Mutanen Toubou

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Toubou
Gorane
Toubou man traveling.jpg
Toubou man travelling in the desert
Jimlar yawan jama'a
c. 2 million
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Flag of Chad.svg Chad 1,370,000
Flag of Libya.svg Libya 110,000
Flag of Niger.svg Niger 160,710
Flag of Sudan.svg Sudan 139,290
Harsuna
Tebu (Dazaga,[1] Tedaga[2]), Arabic, French, English
Addini
Islam (Sunni)[3]

Toubou, ko Tubu (daga Old Tebu, ma'anar "mutanen dutse"),[4] ƙabilu ne da ke zaune a arewacin Chadi, kudancin Libya, arewa maso gabashin Niger da arewa maso yammacin Sudan. Suna rayuwa ko dai a matsayin makiyaya ko kuma kamar manoma kusa da dausayi. Al’ummarsu ta dangi ne, tare da kowace dangi suna da wasu alamomi, wuraren kiwo da rijiyoyi.

Toubou gabaɗaya sun kasu kashi biyu ƙungiyoyi masu alaƙa da haɗin gwiwa: Teda (ko Téda, Toda) da Dazagra (ko Dazaga, Dazagara, Daza). An yi imanin cewa suna da asali ɗaya kuma suna magana da yarukan Tebu, waɗanda suke daga reshen Sahara na dangin harshen Nilo-Sahara. Tebu ya kasu kashi biyu zuwa yare masu alaƙa da juna, ana kiransu Tedaga (Téda Toubou) da Dazaga (Dazaga Gouran).

Teda na Toubou na zaune ne a can arewacin arewacin Chadi, a kewayen iyakokin Libya da Niger da kuma tsaunukan Tibesti . Ana samun mutanen Dazagra a arewacin Chadi da wani yanki na gabashin Nijar da arewa maso yammacin Sudan. Daga cikin kungiyoyin biyu, Dazagra, wanda aka samu a kudancin Teda, sun fi yawa da yawan mutane 1,500,000, yayin da Teda ke da lamba 750,000 kawai.

Ana kiran mutanen Toubou da mutanen Tabu, Tebu, Tebou, Tibu, Tibbu, Toda, Todga, Todaga, Tubu, Tuda, Tudaga, da Umbararo . A wasu lokuta ana kiran Dazaga a matsayin Gouran (ko Gorane, Goran, Gourane), baƙon Larabawa. Yawancin shugabannin Chadi sun kasance Toubou (Gouran), ciki har da shugaban ƙasa Goukouni Oueddei da Hissène Habré.[2][3][5][6]

Rarrabuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen Toubou a tarihi sun rayu a arewacin Chadi, arewa maso gabashin Nijar, da kudancin Libya. A wasu lokuta akan kira su da "baƙin makiyaya na Sahara". An rarraba su a faɗin babban yanki a tsakiyar Sahara, da kuma arewa maso tsakiyar Sahel . Ana samun su musamman a arewacin tsaunukan Tibesti, wanda a Old Tebu ke nufin "Dutsen Rocky." Sunansu ya samo asali ne daga wannan.

Ana samun Teda a farko a yankunan Sahara kusa da kan iyakar kudu maso gabashin Libya, arewa maso gabashin Niger da arewacin Chadi . Suna ɗaukar kansu a matsayin mayaƙa. Dazagra suna rayuwa zuwa yankin Sahel kuma sun bazu a yawancin yankin tsakiyar tsakiyar Chadi. Dazagra ya kunshi dangi da yawa. Wasu manyan dangi na Dazagara, ko Gouran, sun haɗa da Anakaza, Dazza, Donza, Gaida, Kamaya, Karra, Kokorda, Mourdia, Wanja, Yierah, da Choraga. Dazagra ya rufe yankunan arewacin Bourkou, da Ennedi Plateau, da tsaunukan Tibesti da kuma Bahr el Gazel a kudu. Akwai al'ummar Dazaga da ke zaune a Omdurman, Sudan da dubun dubatan da ke aiki a Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.[7][8] [8][9][9]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsohon tarihin mutanen Toubou bai tabbata ba. Wataƙila suna da alaƙa da 'Habashawan' da Herodotus ya ambata a cikin 430 KZ, a matsayin mutanen da Garamantes ke farautar su, amma wannan zato ne, kamar yadda Jean Chapelle ke jayayya.

A cikin wallafe-wallafen addinin Islama, ambaton farko kamar mutanen Tubu shine watakila tare da mutanen Zaghawa a cikin rubutun karni na 8 da masanin Larabci Ibn Qutaybah ya yi . Ƙarni na 9 al-Khwarizmi ya ambaci mutanen Daza (kudancin Toubou). [9] Suna wakiltar kashi 2.9% na yawan jama'ar Chadi .

Al'umma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Toubou (Gorane) mace cikin kayan gargajiya
Dangin Toubou

Toubou na rayuwa a cibiyoyin kiwon da kuma wurin kiwon su da dabbobi, ko a kan noma da warwatse fadamu inda suka noma kwanakin da hatsi da kuma legumes . Shanunsu sun hada da dromedaries, awaki, shanu, jakuna da tumaki. Dabbobin babban bangare ne na dukiyoyinsu, kuma suna kasuwancin dabbobin. Hakanan ana amfani da dabbobin a matsayin wani bangare na biyan sadaki yayin aure, ko dai a matsayin ɗaya inda dangin ango suka amince su biya dangin amarya a madadin amaryar, ko kuma, in ji Catherine Baroin, dangin amaryar ne suke bayarwa don samarwa da ma'auratan hanyoyin tattalin arziki domin fara iyali.

A wasu 'yan wurare, Toubou din ma gishiri ne da natron, abu mai kama da gishiri wanda yake da mahimmanci a kusan dukkanin abubuwan rayuwar ta Toubou daga dalilan magani, a matsayin cakuda tauna taba, adanawa, tanning, sabulu samarwa, kayan masaku da na dabbobi. Yawan karance-karance tsakanin Toubou yayi kaɗan.

Iyali da dangi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin mutanen Toubou har yanzu suna bin salon makiyaya. Waɗanda suka fi son zaman lafiya galibi suna rayuwa ne a cikin tafin dabino, mai kusurwa huɗu ko silinda. '' Toubou 'yan uwan juna ne, tare da wani dattijo namiji da ke jagorantar zuriyar. Umurnin na biyu na dangin Toubou shine na dangi .

A cewar Jean Chapelle, farfesa a fannin Tarihi da ya kware kan ƙabilun Chadi, tsarin dangin ya bunkasa ne ta hanyar larura. Rayuwar makiyaya na nufin watsewa ko'ina cikin yanki; sabili da haka, kasancewa cikin dangi yana nufin cewa mutum na iya samun mutanen dangi masu karɓar baƙi a yawancin ƙauyuka ko sansanonin kowane irin yanayi. Abu na biyu shine kiyaye alaƙa da dangin uwa. Kodayake dangin uwa ba su mamaye tsakiyar gidan iyayensu ba, amma suna ba da alaƙa. Abu na uku shine alaƙar kariya a gidan farko.

Duk da rabe-raben yare daban-daban, ƙananan hukumomi a cikin Toubou suna haifar da mahimmancin ra'ayi na ainihi fiye da dangi. Akwai rarrabuwa na yanki, kodayake. A lokacin mulkin mallaka (kuma tun bayan samun 'yanci a 1960), gwamnatocin Chadi sun ba da doka da halalci a kan wadannan rukuni na yanki ta hanyar rarraba yankunan Toubou da Daza a cikin yankuna masu dacewa da ake kira kantuna da nada sarakuna don gudanar da su.

Tsare-tsaren shari'a na Toubou gabaɗaya sun dogara ne da shari'ar Musulunci, wanda ke ba da damar ramawa da ramuwar gayya. Misali, kisan kai ana daidaita shi kai tsaye tsakanin dangin wanda aka kashe da wanda ya yi kisan. Girmamawa ta Toubou na bukatar wani daga dangin wanda aka kashe yayi kokarin kashe mai kisan kai ko danginsa; irin wannan kokarin a ƙarshe ya kare da tattaunawa don sasanta lamarin. Sulhu ya biyo bayan biyan Goroga (tsarin addinin Islama na Diyya ), ko kuɗin jini . Daga cikin dangin Tomagra na mutanen Teda a cikin yankin Tibesti, akwai wata tsiya (shugaban ruhaniya) wanda aka yarda da shi a matsayin alkalin dangi, kuma yana sasanta rikici da sanya takunkumi.

Tsarin zaman jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen Toubou a Qatrun, na George Francis Lyon, 1821

Jama'ar Toubou, in ji Jean Chapelle, an daidaita su ta hanyar zamantakewar al'umma tare da tsarin saka katun. Ƙungiyoyin uku sun ƙunshi masu 'yanci tare da haƙƙin mallaka na mallaka, ƙwararrun masu fasaha da bayi.

Ƙungiyoyin Azza (ko Aza ) a cikin Toubou suna da sana'o'in hannu, kamar su aikin ƙarfe, aikin fata, haƙar gishiri, haƙa rijiya, noman dabino, tukwane da ɗinki, kuma a al'adance an raina su kuma an ware su daga wasu bangarorin na. Toubou, yayi kama da hadahadin Hadahid a kudu maso gabashin Chadi a tsakanin mutanen Zaghawa . A cewar Paul Lovejoy - farfesa a Tarihin Afirka, bayanan na karni na 19 sun nuna cewa waɗannan keɓaɓɓun mawaƙa na Toubou sun bi al'adu da al'adu iri ɗaya kamar na sauran 'yan Toubou, amma suna da' yanci a cikin siyasarsu da imaninsu, kamar yadda masu fasahar kere kere suka samo a cikin kabilu da yawa na gabashin Chadi kamar su Kanembu, Yedina, Arab, Kouri da Danawa.

Aure tsakanin memba na Azza da memba daga wani yanki daban na mutanen Toubou ya kasance abin yarda da al'adu. Yaren da mutanen Azza suke amfani da shi ya bambanta na yaren Tebu.

Ƙananan socialan zamantakewar al'umma sune bayi (Kamaja). Bayi sun shiga cikin garin Toubou daga hare-hare da yaƙe-yaƙe a kan wasu ƙabilun a ƙasashe zuwa kudu. Duk bayi dukiyar iyayengijinsu ce, asalinsu ya kasance abin birgewa ne, kuma an gaji matsayinsu ta hanyar haihuwa.

Aure[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Al'adar Toubou ta hana aure tsakanin 'yan uwan juna, al'adar da ta zama ruwan dare tsakanin ƙabilun Musulmai da yawa a Afirka. Namiji na iya yin aure kuma yana da mata da yawa bisa ka'idojin Islama, amma, wannan aikin ya zama sananne a cikin al'ummar Toubou.

Mallakar ƙasa, dabbobi, da albarkatu ya ɗauki nau'uka da yawa. A cikin wani yanki ko yanki da aka mallaka na dangi, ƙasar, bishiyoyi (yawanci itacen dabino), kuma rijiyoyin da ke kusa na iya samun masu daban. Haƙƙin kowane dangi game da amfani da yanki na musamman wasu mambobin dangi ne suka yarda dashi. Hakanan iyalai na iya samun dama ta musamman zuwa wasu rijiyoyi da haƙƙin ɓangaren girbi daga gonakin da aka shayar da su. A cikin dangin dangi da na dangi, mutane na iya samun da'awar kansu ga dabino da dabbobi.

Yanayin zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nunin raƙumi na Toubou
Toubou mahayi rakumi a Chadi

Mafi yawan ajin siyasa na Chadi an samo su ne daga Dazagra. A lokacin yaƙin basasar farko na kasar Chadi (1966-1979), yaƙin neman zaɓe ya sami matsayi mafi mahimmanci. A cikin 1965 gwamnatin Chadi ta karɓi iko kai tsaye kan tsaunukan Tibesti, ta aika da ayarin sojoji da masu gudanarwa zuwa Bardaï, babban birnin yankin Tibesti. A cikin shekara guda, cin zarafin hukuma ya haifar da adawa mai ƙarfi tsakanin Toubou. Derde, Oueddei Kichidemi, an san shi amma ba a girmama shi ba har zuwa wannan lokacin, ya nuna rashin amincewa da wuce gona da iri, ya yi hijira zuwa Libya, kuma, tare da goyon bayan ɗaliban Toubou a Jami'ar Musulunci ta Bayda, ya zama alama ta adawa ga gwamnatin Chadi. Wannan rawar ta haɓaka matsayin wasan tsere tsakanin Toubou.

Bayan shekarar 1967 da derde fatan haduwa da Toubou da National Liberation Front na Chadi (FROLINAT). Moa'idodin ɗabi'a sun zama ikon soja jim kaɗan bayan haka lokacin da ɗansa, Goukouni Oueddei, ya zama ɗaya daga cikin shugabannin ƴan tawayen neman Ƴanci na biyu na FROLINAT. Goukouni ya zama ɗan ƙasa; ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a yakin N'Djamena a 1979 da 1980 kuma ya yi shugaban kasa na wani lokaci. Wani dan arewa, Hissène Habré na Dazagra, ya maye gurbin Goukouni na Teda a 1982, kuma ya rasa iko a ƙarshe ga Zaghawa Idriss Déby bayan shekaru 8.[10][11]

Libya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yan tsirarun' yan kabilar Toubou a Libya sun gamu da abin da aka bayyana da "nuna wariya mai yawa" [12] duka a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Muammar Gaddafi da ma bayan yakin basasar Libya .

A cikin wani rahoto da UNHCR ta fitar, ƙungiyar da ke fuskantar barazanar mutane (STP) ta ba da rahoton "nuna bambanci sosai" ga 'yan tsirarun Toubou, wadanda ke zaune a kusurwar kudu maso gabashin kasar a kusa da garin Kufra . A watan Disambar 2007, gwamnatin Gaddafi ta kwace wa Toubou Libya 'yan ƙasar ta, ta hanyar da'awar cewa su ba' yan Libya ba ne, a'a 'yan Chadi ne. Bugu da kari, hukumomin yankin sun hana mutanen Toubou damar samun ilimi da kiwon lafiya. A martanin da ta mayar, wata kungiya mai dauke da makamai da ake kira Toubou Front for the Salvation of Libya (TFSL) ta tayar da wani tawaye a watan Nuwamba na shekarar 2008 wanda ya dauki tsawon kwanaki biyar kuma ya yi sanadiyyar rayukan mutane 33 kafin jami’an tsaron gwamnati su murƙushe su. Duk da turjiya da la'antar jama'a, gwamnatin Gaddafi ta ci gaba da gallazawa tsirarun 'yan ƙabilar Toubou a Libya. Tun daga watan Nuwamba na 2009, gwamnati ta fara shirin korar tilastawa da rusa gidajen Toubou, wanda ya mayar da Toubou da yawa gidajensu. Da yawa da suka yi zanga-zangar halakar an kame, kuma an yi wa dangin da suka ƙi barin gidajensu duka. [12]

A yaƙin basasar Libya, mutanen ƙabilar Toubou a Libya sun goyi bayan 'yan tawaye masu adawa da Gaddafi kuma suka halarci kamfen din Fezzan kan sojojin da ke biyayya ga Mu'ammar Gaddafi, suka kame garin Qatrun a takaice kuma suka ce sun kama Murzuk saboda kungiyar' yan tawayen a watan daga baya.

A watan Maris na shekara ta 2012, rikici ya barke tsakanin Toubou da kabilun Larabawa a kudancin garin Sabha, Libya . A martanin da ya mayar, Issa Abdel Majid Mansour, shugaban kabilar Toubou a Libya ya yi barazanar neman ballewa, inda ya yi tir da abin da ya gani a matsayin "tsabtace kabilanci" a kan Toubou kuma ya ce "Muna sanar da sake kunnawa kungiyar Toubou don Ceton Libya don karewa mutanen Toubou daga tsarkake kabilanci. " TFSL ita ce kungiyar adawa da ke aiki a rikice-rikicen 2007-2008 wanda gwamnatin Gaddafi ta “tsananta wa rashin tausayi”.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Dazaga: A language of Chad, Ethnologue
  2. 2.0 2.1 Tedaga: A language of Chad, Ethnologue
  3. 3.0 3.1 Teda people, Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. MacMichael, Harold: A history of the Arabs in the Sudan and some account of the people who preceded them and of the tribes inhabiting Darfur. 1922.
  5. First Encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913-1936 (in Turanci). BRILL. 1993. p. 818. ISBN 978-9004097964.
  6. Young, Tom (2003-01-01). Readings in African Politics (in Turanci). Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253216465.
  7. Zweig, Paul (1976-01-01). Three journeys: an automythology (in Turanci). Basic Books. ISBN 9780465086108.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Smith, Andrew Brown (2005). African Herders: Emergence of Pastoral Traditions. Rowman Altamira. pp. 127–129. ISBN 978-0759107489.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 J. D. Fage; Roland Oliver (1975). The Cambridge History of Africa. Cambridge University Press. pp. 287–289. ISBN 978-0-521-20981-6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "FageOliver1975p287a" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "FageOliver1975p287a" defined multiple times with different content
  10. Catherine Baroin (1985). Anarchie Et Cohésion Sociale Chez Les Toubou: Les Daza Késerda (Niger). Les Editions de la MSH. pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-0-521-30476-4.
  11. William Frawley (2003). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: AAVE-Esperanto. Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 492. ISBN 978-0-19-513977-8.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Summary prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (c) of the annex to Human rights Council resolution 5/1: Libyan Arab Jamahiriya