Yaƙin Basasar Chadi (2005–2010)

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Infotaula d'esdevenimentYaƙin Basasar Chadi
Civil war in Chad.png
Iri civil war (en) Fassara
Kwanan watan kalanda 18 Disamba 2005
Wuri Cadi

Yaƙin basasar Chadi na kwanan nan ya fara ne a cikin Disamba 2005. Tun lokacin da ta samu 'yanci daga Faransa a shekarar 1960, yaƙin basasa ya mamaye yankin Chadi a tsakanin Larabawa-Musulmin arewa da Sahara - Kiristocin kudu. A sakamakon haka, shugabanci da shugabanci a Chadi sun yi ta kai da komo tsakanin Kiristocin kudu da musulmin arewa. Lokacin da wani bangare ke kan mulki, ɗaya ɓangaren yakan fara yaƙin neman sauyi ne don dakile shi.[1]

Faransa, tsohuwar mai ikon mulkin mallaka, da makwabciyar Chadi Libya ta arewa duk sun shiga cikin sahu daban-daban a duk lokacin yakin basasa. Zuwa tsakiyar shekarun 1990 yakin basasa ya dan daidaita, kuma a 1996 an tabbatar da Idriss Déby, dan arewa, a matsayin shugaban ƙasar a zaɓen farko na demokradiyya da aka yi a Chadi. A cikin 1998 aka fara tawaye dauke da makamai a arewa, ƙarƙashin jagorancin tsohon shugaban tsaron Shugaba Déby, Youssouf Togoimi . Yarjejeniyar zaman lafiyar Libya a 2002 ta kasa kawo karshen fadan. A shekarar 2003, rikici a yankin Darfur da ke makwabtaka da Sudan ya bazu zuwa kan iyaka zuwa Chadi. 'Yan gudun hijirar daga Sudan sun kasance tare da fararen hula' yan ƙasar Chadi waɗanda ke kokarin gujewa tashin hankalin 'yan tawaye kuma daga karshe suka cika sansanonin. A bayyane yake cewa 'yan tawayen Chadi sun sami makamai da taimako daga gwamnatin Sudan. A lokaci guda, 'yan tawayen Sudan sun sami taimako daga gwamnatin Chadi. A watan Fabrairun 2008, kungiyoyin 'yan tawaye uku suka hada karfi wuri guda suka fara kai hari a N'Djamena babban birnin Chadi. Bayan kaddamar da farmakin da ya kasa mamaye fadar shugaban kasar, an fatattaki harin da kakkausar murya. Faransa ta aika da dakaru don su mamaye gwamnati. Da yawa daga cikin ‘yan tawayen tsoffin abokan kawancen Shugaba Idriss Déby ne. Sun zarge shi da cin hanci da rashawa ga 'yan ƙabilar.

Dalilin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin shugabannin 'yan tawaye tsofaffin abokan Déby ne, waɗanda suka bijire masa bayan ya yanke shawarar sauya kundin tsarin mulki. Canjin tsarin mulki ya ba Déby damar sake tsayawa takara a 2006, tare da ba da ikon sauya kundin tsarin mulki ga shugaban, wannan matakin ya sa da yawa daga cikin abokan Déby suka fara yi masa tawaye.

Yaƙin da aka yi a farkon Disamba 2005 a N'djamena babban birnin Chadi bai zo da mamaki ba. Shekaru kafin fashewar, gwamnatin Sudan din na kokarin hambarar da shugaban Chadi, Idriss Déby, ta hanyar amfani da ‘yan tawayen Chadi a matsayin mutane na tsakiya.[ana buƙatar hujja] Uku masu ɗauke da makamai da hannu a kai hare-hare a shekara ta 2008 da aka dauke da makamai da kasar Sudan jami'an tsaro niyyar kan yankan kashe da goyon bayan da Deby aka bai wa 'yan tawayen a yankin Darfur, musamman da Ƙungiyar Adalci da daidaito (JEM), wanda ya kasance a kan m a Darfur. Yaƙin da aka yi a Chadi sakamakon wasu runduna ne guda huɗu.

Na ɗaya, yakin ya zama tamkar ci gaba ne na rikice-rikicen Darfur da Chadi, wadanda suka hada da gasar iko da kasa. Abu na biyu, akwai rikicin Cadi na cikin gida. Déby ya koma mulkin soja na mutum daya bayan da aka yi fatan fadada tushen mulkinsa a karshen shekarun 1990 wanda ya hade da ci gaban siyasar farar hula a N'djamena. Déby ya dogara sosai akan ƙungiyar dangi na kusa da kuma da'awar kuɗin da aka ba gwamnati don biyan bukatunsa, rarraba kayan agaji don biyayya ga farar hula. Na uku shi ne dabarun Khartoum (babban birnin Sudan) na kula da tsaro a cikin iyakarta, wanda ya hada da daukar kasashe marasa karfi da ke kewaye da ita kamar kawai fadada iyakarta. Tsaron Sudan ya taimaka wajen kawo Déby kan karagar mulki a 1990 a matsayin wani bangare na nauyin da ke kansu wanda kuma ya ga ta shiga soja a kasashen Eritrea, Habasha, Uganda, Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Congo (DRC), da Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya (CAR) a cikin shekaru goma na soja. Kamar yadda Khartoum ta yi amfani da haɗin gwuiwa da azabtarwa don sarrafa manyan lardunan yankin na Darfur, ta yi amfani da waɗannan kayan aikin don yin tasiri a kan iyakarta zuwa iyakarta. Bugu da ƙari, gasar yanki don mamayewa ta hanyar babban yankin Afirka ta Tsakiya ba safai ke iko da ikon hukuma ba. Wannan yanki da ya keɓe ya haɗa da Chadi, CAR, da arewacin DRC, gami da yankunan Tripoli da Sudan, tare da Kinshasa, Kigali, Kampala, har ma da Asmara suna fafatawa don tasiri a wannan yankin, har da Khartoum.

Sakamakon[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Aiwatar da sauye-sauyen da aka yi alkawalin a cikin yarjejeniyar watan Agustan 2007 tare da jam'iyyun adawa ba a hankali ba kuma ba a daidaita ba. A duk fadin kasar, sojojin gwamnati sun ci gaba da kamewa da tsare fararen hula da wadanda ake zargi da tayar da kayar baya, ba tare da nuna bambanci ba, galibi bisa la'akari da kabilanci, da kuma sanya su cikin mummunan hukunci da ba na al'ada ba. Yanayin gidan yarin Chadi na daga cikin mawuyacin hali a nahiyar Afirka. Institutionsananan hukumomi na adalci sun ba da gudummawa ga al'adar keɓewa. Gwamnati ba ta bincika ko gurfanar da mummunan cin zarafin da ake yi wa fararen hula ba, kamar kashe-kashe da fyaɗe da jami'an tsaron gwamnati da 'yan tawaye suka yi bayan arangamar da aka yi a Am Dam a watan Mayun 2009. Fiye da 'yan gudun hijirar Sudan 250,000 da' yan kasar Chadi 168,000 da suka rasa muhallinsu ke zaune a sansanoni da sauran wurare a gabashin Chadi. A watan Afrilun 2010, kusan sabbin 'yan gudun hijirar Sudan 5,000 sun zo daga Darfur ta Yamma, bayan sabon fada a can tsakanin kungiyar' yan tawayen Sudan Ƙungiyar Adalci

(JEM) da sojojin gwamnatin Sudan.

Manyan Yaƙe-yaƙe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

SCUD Raid akan Guéréda[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yan tawayen Chadi sun kai hari a Guéréda, mai tazarar kilomita 120 arewa da Adré, a ranar 7 ga Disambar 2005, inda suka kashe mutane goma tare da raunata biyar. Harin (wanda aka danganta shi da Platform for Change, Unity and Democracy, SCUD, gungun wasu sojojin Chadi da suka gudu) ya nuna farkon kamfen din 'yan tawaye daga Darfur kuma ya sa gwamnatin Chadi ta la'anci Khartoum saboda goyon bayan' yan tawayen. [2]

RDL Raid on Adré[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 18 ga Disambar 2005, ƙungiyar (RDL), wata ƙungiyar 'yan tawayen Chadi da ke zaune a Darfur, ta kai hari kan iyakar garin Adré, Chadi da ke kan iyaka. Adré shine mabuɗin dabarun kare Chadi daga hare-haren da aka ƙaddamar daga Sudan. Shugaban Chadi Idriss Déby, sakamakon fatattaka daga sojojin Chadi zuwa kungiyoyin 'yan tawayen Chadi tsakanin Oktoba zuwa Disamba 2005, ya fara karfafa Adré, da kuma Abéché, babban birnin lardin gabashin Ouadda eastern, tun kafin harin 18 ga Disamba 2005. [2]

Yaƙin Farko na N'Djaména[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Afrilun 2006 shugaban 'yan tawayen ƙasar Chadi Mahamat Nour Abdelkarim, bayan da ya hada kan kungiyoyin' yan tawayen na Chadi da dama a karkashin tutar ƙungiyar 'Front Uni pour le Changement' (United Front for Change, FUC), suka yiwa N'Djamena ƙawanya. A ranar 13 ga Afrilun 2006, 1,200 zuwa 1,500 ‘yan tawayen FUC a cikin manyan motocin ɗaukar kaya 56 suka fasa daruruwan kilomita a fadin Chadi daga sansanonin Darfur da Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya don fafatawa da musayar wuta da jami’an tsaron Chadi a kan titunan babban birnin kasar. Fadan da aka yi a Ndjaména ya kasance ne daga 5 na safe zuwa 11 na safe kuma ya hada da motocin daukar sojoji masu sulke, na’urar kere kere (motoci masu taya hudu dauke da manyan makamai) da tankokin yaki, kuma an yi yakin ne a yankunan kudu maso gabashin kudu da kuma a Palais des Quinze, majalisar dokokin Chadi, wacce Sojojin 'yan tawaye da ba su san yadda aka tsara babban birnin ba sun yi wa fadar shugaban kasa tawaye.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Tare da taimako mai yawa daga sojojin Faransa, yunƙurin karɓar ikon ya ci tura, tare da kashe ɗaruruwan.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Akwai manyan kaburbura guda biyu a yankin kudu maso gabashin garin N'Djaména a wani wuri can nesa a Djari-Kawas, inda sojojin gwamnati suka yiwa wani rukunin 'yan tawaye kwanton bauna. An bayar da rahoton cewa kabari daya na dauke da gawarwaki 102, kodayake rahotanni sun yi sabani kan ko waɗanda suka mutu dukkaninsu sojoji ne masu tawaye ko kuma wasu ‘yan tawaye ne da fararen hula. Kabari na biyu a Djari-Kawas an ce yana dauke da gawarwaki 45 da aka binne a can da zarar an fito da su daga dakin ijiye gawar a babban asibitin.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A ranar 14 ga Afrilu 2006 Chadi ta yanke hulda da Sudan ba tare da bata lokaci ba. Duk da cewa ƙasashen biyu sun sabunta alkawarinsu na korar 'yan tawaye daga yankunansu a watan Yuli kuma sun dawo da hulɗar jakadanci a watan Agusta, harin na watan Afrilu ya ci gaba da haifar da koma baya kan alaƙar ƙasashen biyu. [3]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Debos, Marielle (2013). Le Métier des Armes au Tchad: Le Gouvernement de L'Entre-guerres. Paris: Karthala. ISBN 9782811106263.
  1. de Waal, Alex. "Chad: Civil war, power struggle and imperialist interference". Green Left. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Human Rights Watch, “Darfur Bleeds: Recent Cross-Border Violence in Chad,” February 2006.
  3. Human Rights Watch, "They Came Here to Kill US: Militia Attacks and Ethnic Targeting of Civilians in Eastern Chad," January 2007.