Habré ya fara kamfen ɗin yaƙi da ƙungiyar wanda ya ga an kame ɗaruruwan, azabtarwa da kuma ɗaure su. Da yawa sun mutu a tsare ko an kashe su ta wani lokaci. A shekara ta 2016, wata kotun kasa da kasa da aka kirkiro ta musamman a Senegal ta samu Habré da aikata laifukan yaki. Déby ya baiwa Libyawa cikakken bayani game da ayyukan CIA a Chadi. Gaddafi ya ba Déby taimakon soja don karbe iko a Chadi domin musayar fursunonin yakin Libya.

Déby ya tsere zuwa Sudan a shekara ta 1989 kuma ya kafa kungiyar 'yan tawaye ta Patriotic Salvation Movement, wanda Libya da Sudan suka goyi bayansa, wanda ya fara aiki da Habré, kuma a ranar 2 ga watan Disambar shekara ta 1990 sojojin Déby suka yi tattaki ba tare da hamayya ba zuwa N' Djaména a cikin juyin mulkin da ya yi nasara, ya kori Habré.

Shugaban Chadi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Idriss Déby ya dare kan kujerar shugabancin kasar Chadi ne a shekara ta 1991, kuma ana sake zaben shi a duk bayan shekaru biyar.

Bayan watanni uku na gwamnatin wucin gadi, a ranar 28 ga watan Fabrairun shekara ta 1991, an amince da yarjejeniya don Chadi tare da Déby a matsayin shugaban kasa. A cikin shekaru biyu masu zuwa, Déby ya fuskanci jerin yunƙurin juyin mulki yayin da sojojin gwamnati suka yi arangama da ƙungiyoyin 'yan tawaye masu goyon bayan Habré, irin su Movement for Democracy and Development (MDD). Neman murkushe masu adawa, a cikin shekara ta 1993 Chadi ta halatta jam’iyyun siyasa kuma ta gudanar da Taron Kasa wanda ya haifar da taron wakilai 750, gwamnati, kungiyoyin kwadago da sojoji don tattaunawa kan kafuwar dimokiradiyya mai yawan jama’a.

Koyaya, hargitsi ya ci gaba. Comité de Sursaut National pour la Paix et la Démocratie (CSNPD), wanda Lt. Moise Kette ya jagoranta da sauran ƙungiyoyin kudu sun nemi hana gwamnatin Déby yin amfani da mai a cikin Kogin Doba kuma suka fara tawaye wanda ya yi sanadin mutuwar ɗaruruwan mutane. An cimma yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya a shekara ta 1994, amma ba da jimawa ba ta wargaje. Sabbin kungiyoyi biyu, Sojojin Sojojin Tarayyar (FARF) karkashin jagorancin tsohuwar Kette ally Laokein Barde, da Democratic Front for Renewal (FDR), da MDD da aka sake fasalin ta yi arangama da sojojin gwamnati daga shekara ta 1994 zuwa shekara ta 1995.

Déby, a tsakiyar shekara ta 1990, a hankali ya dawo da ayyukan gwamnati na asali kuma ya shiga yarjejeniyoyi da Bankin Duniya da IMF don aiwatar da sauye-sauyen tattalin arziki.[ana buƙatar hujja]

An amince da sabon kundin tsarin mulki ta hanyar raba gardama a watan Maris na 1996, sannan aka yi zaben shugaban kasa a watan Yuni. Déby an saka shi a zagayen farko amma bai sami mafi rinjaye ba; sannan aka zabe shi shugaban kasa a zagaye na biyu, wanda aka gudanar a watan Yuli, da kashi 69% na kuri'un.[1]

2000s[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An sake zaben Idriss Déby a zaben shugaban kasa na watan Mayun shekara ta 2001, inda ya yi nasara a zagayen farko da kashi 63.17% na kuri’un, a cewar sakamakon hukuma. [1] [2] Yakin basasa tsakanin Kirista da Musulmi ya ɓarke a shekara ta 2005, tare da raƙuman rikici da Sudan. Wani yunƙurin juyin mulki, wanda ya shafi harbo jirgin Déby, ya gamu da cikas a cikin watan Maris na shekara ta 2006.[3]

A tsakiyar watan Afrilun shekara ta 2006, an yi artabu da 'yan tawaye a N'Djaména, kodayake ba da daɗewa ba fadan ya lafa tare da sojojin gwamnati da har yanzu ke iko da babban birnin ƙasar. [4] Daga baya Déby ya katse hulda da Sudan, yana mai zargin ta da marawa ‘yan tawaye baya, [5] kuma ya ce har yanzu za a gudanar da zaben watan Mayun shekara ta 2006. [6]

An rantsar da Deby don wani wa'adin mulki a ranar 8 ga watan Ogas na shekara ta 2006. [7] Shugaban Sudan Omar al-Bashir ya halarci bikin rantsar da Déby, kuma shugabannin biyu sun amince da maido da huldar jakadanci a wannan biki. [8]

Bayan sake zaben Déby, kungiyoyin 'yan tawaye da dama sun balle. Déby ya kasance a Abéché daga 11 zuwa 21 ga Satumban shekara ta 2006, yana shawagi a cikin jirgi mai saukar ungulu don kula da kansa da kai hare-hare kan Rally of Democratic Forces tawaye. [9]

Tawaye a gabas ya ci gaba, kuma 'yan tawaye sun isa N'Djamena a ranar 2 ga watan Fabrairun shekara ta 2008, tare da fada a cikin garin. [10] Bayan kwanaki ana gwabza fada, gwamnati ta ci gaba da iko da N'Djamena. Da yake magana a wani taron manema labarai a ranar 6 ga watan Fabrairu, Déby ya ce dakarunsa sun yi nasara a kan 'yan tawayen, wadanda ya bayyana a matsayin "sojojin haya da Sudan ke jagoranta", kuma sojojin nasa suna cikin "cikakken iko" na birnin da ma kasar baki daya. [11]

Dangane da wannan yanayin, a watan Yunin shekara ta 2005, an gudanar da zaben raba gardama don kawar da iyakance tsarin mulki na wa’adi biyu, wanda ya ba Déby damar sake tsayawa takara a shekara ta 2006. [12] Fiye da 77% na masu jefa kuri'a sun amince. Déby ya kasance dan takara a zaben shugaban kasa na shekara ta 2006, wanda aka gudanar a ranar 3 ga Mayu, wanda aka yi maraba da shi tare da kauracewar adawa. A cewar sakamakon hukuma Déby ya lashe zaben da kashi 64.67% na kuri'un. [13]

A shekarar 2000, tare da rikici tsakanin arewa da kudu, gwamnatin Déby ta fara gina bututun mai na farko a kasar, aikin kilomita 1,070 na Chadi da Kamaru. An kammala aikin shimfida bututun a shekarar 2003 kuma Bankin Duniya ya yaba masa da cewa "wani tsari ne da ba a taba gani ba don sauya arzikin mai zuwa amfanin kai tsaye ga talakawa, marasa karfi da kuma muhalli".

Amfani da mai a yankin Doba na kudu ya fara ne a watan Yunin 2000, tare da amincewar Hukumar Bankin Duniya don ba da kuɗaɗen ɓangare na wani aikin, Projectaddamar da Man Fetur na Chadi da Kamaru, da nufin jigilar ɗanyen Chadi ta bututun mai kilomita 1000 zuwa Kamaru zuwa Tekun Guinea . Aikin ya kafa wasu tsare-tsare na musamman ga Bankin Duniya, kamfanoni masu zaman kansu, gwamnati, da hadin gwiwar kungiyoyin farar hula don tabbatar da cewa kudaden shigar mai na gaba za su amfani alumma kuma hakan zai haifar da rage talauci.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Koyaya, tare da Chadi tana karɓar kashi 12.5% na ribar da aka samu daga samar da mai, kuma yarjejeniyar waɗannan kuɗaɗen shigar da za a saka su cikin asusun ajiyar kuɗi na Citibank na London wanda wata ƙungiya mai zaman kanta ke kula da shi don tabbatar da an yi amfani da kuɗin don ayyukan jama'a da ci gaba, ba a mayar da dukiya mai yawa nan da nan zuwa ƙasar ba. A shekarar 2006, Déby ya gabatar da labarai na kasa da kasa bayan ya yi kira ga kasarsa da ta samu kaso 60 cikin 100 na arzikin mai na Chadi da Kamaru bayan ya karbi "gutsure" daga kamfanonin kasashen waje da ke gudanar da masana'antar. Ya ce Chevron da Petronas na kin biyan harajin da ya kai dala miliyan 486.2. Kasar Chadi ta zartar da dokar shigar da kudin mai daga Bankin Duniya wanda ta bukaci a ware mafi yawan kudaden shigar ta na mai don ayyukan kiwon lafiya, ilimi da ayyukan more rayuwa. Bankin Duniya a baya ya daskarar da wani asusun kudaden shiga na man fetur a cikin takaddama kan yadda Chadi ta kashe ribar mai, inda aka zargi Déby da amfani da kudaden wajen karfafa ikonsa. Déby ya yi watsi da wadannan ikirarin, yana mai cewa kasar ba ta samun kusan wadatattun kudaden masarauta don kawo sauyi mai ma'ana a yaki da talauci.

Shekarar 2010[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 25 ga Afrilun 2011, an sake zabar Déby a karo na hudu da kashi 88.7% na kuri'un sannan ya sake nada Emmanuel Nadingar a matsayin Firayim Minista.

Saboda matsayin Chadi a dabarun Afirka ta Yamma, Idriss Déby ya tura sojoji ko kuma ya taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen sasanta rikice-rikicen yankin da dama, kamar Darfur, Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya (CAR), Mali, da kuma yaki da Boko Haram .

Tare da tabarbarewar tsaro a Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, Déby ya yanke shawarar a 2012 don tura dakaru 400 don yakar 'yan tawayen CAR. A watan Janairun 2013, Chadi ta kuma tura sojoji 2000 don yakar kungiyoyin masu kishin Islama a Mali, a wani bangare na Faransa ta Operation Serval .

Tarihin kwanan nan na Chadi, a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Déby, ya kasance da halin rashawa da rashawa da kuma tsarin kula da lamura wanda ya mamaye al'umma, in ji Transparency International . Cinikin mai da aka yi kwanan nan ya iza wutar cin hanci da rashawa, saboda gwamnati ba ta amfani da kudaden shiga don karfafa rundunoninta da kuma bayar da lada ga makusantanta, wadanda ke ba da gudummawa wajen lalata tsarin gudanarwar kasar. A shekara ta 2006, mujallar Forbes ta sanya kasar Chadi a saman jerin kasashen da suka fi cin hanci da rashawa a duniya, A shekarar 2012, Déby ta kaddamar da wani shirin yaki da cin hanci da rashawa a duk fadin kasar da ake kira " Operation Cobra ," wanda rahotanni sun ce an gano wasu dala miliyan 50 na kudaden da aka wawure. Kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu sun ce, duk da haka, Déby ya yi amfani da irin wadannan dabarun ne don ladabtar da abokan hamayya da kuma ba da lada ga masu son cin zarafi. Ya zuwa 2016, Transparency International ta sanya Chadi ta 147 a cikin kasashe 168 akan jerin cin hanci da rashawa .

Dangane da karuwar barazanar kungiyar Boko Haram, kungiyar yan ta'adda masu alaka da kungiyar Daular Islama dake aiki a arewacin Najeriya, Idriss Déby ya kara sa hannun Chadi a cikin rundunar hadin gwiwa ta Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF), hadaddiyar kungiyar kasashe da suka hada da kasashen Niger, Nigeria, Benin da kuma Kamaru. A watan Agusta na 2015, Déby a cikin wata hira ya ce MNJTF ta yi nasarar “sare kan” Boko Haram.

A Janairu 2016, Idriss Deby ya yi nasara Zimbabwe 's Robert Mugabe ya zama shugaban kungiyar tarayyar Afirka domin shekara daya ambatacce. Bayan rantsar da shi, Déby ya fadawa shugabannin kasashen cewa dole ne a kawo karshen rikice-rikice a nahiyar "Ta hanyar diflomasiyya ko kuma ta hanyar karfi. . . Lallai ne mu kawo karshen wadannan masifu na wannan zamani namu. Ba za mu iya samun ci gaba ba kuma mu yi maganar ci gaba idan wani ɓangare ko jikinmu ba shi da lafiya. Ya kamata mu zama manyan masu taka rawa wajen neman hanyoyin warware rikice rikicen Afirka ". Ofayan abubuwan da Déby ta sa a gaba shi ne hanzarta yaƙi da Boko Haram. A ranar 4 ga Maris, Tarayyar Afirka ta amince ta fadada rundunar hadin gwiwar kasashe daban-daban (MNJTF) zuwa sojoji 10,000.

Yayin taron 21 na Bangarorin (COP21) a Faris, Idriss Déby ya tabo batun Tafkin Chadi, wanda yankinsa karamin yanki ne na abin da ya kasance a shekarar 1973, kuma ya yi kira ga kasashen duniya da su samar da kudade don kare yanayin halittu.

A watan Fabrairu shekara ta 2016, Deby ya zabi da Patriotic Salvation Movement zuwa gudu ga wani sabon lokaci a cikin Afrilu 2016 Ana zaben shugaban kasa. Ya yi alkawarin maido da iyakokin wa'adin mulki a cikin kundin tsarin mulki da cewa "Dole ne mu takaita sharudda, kada mu mai da hankali kan tsarin da canjin mulki ke da wahala. "A shekara ta 2005 an gudanar da garambawul ga tsarin mulki a cikin wani yanayi inda rayuwar al'ummar kasar ke cikin hadari".

A shekarar 2017, Ma’aikatar Shari’a ta Amurka ta yi zargin cewa Déby ya karbi cin hancin dala miliyan 2 saboda bai wa wani kamfanin kasar Sin damar samun ‘yancin mai a Chadi ba tare da gasar kasa da kasa ba.

A Janairu 2019, Deby da Isra'ila da firaministan kasar Benjamin Netanyahu ya sanar da farfado da dangantakar diplomasiyya tsakaninsu tsakanin Chadi da kuma Isra'ila. Netanyahu ya bayyana ziyarar tasa a Chadi a matsayin "wani bangare na juyin juya halin da muke yi a kasashen Larabawa da na Musulmai." [14]

Déby ya sanya hannu kan kudirin dokar yanke hukuncin kisa a Chadi a shekarar 2020. An yi amfani da rundunar harbe-harben kan 'yan ta'adda a shekarar 2015. [15]

A watan Fabrairun 2021, Déby ya fusata Chadi za ta tura sojoji 1,200 tare da sojojin Faransa zuwa iyakar Sahel tsakanin Nijar, Mali, da Burkina Faso, don yakar kungiyoyin da ke da alaka da al-Qaeda.

A zaben shugaban kasar Chadi na 2021, Déby ya ci zango na shida a matsayin shugaban kasa, lokacin da aka sanar da sakamako a ranar 19 ga Afrilu, da kashi 79.32% na kuri'un. A watan Fabrairu, jami’an tsaro sun yi yunkurin cafke shugaban ‘yan adawa Yaya Dillo Djérou, inda Djéru ya ce an kashe‘ yan uwansa biyar a yayin wannan yunkurin, kuma a maimakon haka gwamnati ta bayar da rahoton kashe uku kawai. Mafi yawan 'yan adawar siyasa sun janye daga zaben, suna neman a kaurace, suna masu zargin hare-hare da amfani da karfi fiye da kima da jami'an tsaro suka yi a lokacin zanga-zangar kin jinin gwamnati. Maimakon ya ba da jawabin nasara, Déby ya je ziyarci sojojin Chadi da ke bakin daga suna yakar mamayar 'yan tawayen arewa. An ce an ji masa rauni a ranar Lahadi, 18 ga Afrilu, kuma an dauke shi zuwa babban birni [16], inda ya mutu a ranar 20 ga Afrilu.

Rayuwar mutum[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Idriss Déby ya yi aure sau da yawa kuma yana da aƙalla yara goma sha biyu. Ya auri Hinda (b. 1977) a cikin Satumba 2005. An yi mata suna saboda kyanta, wannan auren ya ja hankali sosai a Chadi, kuma saboda alakar kabilu mutane da yawa na ganin ta babbar hanya ce ga Dby don karfafa goyon bayan sa yayin da take fuskantar matsin lamba daga 'yan tawaye. [17] Hinda mamba ce a majalisar zartarwa ta Fadar Shugaban kasa, tana aiki a matsayin Sakatare na Musamman. [18]

A ranar 2 ga Yulin 2007, ɗan Déby, Brahim, an sami gawarsa ɗan shekara 27 a cikin garejin ajiye motoci na gidansa kusa da Paris . Dangane da rahoton autopsy, wataƙila farin foda ne ya buge shi daga abin kashe gobara. ‘Yan sandan Faransa sun fara binciken kisan kai. An kori Brahim a matsayin mai ba shugaban kasa shawara a shekarar da ta gabata, bayan an same shi da laifin mallakar kwayoyi da makamai. Blogger Makaila Nguebla ya danganta ficewar da shugabannin gwamnatin Chadi da yawa suka yi da fushinsu kan halin Brahim: "Shi ne asalin duk wata damuwa. Ya kasance yana mari ministocin gwamnati, dan Déby ya wulakanta manyan jami’an Chadi. ” [19] A watan Yulin shekarar 2011 an yanke wa wasu maza hudu hukunci da laifin "fashin da ya kai ga kisa ba da niyyar kisa ba" kuma aka yanke musu hukuncin ɗaurin kurkuku tsakanin shekaru biyar zuwa goma sha uku.

Déby musulmi ne.

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cewar wani mai magana da yawun rundunar, idriss Déby ya mutu ne sakamakon raunin da ya ji a ranar 20 ga Afrilu, 2021, yayin da yake jagorantar rundunarsa a kan 'yan tawayen da ke kiran kansu GASKIYA a arewacin Chadi a yayin harin arewacin Chadi, yana da shekaru 68. An narkar da majalisar Chadi a kan mutuwarsa, kuma an kafa Majalisar Soja ta Rikon Ruwa.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

  1. 1.0 1.1 Elections in Chad, African Elections Database.
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  3. "Coup attempt foiled, government says", The New Humanitarian (formerly IRIN News), 15 March 2006.
  4. "Chad confronts rebels in capital", BBC News, 13 April 2006.
  5. Andrew England, "Chad severs ties with Sudan", Financial Times, 15 April 2006.
  6. Rebels 'will not delay' Chad poll", BBC News, 18 April 2006.
  7. "Deby sworn in as Chad's president", People's Daily Online, 9 August 2006.
  8. "Chad and Sudan resume relations", BBC News, 9 August 2006.
  9. "Chad: New Fronts Open in Eastern Fighting" allAfrica.com, 21 September 2006.
  10. "Battle rages for Chadian capital", Al Jazeera, 2 February 2008.
  11. "Chad’s leader says government ‘in total control’", Associated Press (MSNBC), 6 February 2008.
  12. "Strong yes vote in referendum allows President Deby to seek a new term", IRIN, 22 June 2005.
  13. "Déby win confirmed, but revised down to 64.67 pct", IRIN, 29 May 2006.
  14. Israeli PM visits Chad to restore relations. 20 January 2019.
  15. https://www.iol.co.za/news/africa/chad-abolishes-the-death-penalty-47314174
  16. Chad:President Idriss Deby dies, say national radio
  17. Emily Wax, "New First Lady Captivates Chad", The Washington Post, 2 May 2006, page A17.
  18. "Liste des Membres du Cabinet Civil de la Présidence de la République", Chadian presidency website (accessed 4 May 2008) (in French).
  19. "Chad leader's son killed in Paris" BBC News, 2 July 2007.